SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Angling

Angling is a method of fishing by means of an "angle". The hook is attached to a fishing line and the line is attached to a fishing rod. Modern fishing rods are fitted with a fishing reel that functions as a mechanism for storing and paying out the line. Tenkara fishing and cane pole fishing are two techniques; the hook itself can be dressed with bait, but sometimes a lure, with hooks attached to it, is used in place of a hook and bait. A bite indicator such as a float, a weight or sinker are sometimes used. Angling is the principal method of sport fishing, but commercial fisheries use angling methods such as longlining or trolling. Catch and release fishing is practiced by recreational fishermen. In many parts of the world, size limits apply to certain species, meaning fish below and/or above a certain size must, by law, be released; the species of fish pursued by anglers vary with geography. Among the many species of salt water fish that are caught for sport are swordfish, tuna, while in Europe cod and bass are popular targets.

In North America the most popular fresh water sport species include bass, walleye, yellow perch, salmon, crappie and sunfish. In Europe many anglers fish for species such as carp, tench, roach, European perch and barbel; the use of the hook in angling is descended from what would today be called a "gorge." The word "gorge", in this context, comes from the French word meaning "throat." Gorges were used by ancient peoples to capture fish and animals like seal and birds. A gorge was a thin piece of bone or stone attached by its midpoint to a thin line; the gorge would be baited. When the game would swallow the bait, a tug on the line would cause the gorge to orient itself at right angles to the line, thereby sticking in the fish or animal's throat or gullet. Gorges evolved into the modern fishing hook, a J shaped wire with a loop on one end and a sharp point on the other. Most hooks have a barb near the point to prevent a fish from unhooking itself while being reeled in; some laws and regulations require hooks to be barbless.

This rule is implemented to protect populations of certain species. A barbed hook could kill a fish. Which of the various techniques an angler may choose is dictated by the target species and by its habitat. Angling can be separated into two main categories: using either artificial or natural baits. Many people prefer to fish with lures, which are artificial baits designed to entice fish to strike; the artificial bait angler uses a man-made lure that may not represent prey. The lure may require a specialised presentation to impart an enticing action as, for example, in fly fishing. A common way to fish a soft plastic worm is the Texas Rig; the natural bait angler, with few exceptions, will use a common prey species of the fish as an attractant. The natural bait used may be dead. Common natural baits for both fresh and saltwater fishing include worms, minnows, salamanders, squid and prawn. Natural baits are effective due to the real texture and colour of the bait presented; the common earthworm is a universal bait for fresh water angling.

Grubs and maggots are excellent bait when trout fishing. Grasshoppers and ants are used as bait for trout in their season, although many anglers believe that trout or salmon roe is superior to any other bait. In lakes in southern climates such as Florida, fish such as sunfish will take bread as bait. Bread bait is a small amount of bread moistened by saliva, balled up to a small size, bite size to small fish; the capture and culture of bait fish can spread damaging organisms between ecosystems, endangering them. In 2007 several American states enacted regulations designed to slow the spread of fish diseases, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia, by bait fish; because of the risk of transmitting Myxobolus cerebralis and salmon should not be used as bait. Anglers may increase the possibility of contamination by emptying bait buckets into fishing venues and collecting or using bait improperly; the transportation of fish from one location to another can break the law and cause the introduction of fish alien to the ecosystem.

Laws and regulations managing angling vary often regionally, within countries. These include permits, closed periods where specific species are unavailable for harvest, restrictions on gear types, quotas. Laws prohibit catching fish with hooks other than in the mouth or the use of nets other than as an aid in landing a captured fish; some species, such as bait fish, may be taken with nets, a few for food. Sometimes, fish are considered of lesser value and it may be permissible to take them by methods like snagging and arrow, or spear. None of these techniques fall under the definition of angling since they do not rely upon the use of a hook and line. Fishing seasons are set by countries or localities to indicate what kinds of fish may be caught during sport fishing for a certain period of time. Fishing seasons are enforced to maintain ecological balance and to protect species of fish during their spawning period during which they are easier to catch. Slot limits are put in action to help protect certain fish in given area.

They require anglers to release captured fish if they fall within a given size range, allowing anglers to keep only smaller or larger fish. Slot Limits vary from lake to lake depen

Abd-ol-Ghaffar Amilakhori

Abd-ol-Ghaffar Amilakhori was an early 17th-century noble from the Georgian Amilakhori family of Kartli, prominent in the Safavid Iranian service. Abd-ol-Ghaffar Amilakhori was raised at the Safavid court in Isfahan and was a "typical member of the new Georgian converted elite". Abd-ol-Ghaffar was a son of Faramarz Amilakhori by his wife Tamar, a great-grandson of King Luarsab I of Kartli, his sister Tamar was a favourite concubine of the Safavid shah Abbas I. When in 1624, Abbas I married off his granddaughter to the ruler of Kartli, Semayun Khan, Abd-ol-Ghaffar's wife was a companion to the bride. Around the same time, the shah arranged the marriage of Abd-ol-Ghaffar to a daughter of Imam-Quli Khan, a prominent Safavid military and political leader of Georgian descent. According to the contemporary Safavid historian Fazli Khuzani, Abd-ol-Ghaffar was 22-years old at the time of his marriage. While in Kartli, Abd-ol-Ghaffar was known as a champion of the Safavid interests in the country, he further expanded his estates at the expanse of the neighboring noble families, exterminated the Ghazneli and had the environs of Mtskheta ravaged.

In 1625/6, Abd-ol-Ghaffar and his wife were captured by the rebellious Georgians and imprisoned at the fortress of Arshi. After the rebels' defeat at the battle of Marabda, Abbas I sent a force to their resque. Upon being informed about this, the rebels sent the two, according to Fazli Khuzani, to the relatives of Abd-ol-Ghaffar himself, as well as those of Allahverdi Khan. Amilakhori, disappears from historical records. Floor, Willem. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I. B. Tauris. P. 481. ISBN 978-1780769905. Maeda, Hirotake. "On the Ethno-Social Background of Four Gholām Families from Georgia in Safavid Iran". Studia Iranica: 1–278. Tukhashvili, Lovard. "ანდუყაფარ ამილახვარი ". ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. P. 391

Fencing at the 1948 Summer Olympics – Men's épée

The men's épée was one of seven fencing events on the fencing at the 1948 Summer Olympics programme. It was the tenth appearance of the event; the competition was held from 7 August 1948 to 9 August 1948. 66 fencers from 25 nations competed. The competition format was pool play round-robin, with bouts to three touches. Not all bouts were played in some pools to determine advancement. Ties were broken through fence-off bouts in early rounds if necessary for determining advancement, but by touches received in final rounds; the top 4 finishers in each pool advanced to round 2. Fencers from the four teams that advanced to the final of the men's team épée event received byes through round 1: Denmark: Mogens Lüchow and Ib Nielsen France: Marcel Desprets, Henri Guérin, Henri Lepage Italy: Carlo Agostoni, Gino Cantone, Edoardo Mangiarotti Sweden: Frank Cervell, Carl Forssell, Bengt Ljungquist Biancalana defeated Mørch and Wolff in a three-way barrage for fourth place. Simonetti defeated Pouliot in a three-way barrage for fourth place.

Radoux defeated de Nawrocki in a three-way barrage for fourth place. Younes defeated Iturri in a barrage for fourth place. Younes defeated Iturri in a barrage for fourth place; the top 3 finishers in each pool advanced to the semifinals. Camargo defeated de Horn in a three-way barrage for third place. Biancalana and Saucedo defeated de Beaumont in a three-way barrage for third place. Lepage defeated Nielsen in a three-way barrage for third place; the top 5 finishers in each pool advanced to the final. Agostoni defeated Ljungquist in a barrage for fifth place. Zappelli and Mangiarotti finished tied on win-loss record, touches received, touches scored. Rather than use the head-to-head results from the round-robin, they faced each other in a barrage for silver and bronze medals. Zappelli won, 3–0 again