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Anglo-Cherokee War

The Anglo–Cherokee War, was known from the Anglo-European perspective as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, or the Cherokee Rebellion. The war was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indian tribes during the French and Indian War; the British and the Cherokee had been allies at the start of the war, but each party had suspected the other of betrayals. Tensions between British-American settlers and the Cherokee increased during the 1750s, culminating in open hostilities in 1758. After siding with the Province of Carolina in the Tuscarora War of 1711–1715, the Cherokee had turned on their British allies at the outbreak of the Yamasee War of 1715–1717, until switching sides, once again, midway through the war; this action ensured the defeat of the Yamasee. The Cherokee remained allies of the British until the French and Indian War. At the 1754 outbreak of the war, the Cherokee were allies of the British, taking part in campaigns against Fort Duquesne and the Shawnee of the Ohio Country.

In 1755, a band of Cherokee 130-strong under Ostenaco of Tamali took up residence in a fortified town at the mouth of the Ohio River at the behest of the Iroquois. For several years, French agents from Fort Toulouse had been visiting the Overhill Cherokee on the Hiwassee and Tellico Rivers, had made inroads into those places; the strongest pro-French Cherokee leaders were Mankiller of Talikwa, Old Caesar of Chatuga, Raven of Ayuhwasi. The "First Beloved Man" of the nation, was pro-French, as was his nephew, who succeeded him at his death in 1760; the former site of the Coosa Chiefdom was reoccupied in 1759 by a Muscogee contingent under Big Mortar in support of the pro-French Cherokee residing in Great Tellico and Chatuga. This was a step toward his planned alliance of Muscogee, Shawnee and Catawba. Although such an alliance did not come into being until the days of Dragging Canoe, Big Mortar still rose to leading chief of the Muscogee after the French and Indian War; the Anglo–Cherokee War broke out in 1758 when Virginia militia attacked Moytoy of Citico in retaliation for the alleged theft of some horses by the Cherokee.

Moytoy's reaction was to lead retaliatory raids on the Yadkin and Catawba Rivers in North Carolina which began a domino effect that ended with the murders of 23 Cherokee hostages at Fort Prince George near Keowee and the massacre of the garrison of Fort Loudoun near Chota. These events ushered in a war which didn't end until 1761; the Cherokee were led by Aganstata of Chota, Attakullakulla of Tanasi, Ostenaco of Tomotley, Wauhatchie of the Lower Towns, Round O of the Middle Towns. During the second year of the French and Indian War, the British had sought Cherokee assistance against the French and their Indian allies; the English had reports, which proved accurate, that indicated the French were planning to build forts in Cherokee territory. Once the Cherokee agreed to be their allies, the British hastened to build forts of their own in the Cherokee lands, completing Fort Prince George near Keowee in South Carolina. Once the forts were built, the Cherokee raised close to 700 warriors to fight in western Virginia Colony under Ostenaco.

Oconostota and Attakullakulla led another large group to attack Fort Toulouse. In 1758, the Cherokee participated in the taking of Fort Duquesne However, they felt their efforts were unappreciated. While traveling through Virginia, on their way home, several Cherokee were murdered by Virginians; the Cherokee had been promised supplies, but misunderstood. After taking some horses they believed were rightly theirs, several Virginians killed and scalped between 30 and 40 of them; the Virginians claimed the scalps as those of Shawnees and collected bounties for them. While some Cherokee leaders still called for peace, others led retaliatory raids on outlying pioneer settlements; the Cherokee declared open war against the British in 1759. A number of Muskogee under Big Mortar moved up to Coosawatie; these people had long been French allies in support of the Cherokee pro-French faction centered in Great Tellico. The governor of South Carolina, William Henry Lyttelton, embargoed all gunpowder shipments to the Cherokee and raised an army of 1,100 men which marched to confront the Lower Towns of the Cherokee.

Desperate for ammunition for their fall and winter hunts, the nation sent a delegation of moderate chiefs to negotiate. The twenty-nine chiefs were taken prisoner as hostages and sent to Fort Prince George, escorted by the provincial army. Lyttleton thought. Governor Lyttleton returned to Charleston, but the Cherokee were still angry, continued to attack frontier settlements into 1760. In February 1760, they attacked Fort Prince George in an attempt to rescue their hostages; the fort's commander was killed. His replacement fended off the attack; the Cherokee attacked Fort Ninety Six, but it withstood the siege. The

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Group Fortification Yser

The Feste Prinz Regent Luitpold, renamed Group Fortification Yser after 1919, is a military installation near Metz. It is part of the second fortified belt of forts of Metz and had its baptism of fire in late 1944, when the Battle of Metz occurred. During The Annexation, will oscillate between a German garrison of 15,000 and 20,000 men at the beginning of period and will exceed 25,000 men just before the First World War becoming the first stronghold of German Reich; the Feste Prinz Regent Luitpold completes the Second fortified belt of Metz composed of Festen Wagner, Crown Prince, empress, Freiherr von der Goltz, Prince Regent Luitpold and Infantry-Werk Belle-Croix. The Group Fortification Yser, or Feste Prince Regent Luitpold, was part of a wider program of fortifications called "Moselstellung", encompassing fortresses scattered between Thionville and Metz in the valley Moselle; the aim of Germany was to protect against a French attack to take back Alsace-Lorraine and Moselle from the German Empire.

The fortification system was designed to accommodate the growing advances in artillery since the end of XIXth century. Based on new defensive concepts, such as dispersal and concealment, the fortified group was to be, in case of attack, an impassable barrier for French forces; the protection of the perimeter of Group Fortification Yser is provided by a set of infantry positions, fortified barracks and artillery batteries scattered over a wide area and concealed by the natural topography. From 1899, the Schlieffen plan of the German General Staff designed the fortifications of the Moselstellung, between Metz and Thionville to be like a lock for blocking any advance of French troops in case of conflict; this concept of a fortified line on the Moselle was a significant innovation compared to système Séré de Rivières developed by the French. It inspired the engineers of the Maginot Line. Covering an area of 83 ha, the Feste Prince Regent Luitpold is constructed from 1907 to 1914; the group fortification can accommodate a total of 560 men.

It has 8 pieces of artillery, 6 of them 100mm and 2 of them 77mm. It lookouts; the various items are connected by 1,700m of underground galleries. In its water tanks, it has 2,640 m3 of water; the energy required for its operation is ensured by seven diesel engines of 27 hp each. During The Annexation of Alsace-Lorraine, the fort receives a garrison of gunners belonging to the XVIth Army Corps. From 1914-1918, it served as a relay for the German soldiers at the front post, its equipment and weapons are at the forefront of military technology. In 1919, the fort was occupied by the French army. After the departure of French troops in June 1940, the German army reinvests the fort. In early September 1944, at the beginning of the Battle of Metz, the German command integrates the fort into the defensive system set up around Metz. On September 2, 1944, Metz is declared fortress Reich by Hitler; the fortress must be defended to the last by German troops, whose leaders were all sworn to the Führer. The next day, September 3, 1944, General Krause commander of the fortress of Metz, established his High Command with the main command post in the barracks of fort Alvensleben.

Fort Plappeville is indeed located on the side of the US attack in the west, just 4 km from downtown Metz. The same day, the troops of General Krause took position on a line from Pagny-sur-Moselle to Mondelange, passing west of Metz by Chambley, Mars-la-Tour and Briey. After an initial withdrawal, on 6 September 1944, the German lines now rely solidly on the western sector of the forts of Metz on forts Lorraine, Jeanne D'Arc and Driant; the US offensive launched September 1944, is cut short. Troops must stop despite gaining two bridgeheads south of Metz; the forts are better defended against US attack than expected, so US troops are now out of breath. General McLain, in agreement with the General Walker, decided to suspend the attacks, pending further plans of the General Staff of the 90 Infantry Division. While the troops of the Third US Army sit listening to Marlene Dietrich, German troops are taking advantage of the lull in fighting to reorganize. Reserve troops of the 462th Volks-Grenadier-Division fill in with, into the forts of the sector, the elite troops of SS Colonel Siegroth.

When hostilities resume in November 1944 after a rainy month, the soldiers of the 462th Volks-Grenadier-Division still hold the forts of Metz, though supplies are more difficult under the artillery and the frequent bombings. On November 9, 1944, the Air Force sends no less than 1,299 heavy bombers, B-17s and B-24s, to drop 3,753 tons of bombs, 1,000 to 2,000 books on fortifications and strategic points in the combat zone of IIIrd army. Most bombers, having dropped bombs without visibility at over 20 000 feet, miss their military objectives. In Metz, the 689 loads of bombs, destined to strike the fort Joan of Arc and six other forts designated as priority targets cause collateral damage. At Thionville and to Saarbrücken, the result is inconclusive, proving once again the inadequacy of the massive bombing of military targets. By mid-November 1944, the XIIth and XXth US Army corps are trying to take the fortifications of Metz in a pincer movement. 95th Infantry Division must focus its efforts on the western front of Metz, while 5th division must outflank the German lines north and south.

The encircling attack on the US military succeeds, after three days of uncertainty. On the evening of November 17, 1944, the situation of the German defenders has become critical; the able-bo

Praprońće pri Grosupljem

Praproče pri Grosupljem is a small settlement east of Grosuplje in central Slovenia. The area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola; the Municipality of Grosuplje is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region. The Slovene-American author and translator Louis Adamic was born in the settlement in 1898; until 1998, Praproče pri Grosupljem was a hamlet of Spodnje Blato. Notable people that were born or lived in Praproče pri Grosupljem include: Louis Adamic, Slovene-American author and translator France Adamič, technical writer and orchard specialist Countess Antonie Cäcilia Philomena Ravenegg, wife of Emil Rotschütz and author of Die erprobte Honig-Köchin Emil Rotschütz, apiculture specialist Praproče pri Grosupljem at Geopedia

International Year of Youth

In December 2009, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 64/134 proclaiming the year commencing 12 August 2010 as the International Year of Youth. The resolution calls upon governments, civil society and communities worldwide to support activities at local and international levels to mark the event. Youth organizations and civil society are encouraged to organize activities that promote an increased understanding of the importance and benefits of youth participation in all aspects of society, as well as those that support youth to devote their energy and creativity to development and the promotion of mutual understanding, it encourages young people to dedicate themselves to fostering progress, including the attainment of the UN Millennium Development Goals, which seek to slash a host of social inadequacies, ranging from extreme poverty and hunger to maternal and infant mortality to lack of access to education and health care, all by 2015. Under the theme "Dialogue and Mutual Understanding", the resolution aims to encourage dialogue and understanding across generations and promote the ideals of peace, respect for human rights and freedoms, solidarity.

In its resolution 64/134, the UN General Assembly decided “to organize under the auspices of the United Nations a world youth conference as the highlight of the Year” and invited “the President of the General Assembly to conduct open-ended information consultations with Member States with a view of determining the modalities of the conference, to be funded by voluntary contributions.” In April 2010, H. E. Mr Jean-Francis Régis Zinsou, the Permanent Representative of the Republic of Benin, agreed to serve as Facilitator for the consultations on the organization of the conference to be held in 2011. Consultations of the General Assembly began in May 2010. In addition to the UN conference on youth, the UN is coordinating its efforts to celebrate and promote International Year of Youth; the United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Youth Development is coordinating the activities of the UN system for the International Year of Youth, with the UN Programme on Youth leading this effort. The United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Youth Development works to increase the effectiveness of UN work in youth development by strengthening collaboration and exchange among all UN entities working on youth.

Members of the Network adopted the UN Framework Approach for the International Year of Youth in February, 2010, to provide a concrete framework for collective efforts and to set the strategic objectives for the Year. The Framework identifies three key objectives and provides specific actions essential to implement the objectives, which are: 1. Create Awareness: increase commitment and investment in youth Increase recognition of youth development as a smart investment by the public and private sectors. Mobilize and Engage: increase youth participation and partnerships Institutionalize mechanisms for youth participation in decision-making processes. Connect and Build Bridges: increase intercultural understanding among youth Promote youth interactions and partnerships across cultures; the progress achieved during the Year will lay the foundation for further work in youth development, including the implementation of the World Programme of Action for Youth and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

The Framework has been disseminated to the UN system, including to Regional Commissions and Country Teams. Organizations celebrating the Year are invited to use the Framework to guide their activities. In 1965, United Nations Members States first acknowledged that the contribution of young people – defined by the United Nations as those between the ages of 15 and 24 years – is essential for the development of society when they endorsed the "Declaration on the Promotion among Youth of the Ideals of Peace, Mutual Respect and Understanding between Peoples". Twenty years the General Assembly observed the year 1985 as the "first International Youth Year: Participation and Peace". In 1995, Member States strengthened their commitment to young people by adopting the "World Programme of Action for Youth", which provides a policy framework and practical guidelines for national action and international support to improve the situation of young people by increasing their access to opportunities for constructive participation in society.

In 2007, the General Assembly expanded upon the WPAY by adopting additional issue areas, bringing the total to fifteen areas of priority focus which are: education, employment and poverty, environment, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, leisure-time activities and young women, globalization and communications technologies, HIV/AIDS, youth and conflict, inter-generational relations. International Years are customarily celebrated at the national level and steered by National Committees consisting of government entities such as Ministry of Youth or Ministry of Education, National Youth Councils, civil society organiz

Bala shark

The bala shark, Balantiocheilos melanopterus known as the tricolor shark, tricolor sharkminnow, silver shark, or shark minnow, is a fish species of the family Cyprinidae, is one of the two species in the genus Balantiocheilos. This species is not a true shark, but is so called because of its torpedo-shaped body and large fins, it is endangered. The bala shark occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Previous records further north in the Mekong and Chao Phraya River is due to confusion with the described and extinct B. ambusticauda. These fish have a silver body with black margins on their dorsal, caudal and pelvic fins, they have big eyes to catch their prey. The bala shark will grow to a maximum length of 35 cm. Bala sharks are found in midwater depths in large and medium-sized lakes, they feed on phytoplankton, but on small crustaceans and insects and their larvae. Bala sharks are misunderstood aquarium fish; these fish are peaceful and good companions to many other types of tropical fish. Bala sharks are available in most pet stores, but will grow to a size too large for the home aquarium.

They are a hardy fish that will tolerate temperature changes, pH changes, other factors to which other fish may be sensitive. The water pH should be 6.0–8.0. The preferable water hardness for this species is soft to medium. Water temperature should be kept between 22–28 °C; the bala shark prefers to be kept in groups of two or more specimens. It requires a covered aquarium as it is a skilled jumper, but may injure itself on the lid of the tank. Young bala sharks are sometimes kept in small aquaria. However, given their adult size, schooling behavior, swimming speed, the fish grow to need much more room. Hobbyists continue to debate over acceptable minimum tank sizes, but recommend at least a 2-meter tank. FishBase lists a minimum of 150 cm. Many believe the fish is too large and too active to be kept in residential aquaria at all. Indoor ponds are considered feasible housing options and may be better suited to the average aquarist. B. melanopterus is listed as an endangered species by the IUCN Red List.

It has become extinct in many river basins of its native range. In Danau Sentarum, fishermen reported in 1993 and 1995 that the populations have decreased after 1975, for no clear reason. Fishermen mentioned overfishing for the aquarium-fish trade or forest fires in 1975 and the resulting pollution as possible causes; the species is extirpated in the Batang Hari basin and it seems that all individuals of B. melanopterus exported from Indonesia and Thailand by the aquarium-fish trade are captive bred