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Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936

The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt. Under the terms of the treaty, the United Kingdom was required to withdraw all its troops from Egypt, except those necessary to protect the Suez Canal and its surroundings, numbering 10,000 troops plus auxiliary personnel. Additionally, the United Kingdom would supply and train Egypt's army and assist in its defence in case of war; the treaty was to last for 20 years. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 6 January 1937. Among the pretexts for the treaty was the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, which had started in 1935. King Farouk feared that the Italians might drag it into the fighting; the 1936 treaty did not resolve the question of Sudan, under the terms of the existing Anglo-Egyptian Condominium Agreement of 1899, stated that Sudan should be jointly governed by Egypt and Britain, but with real power remaining in British hands. With rising tension in Europe, the treaty expressively favoured maintaining the status quo.

The treaty, was not welcomed by Egyptian nationalists like the Arab Socialist Party, who wanted full independence. It ignited a wave of demonstrations against the British and the Wafd Party, which had supported the treaty. On 23 September 1945, after the end of World War II, the Egyptian government demanded the modification of the treaty to terminate the British military presence, to allow the annexation of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Following the Wafd Party's victory in the boycotted 1950 election of Egypt, the new Wafd government unilaterally abrogated the treaty in October 1951. Three years and with new government leadership under Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, the UK agreed to withdraw its troops in the Anglo–Egyptian Agreement of 1954; this date is seen as when Egypt gained full independence, although Nasser had established an independent foreign policy that caused tension with several Western powers. Following the abrupt withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam, Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal on 26 July 1956, ostensibly to pay for the dam, although in reality the Soviets provided most of the funding.

The nationalisation was technically in violation of the international agreement that Nasser had signed on 19 October 1954, although he agreed to pay compensation to the shareholders. Some months France and Britain colluded to overthrow Nasser, the Suez Crisis ensued. In November 1918, seven prominent Egyptians from the landed gentry and the legal profession, including Sa'd Zaghlul, formed a delegation, or wafd, whose chief goal was the complete independence of Egypt from British rule, but when the wafd asked the British High Commissioner in Egypt if they could represent the country at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, he refused. As a result, the delegation organizers took their message of independence to the people of Egypt and this led to the founding of one of the most popular political parties in modern Egyptian history. Wafdist leaders thought that the ideas of independence and constitutional government were related and they had someone to model themselves after - the British. In 1923, a constitution was proclaimed, in January 1924 the first elections were held to decide who would be a part of the new parliament.

Many European-educated Egyptians believed that the mere existence of a constitution and a parliament would legitimize Egyptian claims for complete independence. But Egyptian democratic independence ran into many obstacles. So the king used this constitutional power to get rid of parliament when they went against his wishes, culminating in many periods of royal rule; the British continued to meddle in Egyptian politics, they did not allow for a independent political apparatus to develop. The Wafd party and other minor political parties never created a coalition to stand together against the British, instead they held each other in contempt; the result of these obstacles was a constant struggle for power between the British-backed King Fuad, the Wafd party that sought complete independence from the British. The intense desire for real independence was only fulfilled in 1936, when Britain agreed to renegotiate the 1922 declaration of independence, because of Italian expansionism into Ethiopia in 1935.

Removal of military forces from the Egyptian cities to the Suez Canal area but British soldiers in Sudan remain unconditionally. The number of British troops in Egypt to number no more than 10 thousand soldiers and 400 pilots with the staff required for administrative and technical work in peacetime only, while during a state of war the UK has the right to increase the number. British forces are not transferred to new areas. British troops remain in Alexandria eight years from the date of the Treaty British air forces remain in the camp in the Canal Zone and are entitled to use Egyptian air space and the same right is given to Egyptian aircraft. In case of war the Egyptian government is committed to provide all facilities and assistance to the British forces including the right to use Egyptian ports and airports and roads. After 20 years from the implementation of the Treaty parties it shall be determined if the presence of British troops is necessary as the Egyptian army may be able to guarantee shipping in the Suez Canal safely.

Disagreements may be submitted

Twin Ring Motegi

Twin Ring Motegi is a motorsport race track located at Motegi, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Its name comes from the facility having two race tracks: a 2.493-kilometer oval and a 4.8-kilometer road course. It was built in 1997 by Honda, as part of the company's effort to bring the IndyCar Series to Japan, helping to increase their knowledge of American open-wheel racing; the oval course is the only one of its kind in Japan, is used only once a year for racing. It is a low-banked, 1.549-mile-long egg-shaped course, with turns three and four being much tighter than turns one and two. On March 28, 1998, CART held the inaugural race at Twin Ring Motegi Speedway; the race was won by Mexican driver Adrián Fernández. CART continued racing at Twin Ring Motegi Speedway from 1998–2002. In 2003, Honda entered the race became a part of the IRL schedule. In addition to Indycar racing, the track has hosted a single NASCAR exhibition race in 1998. Honda, which had built the oval for the express purpose of developing its oval-racing program for Indy car racing, did not win a race at the track for its first six years of operation.

In 2004, Dan Wheldon took the first win for Honda on the oval. In 2008, the Motegi oval gained additional publicity when Danica Patrick became the first woman to win an Indycar race, beating Hélio Castroneves for her first and only Indycar victory; the 2011 season was the last season of Indycar in Motegi. It had been dropped from the calendar; the road course, rather than the super speedway, was used for the 2011 race due to damage to the oval track resulting from the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. For race results, see Indy Japan 300 The track length is disputed by series that run at Twin Ring Motegi; the NASCAR timing and scoring use a length of 1.549 miles. This length was used by CART in their races between 2002, too; the IRL measured in 2003 a length of 1.52 miles. This length was used in the following races till 2010. Mike Skinner won the only NASCAR Cup Series exhibition race held at the track in 1998, the Coca-Cola 500. Skinner won driving the No.31 Chevrolet for Richard Childress Racing. The race was most noted for being the first oval track NASCAR race in Japan as well as being the first in which Dale Earnhardt and his son, Dale Earnhardt Jr. competed with one another, driving No.3 and No.1 Coca-Cola Chevrolets, respectively.

The track held the NASCAR K&N Pro Series West in 1999 with Kevin Richards getting the win. The road course is 4.8 kilometers long and is unique in sharing garage and grandstand facilities with the oval course, but being separate otherwise. Although they are separate tracks, it is impossible for races to occur on the two courses; the road course runs in the opposite direction from the oval. The course itself is built in a stop-start straight-hairpin style, which flows differently than many similarly-sized tracks. By Japanese standards the circuit is exceptionally flat, with only a slight elevation rise towards the hairpin turn; the road course is much busier than the oval track, with Formula Nippon visiting twice, Super GT and Super Taikyu cars once each, local events every weekend. The road course can be used in three ways: the full course, or two "short courses" can be made, using connecting roadways; these short courses are used for junior formula events, such as Formula 4 and FJ1600. The road course is a popular motorcycle racing track, with the MotoGP visiting once a year, as well as several Japanese national bike racing series.

It has hosted the Pacific motorcycle Grand Prix from 2000 to 2003 and the Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix since 2004. In addition to the main racing complex, Twin Ring Motegi features a second road course for karting and Formula 4 events, as well as a 1/4 mile dirt track for modified and sprint car racing. In addition, the FIM Trials series visits the track every year for the world trials championship. Therefore, an outdoor trials course exists on the facility. Outside of racing, Twin Ring has the Honda Collection Hall, which features historic Honda racing and production cars and motorcycles, Honda Fan Fun Lab, which features Honda's next generation technologies such as robotics, fuel-cell vehicles and aviation. Honda operates a technology demonstration center on the site, as well as educational centers. In 2009, a cafe opened, named after the Gran Turismo video games. Twin Ring is a separate-but-combined road-and-oval track, the decision to include a full road course contained within the oval necessitated design compromises.

For spectators, sightlines can be poor for road course races, as the grandstands are much further back than usual. The oval course blocks the view of much of the road course, including the best passing point on the track, several large-screen televisions are needed. Seating outside the grandstand is limited to areas of the infield and along the 750-metre backstraight of the road course. Track access is a major concern, with only two exit points by a two-lane public road. Motegi is not a large town, accommodation is non-existent close to the track, except for the on-site hotel. Train links to the area are limited, nor has a planned superhighway been completed, thus the stated track capacity is dictated by traffic flow, not by actual seating capac

Lou Nordyke

Louis Ellis Nordyke was an American Major League Baseball first baseman who played for the St. Louis Browns for one season, from April 18 to June 27, 1906, he was sold to the Browns by the Tacoma Tigers of the Pacific Coast League, after having been on their Champion 1904–1905 team. He was a popular player with both fans and his fellow players in 1903, when he played for the Spokane Indians of the PCL. Nordyke rejoined the team in 1909, won the league's batting championship, he played for the 1907 St. Paul Saints. In total, Nordyke played professional baseball from 1901 to 1914. After his baseball career, he spent time as a security guard at a bank. Nordyke died at the age of a heart attack in Los Angeles, his remains were interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, California. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Baseball-Reference