A loving cup is a shared drinking container traditionally used at weddings and banquets. It has two handles and is made of silver. Loving cups are given as trophies to winners of games or other competitions, they can be found in several European cultures, including the Celtic quaich and the French coupe de mariage. The Russian bratina is a wine bowl used for banquets, it is considered the "Russian version of the loving cup". It is without handles; the Emperor, a loving cup
Stadio Artemio Franchi
The Stadio Artemio Franchi is a football stadium in Florence, Italy. It is the home of ACF Fiorentina; the stadium was temporarily noticed as the host of Italy's Six Nations matches from 2012. The old nickname of the stadium was "Comunale." When it was first constructed, it was known as the Stadio Giovanni Berta, after a Florentine fascist. The stadium was opened on 13 September 1931 with a match between Fiorentina and Admira Wien, though it took until 1932 for the stadium to be finished and holds 47,282; the architect is Pier Luigi Nervi and it is one of the most relevant examples of 20th-century architecture in the city. The stadium is built of reinforced concrete with a 70-meter tower that bears the stadium's flagstaff; the tower is called the "Tower of Marathon". Around the base of the tower, spiral ramps lead from the ground floor to the upper edge of the grandstand, it hosted some of the matches of the 1934 World Cup, as well as football preliminaries for the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. In 1945, it hosted the Spaghetti Bowl between American service teams.
The stadium was called the "Comunale" but was renamed after the former FIGC president, Artemio Franchi, in 1991. The stadium itself underwent renovations for the 1990 FIFA World Cup which included removing the running track and increasing the seating capacity. At the World Cup, the ground hosted three matches in Group A and Argentina's penalty shootout win over Yugoslavia in the quarter-finals; the official record attendance is 58,271 on 25 November 1984, at a Serie A match between Fiorentina and Internazionale. David Bowie performed at the stadium during his Glass Spider Tour on 9 June 1987. Madonna performed, with Level 42 as her opening act, the final show of her Who's That Girl World Tour at the stadium on 6 September 1987; this performance was filmed & released as a VHS & as a DVD, titled Ciao, Italia! – Live from Italy. She performed at the stadium again 25 years on 16 June 2012 to a sold out crowd of 42,434 people during her MDNA Tour. Bruce Springsteen performed on 8 June 2003 at the stadium during his The Rising Tour and on 10 June 2012 for the Wrecking Ball World Tour, in front of 42,658 people.
It rained for the entire duration of the 2012 concert. On Sunday 23 June 2013, the stadium hosted a Jovanotti concert. Jovanotti is from Cortona, a city close to Florence, many members of his family were in the audience including his wife and parents; the Italy national football team has played at the stadium, the first occasion being on 7 May 1933 in a 2-0 win over Czechoslovakia. The national team played only one game there between 1982 and 2006. On 1 March 2006, they played a friendly against Germany and won 4-1; the stadium hosted two matches in Euro 2012 qualifying: a 5-0 win over the Faroe Islands, a 1-0 win over Slovenia on 6 September 2011, its most recent international hosting. During the match with Faroe Islands, Fabio Quagliarella scored a goal; because Fiorentina fans have such a strong rivalry with Juventus, the fans at the stadium booed Quagliarella. The stadium has hosted international rugby union matches. Italy played Australia on 20 November 2010, losing by a score of 14-32. Italy won a famous victory against South Africa on 19 November 2016, beating the Springboks for the first time in their history.
The final score was 20-18. On 27 October 1954, a reserve game between Fiorentina and nearby rivals Pistoiese was under way at the Stadio Artemio Franchi when a group of UFOs traveling at high speed abruptly stopped over the stadium; the stadium became silent as the crowd of around 10,000 spectators witnessed the event and described the UFOs as cigar shaped. It was suggested that the most explanation was that the silk of mass migrating spiders had agglomerated high in the atmosphere; the stadium was one of the venues of the 1934 FIFA World Cup, held the following matches: The stadium was one of the venues of the 1990 FIFA World Cup, held the following matches
Swindon Town F.C.
Swindon Town Football Club is a professional football club in Swindon, England. Founded as Swindon AFC in 1879, they became Spartans in 1880 and Swindon Town in 1883; the team compete in the fourth tier of the English football league system. The club's home since 1896 is the County Ground, having a capacity of 15,728; the club went professional in 1894 and entered the Football League in 1920. It enjoyed a period of success between 1968–70, winning the 1969 League Cup Final and securing promotion to the Second Division, led by the club's talisman winger Don Rogers, whom the South Stand has been named after since the 2007–08 season; the club's three biggest victories were 10–2 over Norwich City on 5 September 1908, 10–1 over Farnham United Breweries F. C. in 1925–26 and 9–1 over Luton Town in 1920, while the heaviest defeat was 1–10 against Manchester City in 1930. Swindon Town won promotion to the Premier League in the 1992–93 season, the only time the club has played in the top level of English football.
Swindon Town Football Club was founded by Reverend William Pitt of Liddington in 1879. The team turned professional in 1894 and joined the Southern League, founded in the same year. During this period Septimus Atterbury played for the club. Swindon reached the FA Cup semi-finals for the first time in the 1909–10 season, losing to eventual winners Newcastle United. Barnsley and Swindon were invited to compete for the Dubonnet Cup in 1910 at the Parc des Princes Stadium in Paris; the result was a 2–1 victory for Swindon with Harold Fleming scoring both of the club's goals. The following season, 1910–11, Swindon Town won the Southern League championship, earning them a Charity Shield match with the Football League champions Manchester United. This, the highest-scoring Charity Shield game to date, was played on 25 September 1911 at Stamford Bridge with Manchester United winning 8–4; some of the proceeds of this game were donated to the survivors of the Titanic. In 1912 Swindon Town reached the semi finals of the FA Cup for a second time in 3 years, losing to Barnsley after a replay 1–0.
Swindon's exploits at this time owed a lot to the skilful forward H. J. Fleming, capped by England 11 times between 1909 and 1914 despite playing outside the Football League. Fleming remained with Swindon throughout a playing career spanning 1907 and 1924 and went on to live in the town for his entire life. Swindon entered the Football League in 1920 as a founding member of Division Three and defeated Luton Town 9–1 in their first game of the season; this result stands. After the outbreak of World War II, the War Department took over the County Ground in 1940, where for a while POWs were housed in huts placed on the pitch, for this the club received compensation of £4,570 in 1945. World War II affected Swindon Town more than most other football clubs and the club was disbanded, the club needed a large amount of time to recover and for this reason it failed to make any real impression in the league and would not climb into the second division until 1963 when they finished runners up to Northampton Town.
The club was relegated back into Division Three in 1965 but it was about to create a sensation. In 1969, Swindon beat Arsenal 3–1 to win the League Cup for the only time in the club's history; as winners of the League Cup, Swindon were assured of a place in their first European competition: the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. However, the Football Association had agreed to inclusion criteria with the organizers which mandated that only League Cup winners from Division One would be able to take part; as the team were not eligible, the short lived Anglo-Italian competitions were created to give teams from lower divisions experience in Europe. The first of these, the 1969 Anglo-Italian League Cup, was contested over two legs against Coppa Italia winners A. S. Roma. Swindon won 5–2, with the scorer of two goals in the League Cup final – Don Rogers – scoring once and new acquisition Arthur Horsfield acquiring his first hat-trick for the club; the team went on to win the 1970 Anglo-Italian Cup competition in a tournament beset by hooliganism.
The final against S. S. C. Napoli was abandoned after 79 minutes following pitch invasions and a missile barrage, with teargas being employed to allow the teams to return to the dressing room. Following management changes, Swindon had a long unsuccessful period culminating in them being relegated in 1982 to the Fourth Division, the lowest professional Football League at the time, they were promoted as champions in 1986 with the club achieving a Football League record of 102 points, the second club to score over 100 points in a season, York City having totalled 101 two years earlier. A year they won the Third Division play-offs to achieve a second successive promotion. Promotion campaign Manager Lou Macari left in 1989 to take charge of West Ham United with veteran midfielder, former Argentine international, Ossie Ardiles replacing him. In his first season, Swindon were Second Division play-off winners, but the club admitted 36 charges of breaching league rules, 35 due to illegal payments made to players, were relegated to the Third Division — giving Sunderland promotion to the First Division and Tranmere Rovers to the Second Division.
The scandal saw chairman Brian Hillier being given a six-month prison sentence and chief accountant Vince Farrar being put on probation. A appeal saw Swindon Town being allowed to stay in the Second Division. Ardiles remained in charge until March 1991, when he departed for Newcastle United and was succeeded by new player-manager Glenn Hoddle. Swindon progressed well during the 1991–92 season, Hoddle's first full season as manager, just missed out on the Second Division play-offs, having
1967 Football League Cup Final
The 1967 Football League Cup Final was an association football match between Queens Park Rangers and West Bromwich Albion on 4 March 1967 at Wembley Stadium, London. It was the final match of the 1966–67 Football League Cup, the seventh season of the Football League Cup, a football competition for the teams in The Football League; this was the first final to be decided over a single game. QPR were appearing in their first final, while Albion were appearing in their second after winning the previous final in 1966; as QPR were in the Third Division they played one more round than Albion who received a bye in the first round. Therefore, QPR progressed through six rounds to reach the final, whereas Albion progressed through five. Matches up to the semi-final were contested on a one-off basis with the exception of the semi-finals which were contested over two-legs, with a match at each team's home ground. QPR's matches were close affairs, they only won by a three two goal margin or more in three of their matches.
Albion's matches were all comfortable victories. Their biggest margin of victory was five goals when they beat Aston Villa 6–1. While the only match did not win was the second leg of the semi-final against West Ham United, drawn 2–2. Watched by a crowd of 97,952, Albion took the lead in the first half when Clive Clark scored in the 7th minute, he scored again in the half to give Albion a 2–0 lead at half-time. QPR reduced the deficit in the 63rd minute when Roger Morgan scored and levelled the match 12 minutes courtesy of a goal by Rodney Marsh. Mark Lazarus scored a third goal for QPR in the 81st minute, as QPR won the match 3–2 to win the League Cup for the first time. QPR's victory caused a problem for the Football Association as the League Cup winner would qualify for the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, but one of the criteria for that competition was that the team must come from the highest tier of that country's league system. QPR was replaced in the following season's European competition by a First Division side.
On the first day of the 1966–67 Football League Cup on 23 August 1966, QPR played Colchester United at their home ground of Loftus Road, winning 5–0. In the third round, they defeated Welsh team Swansea City on 2–1, they were drawn against Leicester City in the following round. Three goals in the second half saw QPR come back from being 2–1 down to win the match by 4–2; the first of these goals was a rebound off Leicester goalkeeper Gordon Banks after a shot by Rodney Marsh a shot by Les Allen went through a Leicester goalmouth packed with defenders, the final goal came from Mark Lazarus in similar circumstances to the Allen goal. QPR were put under pressure in their match against Carlisle United, but Marsh scored twice more for Rangers to give them the 2–1 victory; until the first leg of the semi-final against Birmingham City, QPR had not won an away match during their League Cup campaign. They were one goal down at half time, again were forced to recover the deficit during the second half. In the 55th minute, Marsh scored his 34th goal of the season, he headed the ball into the goal after a corner kick from Allen.
Marsh was involved again in QPR's second and third goal as he set up Roger Morgan for the second, back heeled the ball through to Lazarus for the third. QPR's fourth and final goal saw; the second leg secured QPR's first trip to Wembley, marked the first time that a team from the Third Division had reached any Wembley final. They won the game 3 -- 1. Bobby Hope led Albion to a victory at the start of their League Cup campaign, having received a bye past the first round, scoring a hat-trick as the team went on to defeat Aston Villa 6–0. Albion played Manchester City on 5 October 1966 in the third round, although they won the game 4–2, they were pressed hard for the victory. Albion went a goal down after nine minutes against Northampton Town, but came back to win 3–1, their semi-final was a rematch of the 1966 Football League Cup Final, with West Ham United the opposition over two legs. Albion took a commanding lead in the first leg with a 4–0 victory, a goal from Dennis Clarke and a hat-trick from Jeff Astle.
West Ham captain Bobby Moore urged his team to push Albion hard in the second leg in the closing stages of the match when they still had all four goals from the first leg to catch up with. Goals from Geoff Hurst and Johnny Byrne for West Ham were cancelled out by goals from Stan Jones and Clarke by the 60th minute; the match finished with 2–2, thus Albion progressed due to a 6–2 aggregate victory. It was decided at a Football Association Council meeting on 26 September 1966 to host the League Cup at Wembley Stadium for the first time; the final had been decided over two legs, but the move to Wembley coincided with a change in format to a single leg final. Albion were aiming to become the first team to retain the Cup; the winner of the League Cup went on to play in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Albion were still in the competition at the time of the final, although they had lost 3–0 to Bologna in the first leg of the third round. Queens Park Rangers's strip for the final was all-white, instead of their normal white and blue hoops.
West Browmwich Albion wore their away strip, all-red. Each team's supporters did not have a limit on the number of tickets; this was despite a limit of 15,000 for FA Cup finals which were held at Wembley. A crowd of nearly 100,000 was expected to be inside the stadium, although only highlights were to be shown on television. Rangers started the slower of the t
The EFL Cup known as the Carabao Cup for sponsorship reasons, is an annual knockout football competition in men's domestic English football. Organised by the English Football League, it is open to any club within the top four levels of the English football league system – 92 clubs in total – comprising the top level Premier League, the three divisions of the English Football League's own league competition. First held in 1960–61 as the Football League Cup, it is one of the three top-tier domestic football competitions in England, alongside the Premier League and FA Cup, it concludes in February, long before the other two. It was introduced by the league as a response to the increasing popularity of European football, to exert power over the FA, it took advantage of the roll-out of floodlights, allowing the fixtures to be played as midweek evening games. With the renaming of the Football League as the English Football League in 2016, the tournament was rebranded as the EFL Cup for the 2016–17 season.
The tournament is played with single leg ties throughout, except the semi-finals. The final is held at Wembley Stadium. Entrants are seeded in the early rounds, a system of byes based on league level ensures higher ranked teams enter in rounds, to defer the entry of teams still involved in Europe. Winners receive the EFL Cup, of which there have been three designs, the current one being the original. Winners qualify for European football, receiving a place in the UEFA Europa League; the current holders are Manchester City, who beat Chelsea 4–3 on penalties in the 2019 final to win their sixth League Cup. Although the League Cup is one of the four domestic trophies attainable by English league teams, it is perceived as being of lower prestige than the league championship or the FA Cup. League Cup winners receive £100,000 prize money with the runners-up receiving £50,000, considered insignificant to top-flight teams, compared to the £2 million prize money of the FA Cup, in turn eclipsed by the Premier League's television money and consequent participation in the Champions League.
Some clubs have fielded a weaker side in the competition, making the opportunity for giant-killing of the larger clubs more likely. Many teams in the Premier League and Manchester United in particular, have used the competition to give young players valuable big-game experience. However, in 2010, in response to Arsène Wenger's claim that a League Cup win would not end his trophy drought, Alex Ferguson described the trophy as "a pot worth winning"; the original idea for a League Cup came from Stanley Rous who saw the competition as a consolation for clubs, knocked out of the FA Cup. However it was not Rous. Hardaker proposed the competition as a way for the clubs to make up on lost revenue, due to a reduction in matches played, for when the league was to be re-organised; the re-organisation of the league was not forthcoming. The trophy was paid for by Football League President Joe Richards, proud of the competition and he had his own name engraved on it. Richards described the competition's formation as an'interim step' on the way to the league's re-organisation.
Richards' priority was the re-organisation of the leagues. Hardaker felt that the Football League needed to adapt to the times, as the English game was losing prestige, he felt that the Football League should take the lead in revitalising football in the nation: "It must be obvious to all of you that the time has come to do something, it is up to the Football League to give the lead. I hope the Press will not assume that the League is going to fall out with the F. A. or anybody else... the time has come for our voice to be heard in every problem which affects the professional game."The League Cup competition was established at a time when match day attendances were dwindling. The league had lost one million spectators compared to the previous season, it was established at a time when tensions between the Football League and the Football Association were high. The biggest disagreement was about. During the late 1950s, the majority of senior English clubs equipped their grounds with floodlights.
This opened up the opportunity to exploit weekday evenings throughout the winter. The League Cup was introduced in the 1960–61 season as a mid-week floodlit tournament, to replace the Southern Professional Floodlit Cup; the League Cup was criticised by the better-endowed clubs. The Times' correspondent at the time felt; the Times published on 30 May 1960: "Where a drastic reduction is required in an attempt to raise quality, no doubt quantity and a further spread of mediocrity
The Union of European Football Associations is the administrative body for association football and beach soccer in Europe, although several member states are or located in Asia. It is one of six continental confederations of world football's governing body FIFA. UEFA consists of 55 national association members. UEFA represents the national football associations of Europe, runs nation and club competitions including the UEFA European Championship, UEFA Nations League, UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europa League, UEFA Super Cup, controls the prize money and media rights to those competitions. Henri Delaunay was Ebbe Schwartz the first president; the current president is Aleksander Čeferin, a former Football Association of Slovenia president, elected as UEFA's seventh president at the 12th Extraordinary UEFA Congress in Athens in September 2016, automatically became a vice-president of the world body FIFA. UEFA was founded on 15 June 1954 in Basel, Switzerland after consultation between the Italian and Belgian associations.
The European football union began with 25 members. Until 1959 the main headquarters were located in Paris, in Bern. In 1995, UEFA headquarters were transferred to Switzerland. UEFA membership coincides for the most part with recognition as a sovereign country in Europe, although there are some exceptions; some states are not members. Some UEFA members are not sovereign states, but form part of a larger recognised sovereign state in the context of international law; these include Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, the Faroe Islands, Kosovo, however in the context of these countries government functions concerning sport tend to be carried at the territorial level coterminous with the UEFA member entity. Some UEFA members are transcontinental states and others are considered part of Europe both culturally and politically. Countries, members of the Asian Football Confederation were admitted to the European football association Israel and Kazakhstan. Additionally some UEFA member associations allow teams from outside their association's main territory to take part in their "domestic" competition.
AS Monaco, for example, takes part in the French League. F. C. participate in the English League. Derry City, situated in Northern Ireland, plays in the Republic of Ireland-based League of Ireland and the 7 native Liechtensteinian teams play in the Swiss Leagues. Saarland Football Union, joined Football Association of West Germany Football Association of East Germany, joined Football Association of West Germany as German Football Association Football Federation of the Soviet Union. Four other successor republics formed their own football organisations. Football Association of Serbia and Montenegro. Montenegro, which exited the union, created the Football Association of Montenegro, it competed as FR Yugoslavia until 2003 when the country changed its name to Montenegro. Football Association of Czechoslovakia, became Football Association of the Czech Republic and Slovak Football Association with the Football Association of the Czech Republic acknowledged as its direct successor. Lithuania, in 1990 sanctions were imposed due to secession of Lithuanian Football Federation from the Football Federation of Soviet Union Yugoslavia, in 1992-1998 sanctions were imposed due to the Bosnian War Italy, in 1974-1975 sanctions were imposed against SS Lazio due to its fans, Italy was restricted from the European Cup to which Lazio qualified England, in 1985-1991 sanctions were imposed against English association football clubs due to the Heysel Stadium disaster by suspending their participation in continental competitions for five years Netherlands, in 1991-1992 sanctions were imposed against AFC Ajax due to its fans, the Netherlands were restricted from the European Cup to which Ajax qualified Albania, in 1967 special sanctions were imposed against 1966–67 Albanian Superliga due to its political background 1968–69 the Warsaw Pact demonstrated political protest and imposed sanctions on clubs of its members in continental competitions (included E
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate