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Anglo-Normans

The Anglo-Normans were the medieval ruling class in England, composed of a combination of ethnic Anglo-Saxons and French, following the Norman conquest. A small number of Normans had earlier befriended future Anglo-Saxon King of England, Edward the Confessor, during his exile in his mother's homeland of Normandy; when he returned to England some of them went with him, so there were Normans settled in England prior to the conquest. Following the death of Edward, the powerful Anglo-Saxon noble, Harold Godwinson, acceded to the English throne until his defeat by William, Duke of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings; the invading Normans came from the duchy of Normandy in the kingdom of France. They formed a ruling class in Britain, distinct from the native populations. Over time their language evolved from the continental Old Norman to the distinct Anglo-Norman language. Anglo-Normans established control over all of England, as well as parts of Wales. After 1130, parts of southern and eastern Scotland came under Anglo-Norman rule, in return for their support of David I's conquest.

The Norman conquest of Ireland in 1169 saw Anglo-Normans settle vast swaths of Ireland, becoming the Hiberno-Normans. The composite expression regno Norman-Anglorum for the Anglo-Norman kingdom that comprises Normandy and England appears contemporaneously only in the Hyde Chronicle; the Norman conquest of England, being a conquest by a people whose tongue and institutions were different from those of the English in many aspects, was an event of an altogether different character from the Danish conquest, a conquest by a people whose tongue was more akin to those of the English, but whose religion was pagan. The English were Catholic and shared this religion with the Normans and they had an influence in England, before the conquest. Furthermore, the relationships between the sailors from both sides of the English channel had maintained a certain common culture; the Normans were not a homogeneous group springing from Scandinavian stock, but hailed from a region of France known as Normandy. The Normans who invaded England did it with a strong contingent from a wide cross-section of north western and central France, from Maine, Brittany, Poitou and "France", altogether non-Norman men accounted for more than a quarter of the army at Hastings.

In terms of culture, they represented the Northern French civilisation, who only spoke French and other Langues d'oïl. The Norman settlers felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers, despite the fact that the Normans were themselves descendants of the Danish Vikings. However, in their own army, they did not feel any sense of community with the Poitou, the Bretons, other groups that had different dialects and traditions; the association between these different troops was only occasional and corresponds to an immediate necessity for the Norman ruler. In fact, the Normans met with the steadiest resistance in a part of England, the most influenced by the Danish. Ousting the Danish leaders who conquered parts of England and provided some of the stiffest resistance to the Normans, replacing the powerful English territorial magnates, while co-opting the most powerful of them, the Normans imposed a new political structure, broadly termed "feudal". Many of the English nobles lost titles. A number of free geburs had their rights and court access much decreased, becoming unfree villeins, despite the fact that this status did not exist in Normandy itself.

At the same time, many of the new Norman and Northern-France magnates were distributed lands by the King, taken from the English nobles. Some of these magnates used their original French-derived names, with the prefix'de,' meaning they were lords of the old fiefs in France, some instead dropped their original names and took their names from new English holdings; the Norman conquest of England brought Britain and Ireland into the orbit of the European continent what remained of Roman-influenced language and culture. If the earlier Anglo-Saxon England was tied to local traditions, the England emerging from the Conquest owed a debt to the Romance languages and the culture of ancient Rome, not so important before the Conquest, but was maintained at a high level by the English Catholic Church and the clerks of England, it transmitted itself in the emerging feudal world. That heritage can be discerned in language, incorporating shards of the French language and the Roman past, in architecture, in the emerging Romanesque architecture, in a new feudal structure erected as a bulwark against the chaos that overtook the Continent following the collapse of Roman authority and the subsequent Dark Ages.

The England that emerged from the Conquest was a decidedly different place, but one, opened up to the sweep of outside influences. The Norman conquest of England signalled a revolution in military styles and methods; the old Anglo-Saxon military elite began to emigrate the generation next younger to that defeated at Hastings, who had no particular future in a country controlled by the conquerors. William, encouraged them to leave, as a security measure; the first to leave went to Denmark and many of these mo

Subpoena

A subpoena or witness summons is a writ issued by a government agency, most a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure. There are two common types of subpoena: subpoena ad testificandum orders a person to testify before the ordering authority or face punishment; the subpoena can request the testimony to be given by phone or in person. Subpoena duces tecum orders a person or organization to bring physical evidence before the ordering authority or face punishment; this is used for requests to mail copies of documents to requesting party or directly to court. The term subpoena is from the Middle English suppena and the Latin phrase sub poena meaning "under penalty", it is spelled "subpena". The subpoena has its source in English common law and it is now used with universal application throughout the English common law world. John Waltham, Bishop of Salisbury, is said to have created the writ of subpoena in the reign of Richard II. However, for civil proceedings in England and Wales, it is now described as a witness summons, as part of reforms to replace Latin terms with Plain English understandable to the layman.

In New South Wales, a court may set aside the whole, or part of, a subpoena on the basis that it is a "fishing expedition". In Lowery v Insurance Australia Ltd, the NSW Court of Appeal held that where documents requested in the schedule of a subpoena are deemed to have no relevance to the proceedings in dispute, the subpoena may be set aside as it has no legitimate forensic purpose, it was held that it was not the role of the Court to redraft the subpoena and narrow its scope to those issues in dispute. In Victoria a subpoena is issued by a court registry officer, does not require leave of the court. In New Zealand, subpoenas are governed under the rules of the court. Subpoenas are issued by the clerk of the court in the name of the judge presiding over the case. Additionally, court rules may permit lawyers to issue subpoenas themselves in their capacity as officers of the court. Subpoenas are issued "in blank" and it is the responsibility of the lawyer representing the plaintiff or defendant on whose behalf the testimony is to be given to serve the subpoena on the witness.

If a witness is reluctant to testify the personal service of subpoena is required with proof of service by non-party server. The subpoena will be on the letterhead of the court where the case is filed, name the parties to the case, be addressed by name to the person whose testimony is being sought, it will contain the language "You are hereby commanded to report in person to the clerk of this court" or similar, describing the specific location, scheduled date and time of the appearance. Some issuing jurisdictions include an admonishment advising the subject of the criminal penalty for failure to comply with a subpoena, reminding him or her not to leave the court facilities until excused by a competent authority. In some situations the person having to testify or produce documents is paid. Pro se litigants who represent themselves, unlike lawyers, must ask a court clerk to issue them subpoena forms when they need to call witnesses by phone or in person, or when they need to request documents to be sent to them or directly to court.

Any documents that have not been subpoenaed to court or verified by a witness may be dismissed by the opposite party as hearsay, unless excepted by hearsay rules or permitted by the judge. If the witness is called via long-distance phone call the requesting party is responsible for initiating the call and providing a payment with a prepaid phone card. Most states have further restrictions on subpoena use in criminal cases; some states require the subpoenaing party to first file a Notice of Intent to Serve Subpoena, or a Notice of Production from Non-Party ten days prior to issuing the subpoena, so that the other party may have ample time to file any objections. The party being subpoenaed has the right to object to the issuance of the subpoena, if it is for an improper purpose, such as subpoenaing records that have no relevance to the proceedings, or subpoenaing persons who would have no evidence to present, or subpoenaing records or testimony, confidential or privileged. Standing committees in both houses of the United States Congress have the authority to send out subpoenas for legitimate lawmaking and investigation purposes.

This compels the production of testimony or records, failure to respond constitutes contempt of Congress. There are several exceptions to being required to testify in court; such examples include. Witnesses can't be forced to testify; this right can, however, be denied. This immunity allows them to testify, makes them immune to prosecution for any crimes they confess to. Spousal privilege - In most cases, a person cannot be compelled to testify against their spouse; this rule exists as the "One flesh" concept of Marriage. Under this rule, since married spouses are joined together in one flesh, they shouldn't be forced to testify against each other. Exceptions to this rule include domestic violence or sexual abuse cases. Counselors or Priests - Communication with a counselor or priest is considered privileged, because both jobs involve clients being honest, without having to fear the consequences. Lawyers - In order to get the best legal advice, clients must tell all details to their lawyer

Diabetic shoe

Diabetic shoes are sometimes referred to as extra depth, therapeutic shoes or Sugar Shoes. They are specially designed shoes, or shoe inserts, intended to reduce the risk of skin breakdown in diabetics with pre-existing foot disease. People with diabetic neuropathy in their feet may have a false sense of security as to how much at risk their feet are. An ulcer under the foot can develop in a couple of hours; the primary goal of therapeutic footwear is to prevent complications, which can include strain, calluses, or amputations for patients with diabetes and poor circulation. Neuropathy can change the shape of a person's feet, which limits the range of shoes that can be worn comfortably. In addition to meeting strict guidelines, diabetic shoes must be prescribed by a physician and fit by a certified individual, such as an orthotist, therapeutic shoe fitter, or pedorthist; the shoes must be equipped with a removable orthosis. Foot orthoses are devices such as shoe inserts, arch supports, or shoe fillers such as lifts and heels.

The diabetic shoes and custom-molded inserts work together as a preventive system to help diabetics avoid foot injuries and improve mobility. In the United States, diabetic shoes can be covered by Medicare. Diabetic sock Diabetic foot