The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version; the oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. All of the material in the Chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; these manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Chronicle is not unbiased: there are occasions when comparison with other medieval sources makes it clear that the scribes who wrote it omitted events or told one-sided versions of stories.
Taken as a whole, the Chronicle is the single most important historical source for the period in England between the departure of the Romans and the decades following the Norman conquest. Much of the information given in the Chronicle is not recorded elsewhere. In addition, the manuscripts are important sources for the history of the English language. Seven of the nine surviving manuscripts and fragments reside in the British Library; the other two are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. All of the surviving manuscripts are copies, so it is not known for certain where or when the first version of the Chronicle was composed, it is agreed that the original version – sometimes known as the Early English Annals – was written in the late 9th century by a scribe in Wessex. Frank Stenton argued from internal evidence that it was first compiled for a secular, but not royal, patron. After the original Chronicle was compiled, copies were distributed to various monasteries.
Additional copies were made, for further distribution or to replace lost manuscripts, some copies were updated independently of each other. Some of these copies are those that have survived; the earliest extant manuscript, the Parker Chronicle, was written by a single scribe up to the year 891. The scribe wrote DCCCXCII, in the margin of the next line; this appears to place the composition of the chronicle at no than 892. It is known, it is difficult to fix the date of composition, but it is thought that the chronicles were composed during the reign of Alfred the Great, as Alfred deliberately tried to revive learning and culture during his reign, encouraged the use of English as a written language. The Chronicle, as well as the distribution of copies to other centres of learning, may be a consequence of the changes Alfred introduced. Of the nine surviving manuscripts, seven are written in Old English. One, known as the Bilingual Canterbury Epitome, is in Old English with a translation of each annal into Latin.
Another, the Peterborough Chronicle, is in Old English except for the last entry, in early Middle English. The oldest is known as the Winchester Chronicle or the Parker Chronicle, is written in the Mercian dialect until 1070 Latin to 1075. Six of the manuscripts were printed in an 1861 edition for the Rolls Series by Benjamin Thorpe with the text laid out in columns labelled A to F, he included the few readable remnants of a burned seventh manuscript, which he referred to as destroyed in a fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Following this convention, the two additional manuscripts are called and; the known surviving manuscripts are listed below. The manuscripts are all thought to derive from a common original, but the connections between the texts are more complex than simple inheritance via copying; the diagram at right gives an overview of the relationships between the manuscripts. The following is a summary of the relationships. Was a copy of, made in Winchester between 1001 and 1013. was used in the compilation of at Abingdon, in the mid-11th century.
However, the scribe for had access to another version, which has not survived. Includes material from Bede's Ecclesiastical History written by 731 and from a set of 8th-century Northumbrian annals and is thought to have been copied from a northern version that has not survived. Has material that appears to derive from the same sources as but does not include some additions that appear only in, such as the Mercian Register; this manuscript was composed at the monastery in Peterborough, some time after a fire there in 11
Shawn Michael Menard is a Canadian politician. He was elected to Ottawa City Council representing Capital Ward in the 2018 Ottawa municipal election. Menard grew up in the son of a single mother, he graduated from Sir Robert Borden High School, studied criminology and public administration at Carleton University. At Carleton, Menard was the president of the Rideau River Residence Association and the president of the Carleton University Students' Association, he graduated from Carleton with a master's degree in Public Administration. After university, Menard worked as a strategic analyst for the Department of Justice and as manager of government relations for the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, he was involved in neighbourhood politics, serving as president of the Centretown Citizens Community Association and established an umbrella group of community associations called "Our Ottawa". Menard was elected as a public school trustee for the Ottawa-Carleton District School Board in the 2014 municipal elections with no opposition.
He represented Zone 9, which covers both Rideau-Vanier Wards. Menard had planned on running for re-election as a school trustee for the 2018 election, but entered the race for city council when fellow-progressive Emilie Taman opted to not run. Many had wanted Menard to run for mayor. Menard ran on a progressive platform of reducing fares for public transportation, barring planning committee members from taking developer donations, eliminating single use plastics. A critic of mayor Jim Watson Menard endorsed Watson's rival Clive Doucet in the 2018 mayoral race. Menard was elected winning 28% of the vote, defeating his nearest rival Christine McAllister by fewer than 400 votes and incumbent David Chernushenko by just under 600 votes. Menard claimed the win as a "referendum on development" in the area, while Chernushenko blamed his defeat on being out organized by an "NDP campaign"
Qemal Butka was an Albanian architect, painter and postage stamps engraver. He was mayor of Tirana from 1935-1936 but departed from Albania in 1939 to live in Turkey and the United States, he is known for projecting several monuments and buildings in Albania. Qemal Butka was born in 1907 in the village of Butkë, Ottoman Empire, now in the Kolonjë District, modern Albania, his father was killed during World War I, he was raised by his uncle and Albanian patriot, Sali Butka. His cousin Safet Butka, Sali's son, took him to Austria. Qemal finished his secondary education in Austria and in 1931 he graduated from Vienna University of Technology, with the title of architect engineer. While a high school student, Butka endeavored in painting. In 1931, upon graduation, Butka returned to Albania and worked on architectural projects; because of his talent, Zog of Albania declared him the winning architect of the international competition which decided who would design the memorial dedicated to Sadijé Toptani, Zog's mother, who had died in 1934.
The monument, located in what is now in the Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake, was destroyed by the Communist government in the 1950s. A replica was built in 2012 to serve as the Mausoleum of the Albanian Royal Family. Among his other famous works in Albania are the building of the National Library of Albania, a Monument to the National Freedom, the building of the municipality of Korçë, a 25th anniversary commemorative plaque of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. Qemal Butka distinguished himself in the construction of villas in Tirana, Durrës and other Albanian cities, which still stand today as testimony of a solid architecture. Butka is known to have engraved many series of postage stamps, distinguishing himself in the philately field. From 21 October 1935 to 7 November 1936 Qemal Butka was nominated as mayor by Mehdi Frasheri Prime Minister of Albania. In 1939, after Fascist Italy invaded Albania, Butka emigrated to Turkey via Greece along with Albanian writer Branko Merxhani, he stayed in Turkey from 1940 to 1958 with the exception of the 1943-1945 period when he went to Cairo, Egypt for work.
In Turkey he met and married his future wife, daughter of Mehmet Kamil Berk, the personal doctor of Kemal Ataturk, founder of modern Turkey. Cecile herself was an architect. In 1958 Butka and wife emigrated to the United States. In the US Butka worked as an architect in prestigious studios, whereas his wife, participated in the construction project of the Twin Towers of New York City. Several times Qemal Butka tried to visit Albania as a US citizen, but his entry was refused by Communist authorities, he managed to do so only in 1987 through Austria after the death of Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha. After 1990 he definitively returned to Albania, where he died on November 28, 1997