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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. They comprised people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English; the history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity.

It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources.

This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Angli and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066; the earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD.

Procopius states that Britain was settled by three nations: the Angili and Brittones. Historian Michael Jones says that "Procopius himself, betrays doubts about this specific passage, subsequent details in the chapter undermine its credibility as a clue to sixth-century population in Britain."The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.

These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, wh

Paul E. Patton

Paul Edward Patton is an American politician who served as the 59th governor of Kentucky from 1995 to 2003. Because of a 1992 amendment to the Kentucky Constitution, he was the first governor eligible to succeed himself in office since James Garrard in 1800. Since 2013, he has been the chancellor of the University of Pikeville in Pikeville, Kentucky after serving as its president from 2010 to 2013, he served as chairman of the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education from 2009 to 2011. After graduating from the University of Kentucky in 1959, Patton became wealthy operating coal mines for 20 years, he sold most of his coal interests in the late 1970s and entered politics, serving in the cabinet of Governor John Y. Brown Jr. and chairing the state Democratic Party. In 1981, he was elected judge/executive of Pike County, he made an unsuccessful bid for lieutenant governor in 1987, but was elected in 1991, serving concurrently as lieutenant governor and secretary of economic development under Governor Brereton Jones.

Four years Patton was elected Governor over Republican Larry Forgy. The major achievement of his first term was overhauling higher education, including making the state's community colleges and technical schools independent of the University of Kentucky and organizing them into the Kentucky Community and Technical College System. Shortly after Patton turned back a weak challenge to his re-election in 1999, two Democratic state senators defected to the Republican Party, giving Republicans a majority in that legislative house for the first time ever; the economic prosperity that fueled Patton's first term success faded into a recession in the early 2000s. Faced with a hostile legislature and a dire economic forecast, Patton was unable to enact much significant legislation in his second term, his situation was exacerbated in 2002 when news of an extramarital affair and allegations of a sex-for-favors scandal broke. After denying the affair, Patton admitted to it, but continued to deny using his office to benefit his mistress.

In his term, Patton was attacked for pardoning four of his political advisers who were indicted for violating Kentucky's campaign finance laws and for abusing his patronage powers. These successive scandals derailed any further political aspirations. Patton was born in Fallsburg, Kentucky on May 26, 1937, in a retrofitted silo with no indoor plumbing, electricity, or telephone, he was the only son of the three children born to Irene Patton. The family moved because Ward Patton, a teacher, was assigned to a different school every year; when he was hired by a railroad in Pike County, he and his wife agreed that she would remain in Fallsburg with the children until they finished school. Patton attended a four-room schoolhouse in his hometown, he was active in the 4-H club. In 1951, he enrolled at Louisa High School in Kentucky, he was an honor student, a member of the drama club, a football and baseball player, class president during his senior year. In 1955, he graduated with the third-highest grade point average in his class of 73.

After high school, Patton matriculated to the University of Kentucky. During the spring of 1956 he was initiated into the Kappa Sigma fraternity; that year he unsuccessfully sought a seat in the Student Government Association. Following his sophomore year, he married Carol Cooley, daughter of a Floyd County, coal mine operator, they had two children together -- Christopher. Patton borrowed money from his father-in-law to finish his education, in 1959 earned a Bachelor of Science degree in mechanical engineering, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Public Service degree from the University of Louisville. After graduation, Patton worked as a day laborer for his father-in-law. In 1961, he founded a coal company with his brother-in-law. In 1972, he purchased Chapperal Coal Company and became wealthy during the coal boom that resulted from the 1973 oil crisis, he became a leader in the coal industry, serving on the board of directors of the Kentucky Coal Association, chairing the Board of the National Independent Coal Operators Association, becoming a member of the Kentucky Deep Mine Safety Commission.

He denounced the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 as "right in its diagnosis of the problem, but wrong in prescription for the cure". By 1976, he had become president of the National Independent Coal Operators Association, he railed against a federal regulation that would prohibit strip mining on slopes of greater than 20 degrees, which would have ended that method of mining in the Eastern Mountain Coal Fields, lamented the economic disadvantage imposed on Kentucky coal miners by the state's coal severance tax. Patton was regarded as more moderate than most coal operators in his relationship to labor unions. Most of his mine workers were not unionized, those who were belonged to the Southern Labor Union rather than the more confrontational United Mine Workers of America. Members of the UMWA local at Shelby Gap maintained that Patton was arrested for clipping a striking miner on a picket line with his pickup truck in the late 1970s. Local law enforcement officials claim no recollection of the incident, there is no record of an arrest warrant against Patton or an actual arrest.

On October 18, 1976, Patton filed for divorce from Carol Cooley, saying only that their marriage was irretrievably broken. The divorce was final on February 25, 1977; that year, Patton married Judi Jane Conway of Pikeville, a secretary at his Kentucky Elkhorn mine. In 1973, Conway had divorced her first husband, Bill Harvey Johnson, with whom she had two

Westbrook, Texas

Westbrook is a city in Mitchell County, United States. The population was 203 at the 2000 census. Westbrook is located at 32°21′25″N 101°0′45″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, 203 people, 79 households, 54 families resided in the city; the population density was 504.3 people per square mile. The 103 housing units averaged 255.9/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 89.66% White, 0.49% Native American, 8.87% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 25.62% of the population. Of the 79 households, 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.6% were not families. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.17. In the city, the population was distributed as 30.0% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,143, for a family was $38,281. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $16,786 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,500. About 13.1% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.8% of those under the age of 18 and 14.3% of those 65 or over. The city of Westbrook is served by the Westbrook Independent School District and home to the Westbrook High School Wildcats. Ralph W. Ramsey, a Border Patrol inspector, was killed in the line of duty on February 26, 1942, in Columbus, New Mexico. A forward operating base, "Camp Ramsey", west of Columbus, is being named in his honor