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Angola

Angola the Republic of Angola, is a country on the west coast of Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west. Angola has an exclave province, the province of Cabinda that borders the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. The territory of Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups and kingdoms; the nation state of Angola originated from Portuguese colonisation, which began with coastal settlements and trading posts founded in the 16th century. In the 19th century, European settlers began to establish themselves in the interior; the Portuguese colony that became Angola did not have its present borders until the early 20th century because of resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. After a protracted anti-colonial struggle, independence was achieved in 1975 as the Marxist–Leninist People's Republic of Angola, a one-party state supported by the Soviet Union and Cuba.

The civil war between the ruling People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the insurgent anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supported by the United States and apartheid South Africa, lasted until 2002. The sovereign state has since become a stable unitary, presidential constitutional republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, its economy is among the fastest-growing in the world since the end of the civil war. Angola's economic growth is uneven, with most of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population. Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Southern African Development Community. A multiethnic country, Angola's 25.8 million people span tribal groups and traditions. Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, in the predominance of the Portuguese language and of the Catholic Church; the name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, which appeared as early as Dias de Novais's 1571 charter.

The toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, was nominally a possession of the Kingdom of Kongo, but was seeking greater independence in the 16th century. Modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations; the Khoi and San peoples were neither cultivators, but rather hunter-gatherers. They were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north in the first millennium BC, most of whom originated in what is today northwestern Nigeria and southern Niger. Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large cattle herds, to Angola's central highlands and the Luanda plain. A number of political entities were established, it established trade routes with other city-states and civilisations up and down the coast of southwestern and western Africa and with Great Zimbabwe and the Mutapa Empire, although it engaged in little or no transoceanic trade.

To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was sometimes known as Dongo. Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão reached the area in 1484; the previous year, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary early trading post at Soyo, now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave. Paulo Dias de Novais founded São Paulo de Loanda in 1575 with a hundred families of settlers and four hundred soldiers. Benguela was fortified in 1587 and became a township in 1617; the Portuguese established several other settlements and trading posts along the Angolan coast, principally trading in Angolan slaves for Brazilian plantations. Local slave dealers provided a large number of slaves for the Portuguese Empire in exchange for manufactured goods from Europe; this part of the Atlantic slave trade continued until after Brazil's independence in the 1820s.

Despite Portugal's territorial claims in Angola, its control over much of the country's vast interior was minimal. In the 16th century Portugal gained control of the coast through a series of wars. Life for European colonists was progress slow. John Iliffe notes that "Portuguese records of Angola from the 16th century show that a great famine occurred on average every seventy years. During the Portuguese Restoration War, the Dutch West India Company occupied the principal settlement of Luanda in 1641, using alliances with local peoples to carry out attacks against Portuguese holdings elsewhere. A fleet under Salvador de Sá retook Luanda in 1648. New treaties with the Kongo were sig

Moores Creek National Battlefield

Moores Creek National Battlefield is a United States National Battlefield managed by the National Park Service. The park commemorates the 1776 victory by a thousand Patriots over about eight hundred Loyalists at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge; the battle dashed the hopes of Royal Governor Josiah Martin of the Province of North Carolina for regaining control of the colony for the British crown. The Loyalist defeat ended British plans for an invasionary force to land in Brunswick Town, North Carolina. North Carolina voted to declare independence from the British on April 12, 1776, shortly after the victory at Moore's Creek, located in the Wilmington area near Currie in Pender County in southeastern North Carolina; the park was established as a National Military Park on June 2, 1926 and was redesignated as a National Battlefield on September 8, 1980. Loyalists Scottish Highlanders, many of whom did not have muskets and were wielding broadswords, expected to find only a small Patriot force on February 27, 1776.

Before the arrival of the Loyalists, the Patriots removed the planks from the bridge that crossed Moore's Creek. After removing the planks of wood, they smeared; this forced the Loyalists to cross the bridge in single file. As the Loyalists advanced across the bridge, Patriot shots rang out and dozens of Loyalists fell into the creek below, including their commanders. At the time, the creek was an estimated six feet deep. One commander, Lieutenant Colonel Donald McLeod, died in the battle. Another commander was Colonel Allan MacDonald, the husband of Flora MacDonald of Highland lore who aided Bonnie Prince Charlie following the Jacobite defeat at Culloden Moor in 1746. Stunned and leaderless, the Loyalists either surrendered or retreated in confusion. Wagons and British Pound sterling worth more than $1 million by today's value were seized by the Patriots in the days following the battle; this dramatic victory ended British authority in the colony and influenced North Carolina to be the first colony to vote for independence.

The Battle of Moores Creek Bridge, coupled with the Battle of Sullivan's Island near Charleston, South Carolina, a few months were the first open conflicts of the American Revolution. Both led the Thirteen Colonies to declare independence on July 4, 1776; the central Moores Creek most was named in honor of Elizabeth Moore, a pioneer settler. Throughout the park, there are remnants of the 1776 road traveled by Loyalist forces. A 1-mile trail with wayside exhibits leads across Moores Creek; the historic bridge site is located along the trail. The park, located in a rural area, offers a visitor center with exhibits and audio-visual program, a 0.3-mile colonial forest trail, a picnic area. Official National Park Service website: Moores Creek National Battlefield "Mary Slocumb at Moore's Creek Bridge," Revolutionary North Carolina, a digital textbook produced by the UNC School of Education

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff was a Russian-born French modernist painter belonging to the'New' Ecole de Paris. Serge Poliakoff was born in Moscow in the thirteenth of fourteen children, his father, a Kyrgyz, supplied the army with horses that he bred himself and owned a racing stable. His mother was involved with the church, its religious icons fascinated him, he enrolled at the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture, but fled Russia in 1918. He arrived in Constantinople in 1920, he went on to pass through Sofia, Belgrade and Berlin before settling in Paris in 1923, all the while continuing to play in Russian cabarets. In 1929 he enrolled at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, his paintings remained purely academic until he discovered, during his stay in London from 1935 to 1937, the abstract art and luminous colours of the Egyptian sarcophagi. It was a little afterwards that he met Wassily Kandinsky and Robert Delaunay, Otto Freundlich. With these influences, Poliakoff came to be considered as one of the most powerful painters of his generation.

In 1947, he was trained by Jean Deyrolle in Gordes in the Vaucluse region of France amongst peers such as Gérard Schneider, Victor Vasarely, Jean Dewasne. By the beginning of the 1950s, he was still staying at the Old Dovecote hotel near Saint-Germain-des-Prés, home to Louis Nallard and Maria Manton, continuing to earn a reliable income by playing the balalaika. A contract enabled him to gain better financial stability. In 1962 a room was given over to his paintings by the Venice Biennial, Poliakoff became a French citizen in the same year, his works are now displayed in a large number of museums in New York. Poliakoff worked with ceramics at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, he influenced the paintings of Arman. In 2006, works by Poliakoff were chosen by the Musée du Luxembourg for their exhibition entitled'L'Envolée lyrique, Paris 1945-1956', namely'Composition en brun', 1947, Ny Carlsberg Glypothek, Copenhagen. In 2013, The Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris devoted a large-scale retrospective to the abstract painter which included 150 works from the period 1946–1969.

Since 1970 there has been no significant exhibition of the work of Serge Poliakoff in what became his home city. Serge Poliakoff, Galleria Lorenzelli, Bergamo Serge Poliakoff, Lorenzelli Arte, Milan Serge Poliakoff, Le rêve des formes, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris Serge Poliakoff, Galerie Applicat-Prazan, Paris Available Paintings, Works on Paper and Biography Galerie Ludorff, Düsseldorf, Germany Ecole de Paris This article draws on the fr:Serge Poliakoff article in the French-language Wikipedia, accessed in the version of November 20, 2006. Jean Cassou, Bodensee-Verlag, Amriswil, 1963. Lydia Harambourg, Serge Poliakoff, dans L'École de Paris 1945–1965, Dictionnaire des peintres, Neuchâtel, Ides et Calendes, 1993. Alexis Poliakoff et Gérard Schneider, Editions Galerie Française, München, 280 p. Françoise Brütsch, Serge Poliakoff, Editions Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1993, 200 p. Artfacts.net containing a portrait of Poliakoff, nine reproductions of his gouache and lithograph work.

Lorenzelli Arte Milano: Serge Poliakoff Biography - Serge Poliakoff, The Dream of Forms - Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris