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Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War was a civil war in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with interludes, until 2002. The war began after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975; the war was a power struggle between two former anti-colonial guerrilla movements, the communist People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola and the anti-communist National Union for the Total Independence of Angola. The war was used as a surrogate battleground for the Cold War by rival states such as the Soviet Union, South Africa and the United States; the MPLA and UNITA had different roots in Angolan society and mutually incompatible leaderships, despite their shared aim of ending colonial rule. A third movement, the National Front for the Liberation of Angola, having fought the MPLA with UNITA during the war for independence, played no role in the Civil War. Additionally, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda, an association of separatist militant groups, fought for the independence of the province of Cabinda from Angola.

The 27-year war can be divided into three periods of major fighting – from 1975 to 1991, 1992 to 1994 and from 1998 to 2002 – with fragile periods of peace. By the time the MPLA achieved victory in 2002, more than 500,000 people had died and over one million had been internally displaced; the war devastated Angola's infrastructure and damaged public administration, the economy and religious institutions. The Angolan Civil War was notable due to the combination of Angola's violent internal dynamics and the exceptional degree of foreign military and political involvement; the war is considered a Cold War proxy conflict, as the Soviet Union and the United States, with their respective allies, provided assistance to the opposing factions. The conflict became intertwined with the Second Congo War in the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo and the South African Border War. Angola's three rebel movements had their roots in the anti-colonial movements of the 1950s; the MPLA was an urban based movement in Luanda and its surrounding area.

It was composed of Mbundu people. By contrast the other two major anti-colonial movements the FNLA and UNITA, were rurally based groups; the FNLA consisted of Bakongo people hailing from Northern Angola. UNITA, an offshoot of the FNLA, was composed of Ovimbundu people from the Central highlands. Since its formation in the 1950s, the MPLA's main social base has been among the Ambundu people and the multiracial intelligentsia of cities such as Luanda and Huambo. During its anti-colonial struggle of 1962–74, the MPLA was supported by several African countries, as well as by the Soviet Union. Cuba became the MPLA's strongest ally, sending significant contingents of combat and support personnel to Angola; this support, as well as that of several other countries of the Eastern Bloc, e.g. East Germany, was maintained during the Civil War. Communist Yugoslavia provided financial military support for the MPLA, including $14 million in 1977, as well as Yugoslav security personnel in the country and diplomatic training for Angolans in Belgrade.

The United States Ambassador to Yugoslavia wrote of the Yugoslav relationship with the MPLA, remarked, "Tito enjoys his role as patriarch of guerrilla liberation struggle." Agostinho Neto, MPLA's leader during the civil war, declared in 1977 that Yugoslav aid was constant and firm, described the help as extraordinary. According to a November 1978 special communique, Portuguese troops were among the 20,000 MPLA troops that participated in a major offensive in central and southern Angola; the FNLA formed parallel to the MPLA, was devoted to defending the interests of the Bakongo people and supporting the restoration of the historical Kongo Empire. However, it developed into a nationalist movement, supported in its struggle against Portugal by the government of Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire. During the early 1960s, the FNLA was supported by the People's Republic of China, but when UNITA was founded in the mid-1960s, China switched its support to this new movement, because the FNLA had shown little real activity.

The United States refused to give the FNLA support during the movement's war against Portugal, a NATO ally of the U. S.. S. aid during the civil war. UNITA's main social basis were the Ovimbundu of central Angola, who constituted about one third of the country's population, but the organization had roots among several less numerous peoples of eastern Angola. UNITA was founded in 1966 by Jonas Savimbi, who until had been a prominent leader of the FNLA. During the anti-colonial war, UNITA received some support from the People's Republic of China. With the onset of the civil war, the United States decided to support UNITA and augmented their aid to UNITA in the decades that followed. However, in the latter period, UNITA's main ally was the apartheid regime of South Africa. Angola, like most African countries, became. In Angola's case, its colonial power – Portugal – was present and active in the territory, in one way or another, for over four centuries; the original population of this territory were dispersed Khoisan groups.

These were absorbed or pushed southwards, where residual groups still exist, by a massive influx of Bantu people who came from the north and east. The Bantu influx began around 500 BC, some continued their migrations inside the territory well into the 20th century, they established a number of major political units, of which the most important was the Kongo Empire whose centre was located in the northwest of what today is Angola, which stretched north

Shi Ji (Three Kingdoms)

Shi Ji known as Zhu Ji, courtesy name Gongxu, was a military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He was the son of a general who served under Wu's founding emperor Sun Quan. Shi Ji was the son of a general who served under Wu's founding emperor Sun Quan. Zhu Ran's family name was Shi, but he changed his family name to Zhu as he was adopted by his maternal uncle Zhu Zhi. Shi Ji took on the family name of Zhu, but sometime between 254 and 256 he received permission from the second Wu emperor Sun Liang to change his family name to Shi. With help from his father, Shi Ji started his career as a Gentleman serving the Wu imperial palace; as he grew older, he was commissioned as a commandant under the title "Commandant Who Establishes Loyalty". After his uncle Zhu Cai died, Shi Ji was put in charge of the troops who used to be under Zhu Cai's command. In 231, he followed Pan Jun on a campaign against rebellious local tribes in Wuling Commandery, became famous for his courage and strength in battle.

Shi Ji subsequently served as a supervising officer in charge of dealing with bandits and robbers, was known for sternly upholding the law. Through his actions, Shi Ji attracted the attention of Sun Ba, the Prince of Lu, Sun Quan's fourth son; when Sun Ba visited Shi Ji in his office and offered to start a friendship with him, Shi Ji knew his place so he remained humble and politely declined. Sometime in the 240s, a power struggle broke out between Sun Ba and his third brother Sun He, the Crown Prince, as the former wanted to seize the position of heir apparent from the latter. Two opposing factions emerged from among Sun Quan's subjects: On one side, Shi Ji, along with Lu Xun, Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, Zhu Ju, Teng Yin, Ding Mi and Wu Can, believed that Sun He was the rightful heir apparent so they supported him. On the other side, Bu Zhi, Lü Dai, Quan Cong, Lü Ju, Sun Hong, Quan Ji, Yang Zhu, Wu An and Sun Qi supported Sun Ba; the power struggle ended in 250 when Sun Quan deposed Sun He and replaced him with Sun Liang, forced Sun Ba to commit suicide.

When his father Zhu Ran died in 249, Shi Ji inherited his father's peerage as the Marquis of Dangyang and was subsequently promoted to General Who Pacifies Wei and appointed as the Area Commander of Le District. In 250, Wang Chang, a senior general from Wu's rival state Wei, led the Wei forces to attack the Wu-controlled Jiangling County; when Wang Chang was withdrawing his troops after failing to breach Jiangling County's walls, Shi Ji wrote to the Wu general Zhuge Rong: " Chang has come a long way. Heaven is on our side. I don't have enough men to attack them. I will attack them from the front; the glory won't be only mine. After Zhuge Rong promised to help him, Shi Ji led his troops to attack Wang Chang and his men at Jinan, located about 30 li away from Jiangling County. Although Shi Ji had the upper hand, he lost the battle when Zhuge Rong broke his promise and did not show up to help him. After the battle, the Wu emperor Sun Quan praised Shi Ji, but reprimanded Zhuge Rong and wanted to relieve him of his appointment.

However, he pardoned Zhuge Rong as he had to "give face" to Zhuge Rong's brother Zhuge Ke, whom he favoured and relied on. As Shi Ji was already not on good terms with Zhuge Ke and Zhuge Rong, this incident further deepened the rift between him and the Zhuge brothers. After Sun Quan died in 252, his youngest son Sun Liang became the next Wu emperor, with Zhuge Ke serving as regent. In the same year, Sun Liang appointed Shi Ji as General. In the spring of 253, when Zhuge Ke was away leading Wu forces to attack the Wei fortress of Xincheng at Hefei, he requested support from Shi Ji's units but did not bring Shi Ji along and instead ordered him to remain at Banzhou, he granted his brother Zhuge Rong acting imperial authority and ordered him to take command of Shi Ji's units and lead them towards the Mian River to attack Wei reinforcements coming from the west to reinforce Xincheng. In the winter of 253, Sun Jun, a distant cousin of Sun Quan and assassinated Zhuge Ke in a coup d'état, he ordered Shi Kuan, Shi Ji, Sun Yi and Quan Xi to lead their troops to Gong'an County to arrest Zhuge Rong.

Zhuge Rong committed suicide while his three sons and Zhuge Ke's extended family were rounded up and executed. After the coup d'état, Sun Jun became the new regent and he granted acting imperial authority to Shi Ji and ordered him to revert to his previous appointment as the Area Commander of Le District. In 257, Shi Ji was promoted to General of Agile Cavalry, one of the top positions in the Wu military. In the previous year, following Sun Jun's death, his cousin Sun Chen succeeded him as the regent of Wu; when Sun Chen was in power, he caused fear and panic among the Wu officials when he started purging his political opponents. Shi Ji worried that Sun Chen's actions would lead to a civil war in Wu, feared that Wu's rival state Wei would take advantage of the internal conflict to attack Wu, he secretly contacted Wu's ally state Shu and requested their support. In response, the Shu government sent a general Yan Yu to lead 5,000 troops to stand by at Baidicheng near the Wu–Shu border and assist Shi

Islamia Primary School

Islamia Primary School is a voluntary aided primary, Islamic faith school in Queen's Park, England. It is located in the London Borough of Brent. Islamia Primary School was founded in October 1983 by Yusuf Islam, the singer/songwriter, known as Cat Stevens until his conversion to Islam in 1977. In 1998, the school was the first Muslim school in Britain to be granted public funding by the Government; this funding was secured after a campaign of thirteen years and several rejections of their applications for voluntary state aid. Prince Charles visited to inaugurate the school's voluntary aided status on 10 May 2000, he praised their approach of providing religious education. The school applied, in September 2010, for permission to construct an £8 million extension including a new two-storey building, it would be funded jointly by the school and the government. The scheme, designed by Marks Barfield, was granted planning permission in December 2010 but has proved controversial with residents groups threatening to take legal action to stop it.

Brent Council announced, in November 2013, that the development had been included in Phase 3 of their Permanent Primary School Expansion project. The school is two form entry with 420 pupils aged between the ages of 4 and 11; the school was intended to have 10% non-Muslim pupils. However, it's overcapacity with 3,500 pupils on the waiting list. Islamia follows the national curriculum supplemented with classes on religion and studies of the Arabic language; the Ofsted inspection on 28 February/1 March 2013 rated the school as "Good", point 2 on a four-point scale. This was up from point 3 at the last inspection; the report states that "the quality of teaching has improved since the previous inspection and is now good with some examples of outstanding teaching" but highlights attainment in mathematics as requiring improvement. Ofsted reported positively on the school community, the way that the children were engaged in their learning. In 2013, the school won the Global Peace and Unity Education Award for Excellence, for UK primary schools.

The Islamia Branch consists of three schools. Official website