click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach

Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach is a former municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. On 1 January 2014 the former municipality of Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach merged into the municipality of Oberdiessbach. Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach is first mentioned in 1337 as Bleikon. In 1473 it was mentioned as villages; the village was settled rather than many of the nearby villages. In 1880 a medical spa resort was built in the village; the spa closed and the building is now an apartment complex. After the spa was built, the village remained isolated. In 1908 a Postauto route was established. Today, over half of the working population commutes to jobs in Oberdiessbach and nearly three-quarters of the jobs in the village are in agriculture or small business. Before the merger, Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach had a total area of 3.4 km2. Of this area, 1.98 km2 or 57.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.28 km2 or 37.4% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.14 km2 or 4.1% is settled and 0.01 km2 or 0.3% is unproductive land.

Of the built up area and buildings made up 3.2% and transportation infrastructure made up 0.9%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 8.5% is used for growing crops and 47.4% is pastures, while 2.0% is used for orchards or vine crops. It lies 7 km to the north of the town of Thun, it is located between the Äschlenalp mountain. It includes the hamlets of Kirch, Oberbleiken and Egglen as well as scattered individual farm houses. On 31 December 2009 the municipality's former district, was dissolved. On the following day, 1 January 2010, it joined the newly created Verwaltungskreis Bern-Mittelland; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Vert on a Bend Argent. Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach had a population of 391; as of 2010, 1.3% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 0.5%. Migration accounted for -4.7%, while births and deaths accounted for 4.2%. Most of the population speaks German as their first language, Albanian is the second most common and French is the third.

There is 1 person. As of 2008, the population was 48.4 % female. The population was made up of 2 non-Swiss men. There were 3 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality, 142 or about 37.6% were born in Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach and lived there in 2000. There were 177 or 46.8% who were born in the same canton, while 32 or 8.5% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 18 or 4.8% were born outside of Switzerland. As of 2010, children and teenagers make up 29.9% of the population, while adults make up 56.8% and seniors make up 13.3%. As of 2000, there were 181 people who never married in the municipality. There were 12 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 31 households that consist of only one person and 24 households with five or more people. In 2000, a total of 127 apartments were permanently occupied, while 19 apartments were seasonally occupied and 6 apartments were empty; the historical population is given in the following chart: The Statthalterhof is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance.

In the 2011 federal election the most popular party was the Swiss People's Party which received 53.6% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland, the Social Democratic Party and the Conservative Democratic Party. In the federal election, a total of 148 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 49.8%. As of 2011, Bleiken bei Oberdiessbach had an unemployment rate of 0.51%. As of 2008, there were a total of 73 people employed in the municipality. Of these, there were 38 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 13 businesses involved in this sector. 10 people were employed in the secondary sector and there were 3 businesses in this sector. 25 people were employed with 8 businesses in this sector. There were 192 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 41.7% of the workforce. In 2008 there were a total of 49 full-time equivalent jobs; the number of jobs in the primary sector was 23. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 9.

The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 17. In the tertiary sector. In 2000, there were 13 workers who commuted into 139 workers who commuted away; the municipality is a net exporter of workers, with about 10.7 workers leaving the municipality for every one entering. Of the working population, 8.3% used public transportation to get to work, 58.9% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 9 or 2.4% were Roman Catholic, while 288 or 76.2% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 70 individuals. There were 1

Rochdale College

Opened in 1968, Rochdale College was an experiment in student-run alternative education and co-operative living in Toronto, Canada. It provided space for 840 residents in a co-operative living space, it was a free university where students and teachers would live together and share knowledge. The project failed when it could not cover its financing and neighbours complained that it had become a haven for drugs and crime, it was closed in 1975. Rochdale was the largest co-op residence in North America, occupying an 18-storey student residence at Bloor St. and Huron St. in downtown Toronto. It was situated on the edges of the University of Toronto campus, near to Yorkville, Toronto's hippie haven in the 1960s and early 1970s; the college took its name from Rochdale, a town in north-west England, where the world's first cooperative society was established in 1844. The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers is considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, used as a model for modern co-ops, following the'Rochdale Principles'.

A group of 28 weavers and other artisans set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. Within ten years there were over 1,000 co-operative societies in the United Kingdom; the college's modern architecture was uniquely designed for communal living. Some areas were divided into independently operated communal units of about a dozen bedrooms, each with its own collective washroom and dining room; each unit was responsible for maintaining its own housekeeping. Other areas consisted of bachelor, one-bedroom, two-bedroom apartments. On the first and second floor were common areas used for socialization and commercial purposes; the roof was used for sunbathing. Clothing was optional. Rochdale began as a response to a growing need for student housing at the University of Toronto, a nineteen-year-old entrepreneur and philosophy student, Howard Adelman, was hired by the Campus Co-operative to meet the housing demand in 1958. With Adelman's advice, Campus Co-op began to acquire more properties, formed Campus Co-operative Residence Incorporated.

A non-profit offshoot of Campus Co-op. After obtaining federal mortgages at well below the market rate, Campus Co-op incorporated Rochdale College in 1964, it was by accident rather than design. Campus Co-op preferred to have the building be built to two times coverage, which would have resulted in a easily managed building whose floor area would be only twice the size of the lot. However, due to Rochdale's location on a busy arterial road, the site was zoned at seven times coverage; this meant an unanticipated jump to 840 residents, a fact, greeted with great enthusiasm, due to the expansionist attitudes of the founders. Zoning regulations stipulated that the site was to be an apartment-hotel, which meant that only half the floor space could be used for apartments with self-contained kitchens; this disadvantage was not appreciated due to faith in a communal system, in which residents would be expected to share the space available to them. In addition, the west and east wings differed by planners’ fiat in matters of self-containment and density of intended occupation.

The west wing attracted a population, stable, an attraction helped by one-year leases, while the east wing attracted more transient tenants. The west-wing units were more in demand, not when the rent structure in the first years gave an Aphrodite for two at $135 a month in the west wing and a Gnostic for two, with less space, at $200 a month in the east. With this rent structure, for some time the east wing subsidized the “landed gentry” in the west; the west wing with its self-contained units tended to stay aloof from the east wing, east-wing residents were uninterested in the operations of the College. In a symbolic rather than a practical sense, a visible seal was put on this east-west division by a fire door that split the floors in half. Campus Co-op, the parent corporation of Rochdale College, was uncomfortable with education taking a central role at Rochdale, a position held by Rochdale's intellectual leaders such as Dennis Lee. A decision was made to separate from Campus Co-op. Further emphasis was placed on education when Adelman noted that the college's $175,000 property tax could be avoided if they had a functioning educational program.

In Adelman's words, if "we run an education program for $75,000, we'll come out $100,000 ahead."Although many Rochdale founders viewed its education program as a form of tax avoidance, those who were dedicated to Rochdale as an educational institution did not let that deter them from pursuing what they viewed as a more noble purpose. Dennis Lee, the creative talent of the operation, notes plans like the tax avoidance scheme were, "primarily in the thinking of people like Howard who were involved in the planning, they did a good job of keeping their cards close to their chest, it was not something, being passed around it would have made other people furious to hear it at the time." Yet it would be inaccurate to conclude that Adelman, the organizational talent of the operation, did not share its educational goals. With Lee, Adelman edited a collection of articles published in 1968 that constituted a manifesto of sorts for "free university" education, calling for liberation from inhibiting educational institutions.

Adelman's contribution was a scathing indictment of the modern university as an institution that stifles innovation and serves only the establishment. Before its construction, there w

Ankh-Morpork

Ankh-Morpork is a fictional city-state which features prominently in Terry Pratchett's Discworld fantasy novels. Pratchett describes this biggest city of Discworld as the corrupt mercantile capital of the Discworld. In The Art of Discworld Pratchett explains that the city is similar to Tallinn and central Prague, but adds that it has elements of 18th-century London, 19th-century Seattle and modern New York City, he stated that since the creation of The Streets of Ankh-Morpork, he tried to ensure that the descriptions of character movements and locations in the books matched the Ankh-Morpork map. The name "Ankh-Morpork" refers to both the city itself, a walled city about five miles across, the surrounding suburbs and farms of its fiefdom; the city itself lies on the River Ankh, the most polluted waterway on the Discworld, which divides it into the more affluent Ankh and the poorer Morpork Lying equidistant from the cold, mountainous Hub and tropical Rim, Ankh-Morpork is in the Discworld's equivalent of the temperate zone.

Ankh-Morpork is built on black loam, but is built on itself. There are many unknown basements, including an entire "cave network" below Ankh-Morpork made up of old streets and abandoned sewers; the succession of the Patrician occurs by either assassination or revolution. Patricians have been known to resign, but this is much the exception. Power is, to some degree, shared with the surviving nobility, they form a sort of advisory city council, with a system of one man, one vote - the Patrician being the "one man" in question. The primary engines of Ankh-Morpork's economy are the guilds. There are hundreds of guilds, for every conceivable profession, from clowns to butchers, each has its own maintained laws and trading practices. Many guilds have assumed roles; the City Watch is one of the greatest success stories. In the beginning, it consisted of the Day Watch, popinjays headed by Captain "Mayonnaise" Quirke and the Night Watch, three unemployable men; the addition of Lance-Constable Carrot was the catalyst for their reformation over the course of the novel Guards!

Guards!. Over the course of time, the Watch has grown under the leadership of Commander Samuel Vimes to the most modern police force on the Disc; the Ankh-Morpork Assassins' Guild is a professional organisation and school for assassins in Terry Pratchett's long-running Discworld series of fantasy novels. It is located in Ankh-Morpork, the largest city on the Discworld, is considered by the elite to be the best option for a well-rounded education anywhere; the Guild of Assassins is located in a light, airy series of buildings next to the Guild of Fools and Joculators, being a far more sinister building, is mistaken for the Assassins'. The guild is headed by Lord Downey; the Assassins' Guild was founded on 27 August AM1512 by Sir Gyles de Munforte as the de Munforte School for Gentlemen Assassins. Sir Gyles was a warrior knight who, during his crusades in Klatch, was intrigued by the Klatchian tradition of professional gentleman assassins, decided to set up a similar organisation at home, only without the drugs.

In AM1576 the school was elevated to the status of a Guild and the name was changed to the Royal Guild of Assassins. The'Royal' was dropped after the'events' of AM1688. In response to huge demand among the aristocracy for their children to receive the well-rounded education the Guild offered, the Guild's charter was expanded to include those intending to gain skills in proper Assassination. For most of its history the Assassins Guild School was a male-only establishment, however it has become co-educational, it is said to be the only school of assassination on the Discworld. However, assassination began in Klatch, it is stated in Interesting Times that there is a small select guild in Hunghung, in the Agatean Empire; the Bell Tower houses the Inhumation Bell, which marks not only the hours but the successful completion of an assassin's contract. It tolls to mark the passing of assassins; the Bell Tower is topped by a weathervane in the shape of a cloaked man. The Cloister houses the busts and portraits of famous victims of the guild's various graduates, along with the date of death and the name of the Assassin with whose "assistance" they threw off their respective mortal coils.

The Museum contains many noted tools and traps, such as rigged teddy bears, used in successful killings. The Library is the largest in Ankh-Morpork outside that of Unseen University, though it surpasses the latter in "certain specialist areas". Pratchett describes the Assassins' Guild in The Art of Discworld as a typical British public school with the knobs turned up to eleven. Like a British public school, it is divided into houses named for a deadly animal; the most oft-mentioned is Viper House, though Scorpion, Tree Frog and Cobra Houses have been mentioned. A purely male institution, it has recognised female students as being at

Tactical light

A tactical light is a flashlight used in conjunction with a firearm to aid low-light target identification, allowing the marksman, law enforcement officer or soldier to aim a weapon and illuminate the target. Tactical lights can be mounted to the weapon with the light beam parallel to the bore. Tactical lights serve a role as a method of non-lethal force, used to temporarily blind and disorient targets or, in the case of a large metal Maglite with D batteries, police can use the flashlight as a billy club. Features associated with tactical lights include shock resistance, lightweight construction and powerful, long-lasting batteries, high light intensity. Tactical lights may have optional filters to produce colored light, or may emit only infrared radiation for use with night vision equipment. A sighting laser may be added to a weapon-mounted tactical light. Handheld lights are restricted to use with handguns, as long guns such as rifles and shotguns require two hands to operate. While just about any handheld flashlight can serve in the role of tactical light with the proper technique, some features are more adapted to the role.

Because the flashlight needs to be reliable and rugged, more expensive tactical flashlights are used by law enforcement officers and soldiers, rather than inexpensive consumer-grade units. Some manufacturers sell lights designed for use as handheld tactical lights. Police training programs in shooting while holding a flashlight date back to at least the 1930s. To use a handheld light as a tactical light, the handgun is held in one hand, the light in the other. There are a variety of positions that can be used to allow the light and handgun to be held parallel and provide mutual support, or the light can be held off to the side of the body to present a false target to a potential assailant. Since the weapon and light are not attached to each other, the light may be used to illuminate areas that may or may not contain a target, without pointing the weapon at the area. If a target is detected, the handgun can be brought into line to cover the target. A flashlight intended to be used in this way will have provisions for ease of use when used with a handgun.

Some models will have a narrow body and a ring designed to fit through the fingers, allowing the light to be used in a tight two handed grip on a handgun, with the switch controlled by pulling back with the fingers on the ring. More traditional models can be used as well; some flashlights feature a momentary on switch so that the light is turned off by releasing finger pressure on the button. Another useful feature is the ability to attach a lanyard to the light, allowing the light to be secured to the hand holding it. Police use large flashlights like the classic D cell Maglite, a sturdy metal unit which, when held can double as a billy club and as a tactical light; the flashlight is held with the back of the flashlight extending past the thumb. This allows the light to be reversed, swinging the back end of the light forward to strike the target or block a blow; the strong hand can be used to draw a sidearm, place the hands back to back to provide support and illumination in the firing position.

Smaller tactical flashlights have crown-like protrusions around the lens to enable its use as a weapon by hammerfist strike. Hand-held flashlights were introduced about 1900 with availability of dry cell batteries and incandescent light bulbs. Early bulbs were too fragile to survive the acceleration of firearm recoil. A United States patent was issued in 1912 for a night sight for firearms demonstrated on a revolver with a bulb mounted in a shock absorber below the barrel and the grip modified to hold a battery and include a pressure switch. Weapon-mounted lights offer hands-free use, leaving the operator free to use both hands to control the weapon. For rifles, two hands are needed to use the weapon. Most models have an on/off switch mounted on a short wire; the switch is mounted somewhere on the gun within easy reach of the firer's fingers. Weapon-mounted lights are most seen on rifles and submachine guns, but small tactical lights are becoming more common on handguns as well; these lights are much more expensive than the handheld lights, since they must be sufficiently robust to withstand the recoil of the firearm, the dedicated mounting hardware adds to the price.

One downside of the weapon-mounted light is that it is always aimed parallel to the bore, so illuminating an object means that it is targeted. Because of this, weapon-mounted lights may not be appropriate under some rules of engagement. Weapon-mounted lights used to be specific to particular models of firearm, to some extent, still true. On the other hand, many modern firearms are incorporating Picatinny rail systems, allowing any appropriately sized Picatinny compatible system to be attached. Other mounting systems are simple clamps, designed to mount most cylindrical lights parallel to the barrel of most firearms. Using an infrared light in conjunction with night vision goggles can mitigate concern about revealing the user, so long as the target lacks night vision. Mitigating this risk associated with a visible light tactical light is the ability of the tactical light user to temporarily disrupt the

Cannabis legislation proposals in the United States

Cannabis legislation proposals are legislative proposals which failed to make it into law. Below are lists, broken down into national jurisdictions, of proposed legislation regarding cannabis. Sensible Enforcement of Cannabis Act. Proposed 2019 legislation to protect cannabis businesses and consumers in states where cannabis has been legalized, into law. Like the REFER Act and STATES Act, this legislation would allow federal cannabis prohibition to remain in place in states where cannabis has not been legalized. CARERS Act. 2019 proposed U. S. legislation to allow states to set their own medical marijuana policies and permit doctors with the Department of Veterans Affairs to recommend medical cannabis to veterans to treat serious and chronic conditions. It was introduced in 2015, 2017, 2019. Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act. U. S. legislation to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act, transfer enforcement authority away from U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration and establish a nationally regulated industry under the oversight of the Food and Drug Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Marijuana and Explosives, Alcohol and Marijuana Tax and Trade Bureau.

The bill was numbered H. R. 420 in a nod to cannabis culture. Marijuana Opportunity Reinvestment and Expungement Act known as the MORE Act. 2019 legislation to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and tax cannabis products to create trust funds for justice projects. Marijuana Revenue and Regulation Act. 2019 U. S. legislation introduced by Oregon Sen. Ron Wyden and Rep. Earl Blumenauer to create a nationwide regulatory structure for legal cannabis; the legislation would remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act. Legality of cannabis List of 2018 United States cannabis reform proposals List of 2019 United States cannabis reform proposals