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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aniline

Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the simplest aromatic amine, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish, it ignites burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds. Aniline is a pyramidalized molecule, with hybridization of the nitrogen somewhere between sp3 and sp2; the amine is flatter than an aliphatic amine, owing to conjugation of the lone pair with the aryl substituent. Thus, the experimental geometry reflects a balance between the stabilization of lone pairs in orbitals with higher s character and better stabilization via conjugation with the aryl ring for an orbital of pure p character; the pyramidalization angle between the C–N bond and the bisector of the H–N–H angle is 142.5°. The C−N distance is correspondingly shorter. In aniline, the C−N and C−C distances are close to 1.39 Å, indicating the π-bonding between N and C.

Consistent with these factors, substituted anilines with electron donating groups are more pyramidalized, while those with electron withdrawing groups are more planar. Industrial aniline production involves two steps. First, benzene is nitrated with a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C to yield nitrobenzene; the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated in the presence of metal catalysts: The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline was first performed by Nikolay Zinin in 1842, using inorganic sulfide as a reductant. The reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline was performed as part of reductions by Antoine Béchamp in 1854, using iron as the reductant. Aniline can alternatively be prepared from phenol derived from the cumene process. In commerce, three brands of aniline are distinguished: aniline oil for blue, pure aniline. Many analogues of aniline are known; these include toluidines, chloroanilines, aminobenzoic acids and many others. They are prepared by nitration of the substituted aromatic compounds followed by reduction.

For example, this approach is used to convert toluene into toluidines and chlorobenzene into 4-chloroaniline. Alternatively, using Buchwald-Hartwig coupling or Ullmann reaction approaches, aryl halides can be aminated with aqueous or gaseous ammonia The chemistry of aniline is rich because the compound has been cheaply available for many years. Below are some classes of its reactions; the oxidation of aniline has been investigated, can result in reactions localized at nitrogen or more results in the formation of new C-N bonds. In alkaline solution, azobenzene results, whereas arsenic acid produces the violet-coloring matter violaniline. Chromic acid converts it into quinone, whereas chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts, give aniline black. Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene. Hypochlorous acid gives para-amino diphenylamine. Oxidation with persulfate affords a variety of polyanilines compounds.

These polymers exhibit rich acid-base properties. Like phenols, aniline derivatives are susceptible to electrophilic substitution reactions, its high reactivity reflects that it is an enamine, which enhances the electron-donating ability of the ring. For example, reaction of aniline with sulfuric acid at 180 °C produces sulfanilic acid, H2NC6H4SO3H. If bromine water is added to aniline, the bromine water is decolourised and a white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline is formed. To generate the mono-substituted product, a protection with acetyl chloride is required: The reaction to form 4-bromoaniline is to protect the amine with acetyl chloride hydrolyse back to reform aniline; the largest scale industrial reaction of aniline involves its alkylation with formaldehyde. An idealized equation is shown: 2 C6H5NH2 + CH2O → CH22 + H2OThe resulting diamine is the precursor to 4,4'-MDI and related diisocyanates. Aniline is a weak base. Aromatic amines such as aniline are, in general, much weaker bases than aliphatic amines.

Aniline reacts with strong acids to form anilinium ion. Traditionally, the weak basicity of aniline is attributed to a combination of inductive effect from the more electronegative sp2 carbon and resonance effects, as the lone pair on the nitrogen is delocalized into the pi system of the benzene ring.: Missing in such analysis is consideration of solvation. Aniline is, for example, more basic than ammonia in the gas phase, but ten thousand times less so in aqueous solution. Aniline reacts with acyl chlorides such as acetyl chloride to give amides; the amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example CH3-CO-NH-C6H5 is acetanilide. At high temperatures aniline and carboxylic acids react to give the anilides. N-Methylation of aniline with methanol at elevated temperatures over acid catalysts gives N-methylaniline and dimethylaniline: C6H5NH2 + 2 CH3OH → C6H5N2 + 2H2ON-Methylaniline and dimethylaniline are colorless liquids with boiling points of 193

Prunus fenzliana

Prunus fenzliana is a species of wild almond native to the Caucasus areas of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan, preferring to grow at 1400-3500 m above sea level. On the basis of morphology it has been long thought to be one of the wild species that contributed to the origin of the cultivated almond. Genetic testing of both nuclear and chloroplast DNA has confirmed that it is the closest relative of Prunus dulcis. Prunus fenzliana is a tall small tree reaching 4 m, it can be distinguished from its close relatives by a number of features, including having one-year-old twigs that are reddish on the side exposed to the sun, green elsewhere. The fruits start a mature to light tan; when mature the fruits, much like its domesticated counterpart, pop open to reveal the seed which can be up to 1 cm long and are bright pink

National Action (Australia)

National Action was a militant Australian white supremacist group founded in 1982 by Jim Saleam, a neo-Nazi activist, convicted criminal, former neo-Nazi David Greason. Saleam had been a member of the short-lived National Socialist Party of Australia as a teenager during the 1970s. Jim Saleam’s criminal convictions include property offenses and fraud in 1984 and being an accessory before the fact in regard to organising a shotgun attack in 1989 on African National Congress representative Eddie Funde. Saleam served jail terms for both crimes, he pleaded not guilty to both charges. The group was disbanded following the murder of a member, Wayne "Bovver" Smith, in the group's headquarters at Tempe. Saleam became NSW chairman of Australia First Party, stood as its endorsed candidate several times; the National Action co-founder David Greason's book, I was a Teenage Fascist, tells of Greason's own time within the Australian neo-Nazi movement and the events behind the founding of National Action. Australians Against Further Immigration Australia First Party Far-right politics in Australia Pauline Hanson's One Nation National Socialist Party of Australia Reclaim Australia Romper Stomper True Blue Crew United Patriots Front

Soho Roses

Soho Roses were a Glam punk rock band from London. They emerged from the British Glam scene along with Hanoi Rocks, The Dogs D'Amour, The Babysitters and The Quireboys. Soho Roses evolved from Post-punk Glam band The V2s, formed in 1986 by Andy ‘The Riff’ Socratous, guitarist of punk band The Dark; this formation rehearsed until they parted company with Mark ‘Boots’ Thomas and recruited Paul ‘Blittz’ Toombs. Andy ‘The Riff’ left after recording a demo. With the departure of Andy Riff, the band was re-named Soho Roses; the sound developed with Andy J. Davies’ trashy, Rock n roll guitar taking centre stage, underpinned with Joolz's melodic bass playing. After shows on the London circuit, Soho Roses formed a self-financed record company and released their debut 12” 4-track EP titled Whatever happened To; the EP was recorded and mixed in two days with engineer and producer Colin Leggett at Carlton Studios, Bedford, UK in June 1987. Soho Roses' attitude at the time was summed up when budget constraints forced the decision to either remix the EP or release it on pink vinyl.

The band chose a shocking pink vinyl release. The record marked their commitment to the sprit of'Trashy, Glam' with D. I. Y, punk ethics; the EP bucked the trend for a'Heavy Rock/ Metal Glam' sound, current at time, for a more sleazy rock'n' roll vibe with an emphasis on catchy tunes. This brought the Soho Roses both praise and derision. Both of which the band revelled in. Although they were given enthusiastic reviews, journalists struggled to categorise them. In an interview with Chris Welch in Kerrang! magazine January 1988 they explain how they did not mind being called'Glam' but because they did not lean too on ballads they preferred to be called'Trash'. Whatever Happened To sold out of its initial pressing and was championed by influential British rock magazines Kerrang! and Metal Hammer. Kim Fowley, manager of The Runaways, expressed an interest in the band. With U. K. live performances and reviews with Sounds, Metal Hammer, the band's popularity increased in the UK Glam Rock scene. The band did several shows at the Marquee Club.

On the strength of the buzz created, a follow up single "So Alone" was recorded in the spring of 1988 at Oasis Studios and Unit 3 studios in Camden and was released late summer that year. The success of Whatever happened To EP and subsequent live shows led to further coverage in the form of interviews and reviews in the UK music press. Following a gig supporting Teenage Idols at the Marquee Club in 1988 Steevi Jaimz of Tigertailz punched a member of Soho Roses' entourage, triggering a notorious fight that resulted in Jaimz being ejected from the club; the press recognised a rebelliously comical undertone to this story. The band played at the 1998 Metal Hammer Xmas party at the London Astoria where Paul appeared on MTV. So Alone was recorded in spring of 1988 at Oasis Studios and Unit 3 studios in Camden and released on their label Trash Can Records of London in August 1988, again with engineer and producer Colin Leggett, presented a more'polished, tighter sound, demonstrating how the band was evolving without compromising their trashy aesthetic."So Alone" received the accolade of'single the century' from Metal Hammer's Mark Day.

Strangely, it received two reviews in this magazine. Fan loyalty meant it appeared in the'Reader's Chart' of that magazine in August and October 1988. Due to the rise of the American glam scene and differences in opinion regarding direction, in early 1989 Joolz announced that he wanted to leave the band triggering the mutual decision to split. In June 1989, days after a chaotic, swan song, sell-out gig at the Marquee Club, the band recorded The Third and Final Insult album; this album was recorded by Andy Le Vien at RMS studios South Norwood London in 23.5 hrs from walking into the studio to walking out with the finished product. It was released in the UK late Autumn 1989 and was re-released in 2007 in an American retrospective package called Whatever Happened to... The Complete Works of Soho Roses; this was a special package release by American label Full Breach Kicks and included the total Soho Roses back catalogue including remixes of the So Alone EP from the original multi track recordings by guitarist Andy J. Davies who has become a respected figure in the underground punk world.

As fashionable LA bands such as Guns N' Roses and Poison increased in popularity in the UK, Soho Roses remained committed to their classic Glam Metal Punk influences like New York Dolls and Sex Pistols. As the 1980s came to a close their distinctive punk sound was falling out of fashion, which increased their authenticity. Soho Roses are influential and are still fondly remembered in the UK underground rock scene for their DIY attitude and playing the music they wanted to, they escaped the Glam backlash by splitting while they were still respected, making their legacy durable. This attitude continued with each member's post Soho Roses career. Joolz joined The Wildhearts from August 1989 to mid 1991. Pat spent time in The Wildhearts from early 1990 to October 1991. On both Joolz and Pat played in Guns n' Wankers, who released the album For Dancing and Listening on Fat Wreck Chords in 1994; the band's name was intended as a reference to their no nonsense role in the glam rock scene while other bands became corporate and insincere.

Paul joined. Andy went on to produce and play in various bands and work as a prod

Matching person and technology model

The matching person and technology model is an organizational framework to assess and recommend successful use of a variety of assistive technologies for people with disabilities: educational technology, those used in the workplace, home. Specialized devices for hearing loss, speech and cognition as well as general or everyday technologies are included. Research shows that although a technology may appear perfect for a given need, it may be used inappropriately or go unused when critical personality preferences, psychosocial characteristics or needed environmental support are not considered; the use and non-use of technology as conceptualized in the Matching person and technology model has been validated by many researchers and authors representing the fields of occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech language pathology and others. The matching person and technology model is operationalized by a series of reliable and valid measures that provide a person-centered and individualized approach to matching individuals with the most appropriate technologies for their use.

The matching person & technology model and measures were developed by Marcia J. Scherer beginning in 1986. Initial worksheet for the matching person and technology model—to determine initial goals, potential interventions, technologies needed to support attainment of the goals. History of support use—identifies supports used in the past and satisfaction with those supports. Specific technology matching: General—survey of technology use Assistive—assistive technology device predisposition assessment, cognitive support technology predisposition assessment and hearing technology predisposition assessment Educational—educational technology device predisposition assessment Workplace—workplace technology device predisposition assessment Healthcare—healthcare technology device predisposition assessment Follow-up versions of the measures to determine degree of use, comparison of expected benefit and realization of benefit and change in functioning and subjective well-being. Lazy user model Technology acceptance model Technology adoption lifecycle GeneralCook, A.

M. and Hussey, S.. Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. Publisher: Mosby: ISBN 0-323-00643-4. de Jonge, D. Scherer, M. & Rodger, S.. Assistive Technology in the Workplace. St. Louis, MO: Mosby: ISBN 0-323-04130-2. Judge, S. L. & Parette, H. P.. Assistive Technology for Young Children with Disabilities: A Guide to Family-Centered Services. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books: ISBN 1-57129-051-6. Lasker, J. P & Bedrosian, J. L.. Promoting acceptance of augmentative and alternative communication by adults with acquired communication disorders. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 17, 141–53. Scherer, M. J.. Living in the State of Stuck: How Assistive Technology Impacts the Lives of People with Disabilities, Fourth Edition. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books: ISBN 1-57129-098-2. Scherer, M. J.. Connecting to Learn: Educational and Assistive Technology for People with Disabilities. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books: ISBN 1-55798-982-6. Scherer, M. J... Assistive Technology: Matching Device and Consumer for Successful Rehabilitation.

Washington, DC: APA Books: ISBN 1-55798-840-4. Scherer, MJ & Sax, C.. Measures of assistive technology use. In E. Mpofu & T. Oakland, Assessment in Rehabilitation and Health. Boston: Allyn & Bacon: ISBN 0-205-50174-5. Kirsch, N. L. & Scherer, M. J.. Assistive technology for cognition and behavior. In R. G. Frank, M. Rosenthal & B. Caplan, Handbook of Rehabilitation Psychology, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: APA Books: ISBN 1-55798-644-4. Scherer, M. J. Sax, C. Vanbeirvliet, A. Cushman, L. A. & Scherer, J. V.. Predictors of assistive technology use: The importance of personal and psychosocial factors. Disability & Rehabilitation, 27, 1321–1331. Scherer, M. J.. Values in the creation and use of technological aids and assistive devices for people with physical disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, final report to the National Science Foundation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 49.. Trish Wielandt, T. Mckenna, K. Tooth, L. & Strong, J.. Factors that predict the post-discharge use of recommended assistive technology.

Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 1, 29 – 40. Specific Matching Person & Technology Homepage Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America

Egg jelly

Egg jelly is a gelatinous layer that surrounds the oocytes of many organisms and releases species-specific chemoattractants that activate and guide sperm to the oocyte. The egg jelly is located surrounding the vitelline envelope and consists of a network of short peptides and sulfated fucan glycoproteins; these short peptides diffuse into the surrounding area and stimulate respiration and movement of the sperm to the egg. An example of such a peptide is resact, studied as the primary means of attracting and orientating sperm to the eggs in sea urchins; the sulfated fucan glycoproteins play an important role in binding to sperm receptors and triggering the acrosomal reaction. Many other functions for the egg jelly have been proposed including sperm agglomeration, protection from mechanical stress and polyspermy, increasing the size of the egg to improve its chances of colliding with sperm. In addition to the sea urchin, egg jelly appears in many species including invertebrates and mammals, can vary in composition and complexity from the homogenous single layer sea urchin egg to the three layer egg jelly in starfish.

Sperm guidance Acrosome reaction Oocyte