Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. That is, animals have the right to be treated as the individuals they are, with their own desires and needs, rather than as unfeeling property, its advocates oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone—an idea known since 1970 as speciesism, when the term was coined by Richard D. Ryder—arguing that it is a prejudice as irrational as any other, they maintain that animals should no longer be viewed as property or used as food, research subjects, entertainment, or beasts of burden. Multiple cultural traditions around the world such as Jainism, Hinduism, Buddhism and Animism espouse some forms of animal rights. In parallel to the debate about moral rights, animal law is now taught in law schools in North America, several prominent legal scholars, such as Steven M. Wise and Gary L. Francione, support the extension of basic legal rights and personhood to non-human animals.
The animals most considered in arguments for personhood are hominoids. This is supported by some animal rights academics because it would break through the species barrier, but opposed by others because it predicates moral value on mental complexity, rather than on sentience alone; as of November 2019, 29 countries have enacted bans on hominoid experimentation, Argentina has granted a captive orangutan basic human rights since 2014. Critics of animal rights argue that nonhuman animals are unable to enter into a social contract, thus cannot be possessors of rights, a view summed up by the philosopher Roger Scruton, who writes that only humans have duties, therefore only humans have rights. Another argument, associated with the utilitarian tradition, is that animals may be used as resources so long as there is no unnecessary suffering. Certain forms of animal rights activism, such as the destruction of fur farms and animal laboratories by the Animal Liberation Front, have attracted criticism, including from within the animal rights movement itself, as well as prompted reaction from the U.
S. Congress with the enactment of laws allowing these activities to be prosecuted as terrorism, including the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act. Aristotle stated that animals lacked reason, placed humans at the top of the natural world, yet the respect for animals in ancient Greece was high; some animals were considered e.g. dolphins. In the Book of Genesis 1:26, Adam is given "dominion over the fish of the sea, over the fowl of the air, over the cattle, over all the earth, over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." Dominion need not entail property rights, but it has been interpreted, by some, over the centuries to imply ownership. Contemporary philosopher Bernard Rollin writes that "dominion does not entail or allow abuse any more than does dominion a parent enjoys over a child." Rollin further states that the Biblical Sabbath requirement promulgated in the Ten Commandments "required that animals be granted a day of rest along with humans. Correlatively, the Bible forbids'plowing with an ox and an ass together'.
According to the rabbinical tradition, this prohibition stems from the hardship that an ass would suffer by being compelled to keep up with an ox, which is, of course, far more powerful. One finds the prohibition against'muzzling an ox when it treads out the grain', an environmental prohibition against destroying trees when besieging a city; these ancient regulations forgotten, bespeak of an eloquent awareness of the status of animals as ends in themselves", a point corroborated by Norm Phelps. The philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras urged respect for animals, believing that human and nonhuman souls were reincarnated from human to animal, vice versa. Against this, student to the philosopher Plato, said that nonhuman animals had no interests of their own, ranking them far below humans in the Great Chain of Being, he was the first to create a taxonomy of animals. Theophrastus, one of Aristotle's pupils, argued that animals had reasoning and opposed eating meat on the grounds that it robbed them of life and was therefore unjust.
Theophrastus did not prevail. Plutarch in his Life of Cato the Elder comments that while law and justice are applicable to men only and charity towards beasts is characteristic of a gentle heart; this is intended as a correction and advance over the utilitarian treatment of animals and slaves by Cato himself. Tom Beauchamp writes that the most extensive account in antiquity of how animals should be treated was written by the Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry, in his On Abstinence from Animal Food, On Abstinence from Killing Animals. According to Richard D. Ryder, the first known animal protection leg
Tales of the Black Widowers is a collection of mystery short stories by American author Isaac Asimov, featuring his fictional club of mystery solvers, the Black Widowers. It was first published in hardcover by Doubleday in June 1974, in paperback by the Fawcett Crest imprint of Ballantine Books in August 1976; the first British edition was issued by Panther in 1976. The book has been translated into German; this book is the first of six that describe mysteries solved by the Black Widowers, based on a literary dining club he belonged to known as the Trap Door Spiders. It collects twelve stories by Asimov, nine reprinted from mystery magazines and three unpublished, together with a general introduction, an afterword following each story by the author; each story involves the club members' knowledge of trivia. "The Acquisitive Chuckle" "Ph as in Phony" "Truth to Tell" "Go, Little Book!" "Early Sunday Morning" "The Obvious Factor" "The Pointing Finger" "Miss What?" "The Lullaby of Broadway" "Yankee Doodle Went to Town" "The Curious Omission" "Out of Sight" Tales of the Black Widowers title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Tales of the Black Widowers at Open Library
Stuart Island is one of the Discovery Islands of British Columbia, which lie between northern Vancouver Island and the British Columbia Coast. It is owned and has no ferry access, it is situated at the mouth of Bute Inlet to the east of the larger Sonora Island within Electoral Area C of the Strathcona Regional District. The island, Bute Inlet, were named for John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762 to 1763; the island is home to exclusive fishing lodges and large private estates. Most of the visitors arrive by float helicopter. Nanook Lodge is the only fishing/adventure lodge open to the public on Stuart Island and has scheduled daily seaplane service from Seattle. Among the property owners on this island is Dennis Washington, a Montana businessman and owner of the Seaspan Marine Corporation, Dave Ritchie, a Vancouver businessman and Kris Mailman, Owner and CEO of Seymour Pacific Developments and Broadstreet Properties. On his estate Dennis Washington has blasted out of the granite a 9-hole golf course.