Hartlepool is a town in County Durham, England. The town lies on the North Sea coast, 7 1⁄2 miles north of Middlesbrough and 17 miles south of Sunderland; the town is governed as part of the Borough of Hartlepool, a unitary authority which controls outlying villages such as Seaton Carew and Elwick. Hartlepool was founded around the monastery of Hartlepool Abbey; the village grew in the Middle Ages and its harbour served as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham. After a railway link from the north was established from the South Durham coal fields, an additional link from the south, in 1835, together with a new port, resulted in further expansion, with the new town of West Hartlepool. Industrialisation and the start of a shipbuilding industry in the part of the 19th century caused Hartlepool to be a target for the Imperial German Navy at the beginning of the First World War. A bombardment of 1,150 shells on 16 December 1914 resulted in the death of 117 people. A severe decline in heavy industries and shipbuilding following the Second World War caused periods of high unemployment until the 1990s when major investment projects and the redevelopment of the docks area into a marina saw a rise in the town's prospects.
The place name derives from Old English heort, referring to stags seen, pōl, a pool of drinking water which they were known to use. Records of the place-name from early sources confirm this: 649: Hereteu. 1017: Herterpol, or Hertelpolle. 1182: Hierdepol. The 8th Century Northumbrian chronicler Bede referred to the spot on which today's town is sited upon as "the place where deer come to drink", in this period the Headland was named by the Angles as Heruteu. At the beginning of the 11th Century the name had evolved into Herterpol, post Norman Conquest the name of the village sited there evolved in Middle English as: Hart-le-pool. Archaeological evidence has been found below the current high tide mark that indicates that an ancient post-glacial forest by the sea existed in the area during this period. Hartlepool is located in north of Middlesbrough and south of Sunderland. Nearby towns and cities include: Billingham: Darlington; the monument at Eston Nab can be seen, to the south. After the Roman Empire abandoned its province of Britannia in the early 5th Century, its North-Eastern sea coast began to be piratically raided by the Angles from across the North Sea in Scandinavia.
They subsequently began crossing the North Sea and settled in the area, creating the Kingdom of Northumbria. Hartlepool began as an Anglian settlement, a town developed in the 7th Century A. D. sited around Hartlepool Abbey, founded in 640 A. D. by the Irish Christian priest Saint Aidan upon a headland overlooking a natural harbour and the North Sea. The monastery became powerful under St Hilda, who served as its abbess from 649–657 A. D; the Abbey fell into decline with the loss of Northumbrian power in the early 8th Century, it was destroyed during a sea raid by Vikings on Hartlepool in the 9th Century. In March 2000, the archaeological investigation television programme Time Team located the foundations of the lost monastery in the grounds of St Hilda's Church. During the Norman Conquest the De Brus family gained over-lordship of the land surrounding Hartlepool. William the Conqueror subsequently ordered the construction of Durham Castle, the villages under their rule were mentioned in records in 1153 when Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale became Lord of Hartness.
The town's first charter was received before 1185, for which it gained its first mayor, an annual two-week fair and a weekly market. By the Middle Ages Hartlepool was growing into an important market town, one of the reasons for its escalating wealth being that its harbour was serving now as the official port of the County Palatine of Durham; the main industry of the town at this time was fishing, Hartlepool in this period established itself as one of the primary ports upon England's Eastern coast. In 1306, Robert the Bruce was crowned King of Scotland, became the last Lord of Hartness. Angered, King Edward I confiscated the title to Hartlepool, began to improve the town's military defences in expectation of war. In 1315, before they were completed, a Scottish army under Sir James Douglas attacked and looted the town. In the late 15th Century a pier was constructed to assist in the harbour's workload. Hartlepool was once again militarily occupied by a Scottish incursion, this time in alliance with the Parliamentary Army during the English Civil War, which after 18 months was relieved by an English Parliamentarian garrison.
In 1795 Hartlepool artillery emplacements and defences were constructed in the town as a defensive measure against the threat of French attack from seaborne Napoleonic forces. During the Crimean War two coastal batteries were constructed close together in the town to guard against the threat of seaborne attacks from the Imperial Russian Navy, they were entitled the Lighthouse Battery and the Heugh Battery. Hartlepool in the 18th Century became known as a town with medicinal springs the Chalybeate Spa near the Westgate; the poet Thomas Gray visited the town in July 1765 to "take the waters", wrote to his friend Dr. Wharton: A few weeks he wrote in greater detail: By the early nineteenth century, Hartlepool was still a small town of around 900 people, with a de
The killer whale or orca is a toothed whale belonging to the oceanic dolphin family, of which it is the largest member. Killer whales have a diverse diet, although individual populations specialize in particular types of prey; some feed on fish, while others hunt marine mammals such as seals and other species of dolphin. They have been known to attack baleen whale calves, adult whales. Killer whales are apex predators. A cosmopolitan species, they can be found in each of the world's oceans in a variety of marine environments, from Arctic and Antarctic regions to tropical seas, absent only from the Baltic and Black seas, some areas of the Arctic Ocean. Killer whales are social, their sophisticated hunting techniques and vocal behaviours, which are specific to a particular group and passed across generations, have been described as manifestations of animal culture. The International Union for Conservation of Nature assesses the orca's conservation status as data deficient because of the likelihood that two or more killer whale types are separate species.
Some local populations are considered threatened or endangered due to prey depletion, habitat loss, capture for marine mammal parks, conflicts with human fisheries. In late 2005, the southern resident killer whales, which swim in British Columbia and Washington state waters, were placed on the U. S. Endangered Species list. Wild killer whales are not considered a threat to humans, but there have been cases of captive orcas killing or injuring their handlers at marine theme parks. Killer whales feature in the mythologies of indigenous cultures, with their reputation ranging from being the souls of humans to merciless killers. Orcinus orca is the only recognized extant species in the genus Orcinus, one of many animal species described by Linnaeus in 1758 in Systema Naturae. Konrad Gessner wrote the first scientific description of a killer whale in his Piscium & aquatilium animantium natura of 1558, part of the larger Historia animalium, based on examination of a dead stranded animal in the Bay of Greifswald that had attracted a great deal of local interest.
The killer whale is one of 35 species in the oceanic dolphin family, which first appeared about 11 million years ago. The killer whale lineage branched off shortly thereafter. Although it has morphological similarities with the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale and the pilot whales, a study of cytochrome b gene sequences by Richard LeDuc indicated that its closest extant relatives are the snubfin dolphins of the genus Orcaella. Although the term "orca" is used, English-speaking scientists most use the traditional name "killer whale". Indeed, the genus name Orcinus means "of the kingdom of the dead", or "belonging to Orcus". Ancient Romans used orca for these animals borrowing Greek ὄρυξ, which referred to a whale species. Since the 1960s, "orca" has grown in popularity; the term "orca" is euphemistically preferred by some to avoid the negative connotations of "killer", because, being part of the family Delphinidae, the species is more related to other dolphins than to whales. They are sometimes referred to as "blackfish", a name used for other whale species.
"Grampus" is a former name for the species, but is now used. This meaning of "grampus" should not be confused with the genus Grampus, whose only member is Risso's dolphin; the three to five types of killer whales may be distinct enough to be considered different races, subspecies, or even species. The IUCN reported in 2008, "The taxonomy of this genus is in need of review, it is that O. orca will be split into a number of different species or at least subspecies over the next few years." Although large variation in the ecological distinctiveness of different killer whale groups complicate simple differentiation into types, research off the west coast of Canada and the United States in the 1970s and 1980s identified the following three types: Resident: These are the most sighted of the three populations in the coastal waters of the northeast Pacific. Residents' diets consist of fish and sometimes squid, they live in complex and cohesive family groups called pods. Female residents characteristically have rounded dorsal fin tips.
They visit the same areas consistently. British Columbia and Washington resident populations are amongst the most intensively studied marine mammals anywhere in the world. Researchers have named over 300 killer whales over the past 30 years. Transient: The diets of these whales consist exclusively of marine mammals. Transients travel in small groups of two to six animals, have less persistent family bonds than residents. Transients vocalize in less complex dialects. Female transients are characterized by more triangular and pointed dorsal fins than those of residents; the gray or white area around the dorsal fin, known as the "saddle patch" contains some black colouring in residents. However, the saddle patches of transients are uniformly gray. Transients roam along the coast. Transients are referred to as Bigg's killer whale in honor of cetologist Michael Bigg; the term has become common and may replace the transient label. Offshore: A third population of killer whales in the northeast Pacific was discovered in 1988, when a humpback whale researcher ob
Animal testing known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. This approach can be contrasted with field studies in which animals are observed in their natural environments or habitats. Experimental research with animals is conducted in universities, medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, defense establishments and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry; the focus of animal testing varies on a continuum from pure research, focusing on developing fundamental knowledge of an organism, to applied research, which may focus on answering some question of great practical importance, such as finding a cure for a disease. Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing. In education, animal testing is sometimes a component of psychology courses.
The practice is regulated to varying degrees in different countries. It is estimated that the annual use of vertebrate animals—from zebrafish to non-human primates—ranges from tens to more than 100 million. In the European Union, vertebrate species represent 93% of animals used in research, 11.5 million animals were used there in 2011. By one estimate the number of mice and rats used in the United States alone in 2001 was 80 million. Mice, fish and reptiles together account for over 85% of research animals. Most animals are euthanized after being used in an experiment. Sources of laboratory animals vary between species. Supporters of the use of animals in experiments, such as the British Royal Society, argue that every medical achievement in the 20th century relied on the use of animals in some way; the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the United States National Academy of Sciences has argued that animal research cannot be replaced by sophisticated computer models, which are unable to deal with the complex interactions between molecules, tissues, organs and the environment.
Animal rights organizations—such as PETA and BUAV—question the need for and legitimacy of animal testing, arguing that it is cruel and poorly regulated, that medical progress is held back by misleading animal models that cannot reliably predict effects in humans, that some of the tests are outdated, that the costs outweigh the benefits, or that animals have the intrinsic right not to be used or harmed in experimentation. The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, vivisection have similar denotations but different connotations. "vivisection" means the "cutting up" of a living animal, referred only to experiments that involved the dissection of live animals. The term is used to refer pejoratively to any experiment using living animals; the word has a negative connotation, implying torture and death. The word "vivisection" is preferred by those opposed to this research, whereas scientists use the term "animal experimentation"; the earliest references to animal testing are found in the writings of the Greeks in the 2nd and 4th centuries BC.
Aristotle and Erasistratus were among the first to perform experiments on living animals. Galen, a 2nd-century Roman physician, dissected goats. Avenzoar, a 12th-century Arabic physician in Moorish Spain practiced dissection. Animals have been used through the history of biomedical research. In 1831, the founders of the Dublin Zoo were members of the medical profession who were interested in studying animals while they were alive and when they were dead. In the 1880s, Louis Pasteur convincingly demonstrated the germ theory of medicine by inducing anthrax in sheep. In the 1880s, Robert Koch infected mice and guinea pigs with tuberculosis. In the 1890s, Ivan Pavlov famously used dogs to describe classical conditioning. In World War I, German agents infected sheep bound for Russia with anthrax, inoculated mules and horses of the French cavalry with the equine glanders disease. Between 1917 and 1918, the Germans infected mules in Argentina bound for American forces, resulting in the death of 200 mules.
Insulin was first isolated from dogs in 1922, revolutionized the treatment of diabetes. On 3 November 1957, a Soviet dog, became the first of many animals to orbit the earth. In the 1970s, antibiotic treatments and vaccines for leprosy were developed using armadillos given to humans; the ability of humans to change the genetics of animals took a large step forwards in 1974 when Rudolf Jaenisch was able to produce the first transgenic mammal, by integrating DNA from the SV40 virus into the genome of mice. This genetic research progressed and, in 1996, Dolly the sheep was born, the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell. Toxicology testing became important in the 20th century. In the 19th century, laws regulating drugs were more relaxed. For example, in the U. S. the government could only ban a drug after a company had been prosecuted for selling products that harmed custome
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae. Pigs include the domestic pig and its ancestor, the common Eurasian wild boar, along with other species. Related creatures outside the genus include the peccary, the babirusa, the warthog. Pigs, like all suids, are native to the African continents. Juvenile pigs are known as piglets. Pigs are social and intelligent animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is among the most populous large mammals in the world. Pigs can consume a wide range of food. Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus used for human medical research; the Online Etymology Dictionary provides anecdotal evidence as well as linguistic, saying that the term derives from Old English *picg, found in compounds, ultimate origin unknown. "young pig". Related to Low German bigge, Dutch big.... Another Old English word for "pig" was fearh, related to furh "furrow," from PIE *perk- "dig, furrow". "This reflects a widespread IE tendency to name animals from typical attributes or activities".
Synonyms grunter, oinker are from sailors' and fishermen's euphemistic avoidance of uttering the word pig at sea, a superstition based on the fate of the Gadarene swine, who drowned. The Online Etymology Dictionary traces the evolution of sow, the term for a female pig, through various historical languages: Old English sugu, su "female of the swine," from Proto-Germanic *su-, from PIE root *su- imitative of pig noise, it is likely that the word to call pigs, "soo-ie," is derived. An adjectival form is porcine. Another adjectival form is suine. A typical pig has a large head with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage at the tip; the snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a acute sense organ. There are four hoofed toes on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground; the dental formula of adult pigs is 18.104.22.168.1.4.3. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male, the canine teeth form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other.
Captive mother pigs may savage their own piglets if they become stressed. Some attacks on newborn piglets are non-fatal. Others may cause the death of the piglets and sometimes, the mother may eat the piglets, it is estimated that 50% of piglet fatalities are due to the mother attacking, or unintentionally crushing, the newborn pre-weaned animals. With around 1 billion individuals alive at any time, the domestic pig is one of the most numerous large mammals on the planet; the ancestor of the domestic pig is the wild boar, one of the most numerous and widespread large mammals. Its many subspecies are native to all but the harshest climates of continental Eurasia and its islands and Africa as well, from Ireland and India to Japan and north to Siberia. Long isolated from other pigs on the many islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, pigs have evolved into many different species, including wild boar, bearded pigs, warty pigs. Humans have introduced pigs into Australia and South America, numerous islands, either accidentally as escaped domestic pigs which have gone feral, or as wild boar.
The wild pig can take advantage of any forage resources. Therefore, it can live in any productive habitat that can provide enough water to sustain large mammals such as pigs. If there is increased foraging of wild pigs in certain areas, it can cause a nutritional shortage which can cause the pig population to decrease. If the nutritional state returns to normal, the pig population will most rise due to the pigs' increased reproduction rate. Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both animals. In the wild, they are foraging animals eating leaves, roots and flowers, in addition to some insects and fish; as livestock, pigs are fed corn and soybean meal with a mixture of vitamins and minerals added to the diet. Traditionally, they were raised on dairy farms and called "mortgage lifters", due to their ability to use the excess milk as well as whey from cheese and butter making combined with pasture. Older pigs will consume three to five gallons of water per day; when kept as pets, the optimal healthy diet consists of a balanced diet of raw vegetables, although some may give their pigs conventional mini pig pellet feed.
Domesticated pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets. Domestic pigs are raised commercially as livestock; because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Both wild and feral pigs are hunted; the short, coarse hairs of the pig are called brist
In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission and is done with the intention of not returning. In contrast, unauthorized absence or absence without leave refers to a temporary absence. In the United States Army, United States Air Force, British Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force, New Zealand Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, military personnel will become "AWOL" or "AWL" if absent from their post without a valid pass, liberty or leave; the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard refer to this as "unauthorized absence" or "UA". Personnel are dropped from their unit rolls after thirty days and listed as deserters. S. military law, desertion is not measured by time away from the unit, but rather: by leaving or remaining absent from their unit, organization, or place of duty, where there has been a determined intent to not return. People who are away for more than thirty days but return voluntarily or indicate a credible intent to return may still be considered AWOL.
Those who are away for fewer than thirty days but can credibly be shown to have no intent to return may be tried for desertion. On rare occasions, they may be tried for treason. Missing movement is another term used to describe when members of the armed forces fail to arrive at the appointed time to deploy with their assigned unit, ship, or aircraft. In the United States Armed Forces, this is a violation of the Article 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice; the offense may draw more severe punishment. Failure to repair consists of missing a formation or failing to appear at an assigned place and time when so ordered, it is a lesser offense within article 86 of the UCMJ. During World War I, the Australian Government refused to allow members of the First Australian Imperial Force to be executed for desertion, despite pressure from the British Government and military to do so; the AIF had the highest rate of soldiers going absent without leave of any of the national contingents in the British Expeditionary Force, the proportion of soldiers who deserted was higher than that of other forces on the Western Front in France.
In 2011, Vienna decided to honour Austrian Wehrmacht deserters. In 2014, on October, 24th a Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice was inaugurated on Vienna's Ballhausplatz by Austria's President Heinz Fischer; the monument was created by German artist Olaf Nicolai and is located opposite the President's office and the Austrian Chancellery. The inscription on top of the three step sculpture features a poem by Scottish poet Ian Hamilton Finlay with just two words: all alone. During WWI 600 French soldiers were executed for desertion. During the First World War, only 18 Germans who deserted were executed. In contrast of the Germans who deserted the Wehrmacht, 15,000 men were executed. In June 1988 the Initiative for the Creation of a Memorial to Deserters came to life in Ulm. A central idea was, "Desertion is not reprehensible, war is". During WWI a total of 28 New Zealand soldiers were sentenced to death for desertion; these soldiers were posthumously pardoned in 2000 through the Pardon for Soldiers of the Great War Act.
Those who deserted before reaching the front were imprisoned in what were claimed to be harsh conditions. Order No. 270, dated August 16, 1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin. The order required superiors to shoot deserters on the spot, their family members were subjected to arrest. Order No. 227, dated July 28, 1942, directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear. Many Soviet soldier deserters of the Soviet War in Afghanistan explain their reasons for desertion as political and in response to internal disorganization and disillusionment regarding their position in the war. Analyses of desertion rates argue that motivations were far less ideological than individual accounts claim. Desertion rates increased prior to announcements of upcoming operations, were highest during the summer and winter. Seasonal desertions were a response to the harsh weather conditions of the winter and immense field work required in the summer.
A significant jump in desertion in 1989 when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan may suggest a higher concern regarding returning home, rather than an overall opposition towards the war itself. In the beginning of the Soviet invasion, the majority of Soviet forces were soldiers of Central Asian republics; the Soviets believed that shared ideologies between Muslim Central Asians and Afghan soldiers would build trust and morale within the army. However, Central Asians' longstanding historical frustrations with Moscow degraded soldiers' willingness to fight for the Red Army; as Afghan desertion grew and Soviet opposition was strengthened within Afghanistan, the Soviet plan overtly backfired. The personal histories of Central Asian ethnic groups – between Pashtuns and Tajiks, caused tension within the Soviet military. Non-Russian ethnic groups related the situation in Afghanistan to Communist takeover of their own states' forced induction into the USSR
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect bipedal locomotion. Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 years ago. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago, in several waves of migration, they ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world; the spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, problem solving and culture through social learning.
Humans use tools better than any other animal. Humans uniquely use such systems of symbolic communication as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an wide variety of values, social norms, rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, mythology, religion and numerous other fields of knowledge. Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization; these human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, unifying people within regions to form states and empires.
The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of fuel-driven technologies and increased lifespans, causing the human population to rise exponentially. The global human population was estimated to be near 7.7 billion in 2015. In common usage, the word "human" refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans; the clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. There is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species; the English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man."
The word's use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex; the species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō "man," "earthly being"; the species-name "sapiens" means "wise" or "sapient". Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, that "sapiens" is the singular form; the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas. With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated; the gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the line leading to the h