American Dad! is an American animated sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane, Mike Barker and Matt Weitzman on Fox. American Dad! is the first television series to have its inception on Animation Domination. The series premiered on February 6, 2005, following Super Bowl XXXIX, three months before the rest of the first season aired as part of the Animation Domination block, commencing on May 1, 2005. Creative direction of American Dad! has been guided by Barker and Weitzman as opposed to MacFarlane, resulting in a series, different from its counterparts. Unlike MacFarlane's other shows, Family Guy and The Cleveland Show, American Dad! does not lean as on the use of cutaway gags, is less concerned with conventional "setup-punchline" jokes, instead deriving its humor from the quirky characters, the relationships between family members, the relatable plots. The show is not as heavy on pop cultural allusions and cutaway gags as MacFarlane's Family Guy, is more concerned with telling stories while maintaining the integrity and realism of the family members.
While the core issues and resolutions are relatable in most episodes, the show nonetheless weaves in fantastical elements, pitching the tone of the show somewhere between observational comedy and farce. The plots are absurd, but they are grounded by family stories and real-world issues. American Dad! has been nominated for numerous awards, most prominently four Primetime Emmy Awards and two Annie Awards. In June 2013, it was awarded as top television series by the American Society of Composers and Publishers. Since its debut, American Dad! has broadcast 256 episodes. The total number of seasons and organization of episodes within these seasons are in dispute because of a discrepancy in how official sources report this information. One model suggests the first season of American Dad! Comprises the first 7 episodes, while another model suggests the first season comprises 23 episodes. Beginning on October 20, 2014, TBS picked up the series for the 12th season following the final 3 episodes airing on Fox as the 11th season.
American Dad!'s 16th season will premiere on April 15, 2019. As of April 2019, TBS renewed the series for a 17th season; the series focuses on the eccentric upper middle class Smith family in the fictional community of Langley Falls and their three housemates: Father, husband, CIA Agent and breadwinner Stan. There are three additional main characters, including Hayley's boyfriend and husband, Jeff Fischer. Stan's boss Avery Bullock, the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, is a recurring character; the voice actors are not assembled as a group. The voice actors have stated that because of their personalities and tendency to goof off when together as a group, they would never get anything completed if they performed their lines collectively. American Dad! Centers on the absurd circumstances and domestic life of its title character Stan Smith, his immediate family, their three housemates. Adding to all the ridiculousness and absurdity are the various personality traits of all the show's eccentric main characters, listed as follows: Seth MacFarlane voices Stan Smith and Roger Wendy Schaal voices Francine Smith Scott Grimes voices Steve Smith Rachael MacFarlane voices Hayley Smith Dee Bradley Baker voices Klaus Heissler Jeff Fischer voices Jeff Fischer Patrick Stewart voices Deputy Director Avery Bullock When asked what first spurred the idea for American Dad!
Seth MacFarlane answered, "It was right after the election, me and co-creator Matt Weitzman were so frustrated with the Bush administration that we would just spend days bitching and complaining, we figured we should channel this into something creative and profitable." In early February 2005, Barker stated, "About a year and a half ago, Seth called and asked if Matt and I would be interested in working on a show about a right-wing CIA agent and his liberal daughter. It was right up our alley, everything just fell into place." On September 14, 2003, Variety reported that Fox Broadcasting had ordered a pilot presentation of the tentatively titled American Dad! and "If greenlit, American Dad! could launch as early as fall 2004." At the time, Fox was aiming to develop a new lineup of adult animated sitcoms. American Dad! had a mid-season debut. Its first episode, titled "Pilot", was shown directly following Super Bowl XXXIX on February 6, 2005; the rest of the first season, would not launch until May 1, 2005, on Fox's Animation Domination lineup which had its debut on that date.
It was a replacement for the failed series Family Guy. American Dad! was intended to be Fox's answer to the hordes of fans left behind from the original failure of MacFarlane's previous animated venture. Just three short months after American Dad!'s debut however, Family Guy was revived, leaving American Dad! with a formidable expectation: whether the series could distinguish itself from its counterpart and succeed on its own merits. Instead of taking over creative direction of the series, MacFarlane left the job largel
Citytv is a Canadian television network owned by the Rogers Media subsidiary of Rogers Communications. The network consists of six owned-and-operated television stations located in the metropolitan areas of Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary and Vancouver, a cable-only service that serves the province of Saskatchewan, three independently owned affiliates serving smaller cities in Alberta and British Columbia; the Citytv brand's name originates from its flagship station, CITY-TV in Toronto, a station which became known for an intensely local format based on newscasts aimed at younger viewers, nightly movies, music and cultural programming. The Citytv brand first expanded with CHUM Limited's acquisition of former Global O&O CKVU-TV in Vancouver, followed by its purchase of Craig Media's stations and the re-branding of its A-Channel system in Central Canada as Citytv in August 2005. CHUM Limited was acquired by CTVglobemedia in 2007; the network grew through further affiliations with three Jim Pattison Group-owned stations, along with Rogers' acquisition of the cable-only Saskatchewan Communications Network and Montreal's CJNT-DT.
While patterned after the original station in Toronto, since the 2000s, since its acquisition by Rogers, Citytv has moved towards a series-based primetime schedule much like its competitors, albeit one still focused on younger demographics. The licence of the original Citytv station, granted the callsign of CITY-TV by the CRTC, was awarded in Toronto on November 25, 1971, began broadcasting for the first time using the "Citytv" brand on September 28, 1972, under the ownership of Channel Seventy-Nine Ltd. with its studios located at 99 Queen Street East near Church Street. The station was in debt by 1975. Multiple Access Ltd. purchased a 45% interest in the station, sold its stake to CHUM Limited three years later. CHUM Limited acquired the station outright in 1981. Broadcasting on UHF channel 79 during its first decade, the station moved to channel 57 in 1983, until moving to channel 44 with the digital transition. In 1987, the station moved its headquarters to 299 Queen Street West known as the Ryerson Press Building.
On September 8, 2009, CITY moved to its current location at Yonge-Dundas Square at 33 Dundas Street East. Citytv gained a second station in Vancouver when CHUM bought CKVU from Canwest Global Communications in 2001; the station became known as "Citytv Vancouver" on July 22, 2002. Prior to CHUM's acquisition of CKVU, some Citytv programming was syndicated to KVOS in nearby Bellingham, Washington. In 2004, CHUM bought parent of the A-Channel system in Manitoba and Alberta; the Craig-owned A-Channel stations were relaunched as Citytv on August 2, 2005. CHUM Limited announced plans to sell its broadcasting assets to CTV parent CTVglobemedia on July 12, 2006. CTVgm intended to retain CHUM's Citytv system while divesting CHUM's A-Channel stations and Alberta cable channel Access to get the CRTC to approve the acquisition. On the same day that the takeover was announced, Citytv cancelled its supper-hour, late-night and weekend newscasts at its local Vancouver, Edmonton and Winnipeg stations, laying off hundreds of news department staff.
In October 2006, Citytv launched a daily national newscast, CityNews International, produced in Toronto for broadcast on the western Canadian stations and on CHUM's Toronto news channel CP24. The Edmonton and Calgary stations began broadcasting a daily 30-minute magazine show, Your City, instead of a full-fledged newscast; the Vancouver news operation, which had operated for 30 years under various owners and station identities, was not maintained aside from Breakfast Television. In the same month, Citytv Toronto became the first television station in Canada to begin broadcasting its local newscasts in high definition; the following year on June 8, the CRTC approved the CTV takeover of CHUM. However, the CRTC made the deal conditional on CTV divesting itself of Citytv, because there were CTV owned-and-operated stations serving the same cities. Without the divestment, CTV would have exceeded the CRTC's concentration of media ownership limits. CTV announced on June 11, 2007, that it would retain the A-Channel stations, sell the Citytv stations to Rogers Communications for $375 million.
The transaction was approved by the CRTC on September 28 and was completed on October 31, 2007. On December 6, 2010, CityNews Tonight Toronto anchor and continuity announcer Mark Dailey died after a long battle with cancer; the Citytv system began to phase in a modified branding in October 2012, with a new logo consisting only of the name "City", some promotions using the verbal branding "City Television" instead of Citytv. The change marked the first major alteration to the Citytv brand since its introduction in 1972; the network adopted the name City on December 2012 during its New Year's Eve special. For the 2018-19 television season, the network reintroduced its original "Citytv" branding, its social media accounts; the Jim Pattison Group announced in July 2009 that its three television stations in western Canada affiliated with E!, would join Citytv starting on September 1, 2009. These stations do not ca
Fox Sports (United States)
Fox Sports is the programming division of the Fox Broadcasting Company, owned by Fox Corporation, responsible for sports broadcasts on the network, its dedicated regional and national sports cable channels. The flagship entity of Fox Sports Media Group division, it was formed in 1994 with Fox's acquisition of broadcast rights to National Football League games. In subsequent years, it has televised the National Hockey League, Major League Baseball, NASCAR, Bowl Championship Series, Major League Soccer, the USGA Championships and NHRA. On December 14, 2017, The Walt Disney Company announced plans to acquire 21st Century Fox for $52.4 billion. Under the terms of the proposed acquisition, the Fox broadcast network, Fox News Channel, the non-regional Fox Sports assets cable channels, the broadcast network division would be spun off into an independent company owned by 21st Century Fox's current shareholders; when the Fox Broadcasting Company launched in October 1986, the network's management, having seen how sports programming played a critical role in the growth of the British satellite service BSkyB, determined that sports would be the type of programming that would ascend Fox to a major network status the quickest.
In 1987, after ABC hedged on renewing its contract with the National Football League for the television rights to Monday Night Football, Fox made an offer for the package at the same price that ABC had been paying at the time – about $13 million per game. However due to the fact that Fox had yet to establish itself as a major network, the NFL decided to resume negotiations with ABC, with the two parties agreeing to a new contract, keeping what was the crown jewel of the league's television broadcasts on that network. Six years as the league's television contracts for both the National Football Conference and American Football Conference divisions, for the Sunday and Monday primetime football packages were up for renewal, Fox placed a bid for $1.58 billion to obtain the broadcast rights to the National Football Conference. On December 17, 1993, the NFL selected Fox's bid and signed a four-year contract with the network to award it the rights to televise regular season and playoff games from the NFC, beginning with the 1994 season.
S. television rights to broadcast Super Bowl XXXI in 1997. The deal stripped CBS of football telecasts for the first time since 1955. Fox lured commentators Pat Summerall, John Madden, Dick Stockton, Matt Millen, James Brown and Terry Bradshaw as well as many behind-the-scenes production personnel from CBS Sports to staff the network's NFL coverage. In order to bolster viewership for the NFL telecasts, Fox parent News Corporation decided to strike affiliation deals with broadcasting companies that owned stations affiliated with ABC, NBC and CBS in order to raise the profile of Fox's affiliate body, which at the time consisted of UHF stations that had little to no prior history as a major network affiliate, had weaker signals and did not carry as much value with advertisers as the Big Three's affiliates. During the late spring and summer of 1994, Fox reached separate agreements with New World Communications and SF Broadcasting to switch a total of sixteen stations to Fox between September 1994 and September 1996 as affiliation contracts with those stations' existing network partners expired.
The NFL television rights and affiliation deals established Fox as the nation's fourth major network. The network's relationship with the NFL would expand in 1997, when it began airing games from NFL Europe, an agreement which ended when the European league folded in 2005. With a sports division now established, Fox decided to seek broadcast rights agreements with other major sports leagues. On September 9, 1994, Fox was awarded the broadcast television rights to the National Hockey League in a $155 million bid. Again, Fox outbid CBS, which wanted to secure the rights as a result of losing the NFL to Fox, for the NHL package. Fox lost the NHL rights to ABC Sports and ESPN in 1999. On November 7, 1995, Fox was awarded partial broadcast rights to Major League Baseball games, in a shared deal with NBC. Through the deal, which Fox paid a fraction of the amount that CBS paid to obtain the rights effective wit
Brooklyn Nine-Nine is an American police television sitcom that premiered on Fox on September 17, 2013. Created by Dan Goor and Michael Schur, the series revolves around Jake Peralta, an immature but talented NYPD detective in Brooklyn's 99th Precinct, who comes into conflict with his new commanding officer, the serious and stern Captain Raymond Holt; the ensemble and supporting cast feature Stephanie Beatriz as Rosa Diaz, Terry Crews as Terry Jeffords, Melissa Fumero as Amy Santiago, Joe Lo Truglio as Charles Boyle, Chelsea Peretti as Gina Linetti, Dirk Blocker as Michael Hitchcock, Joel McKinnon Miller as Norm Scully. Produced as a single-camera comedy, Fox ordered thirteen episodes for its first season expanding it to 22 episodes; the series has been praised for its cast Samberg and Braugher. It has won two Creative Arts Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards: one for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy and one for Samberg for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy. Braugher has been nominated for three consecutive Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series.
The series has received particular praise for its portrayal of serious issues with a blend of humor. On May 10, 2018, Fox canceled the series after five seasons; the following day, NBC picked up the series for a sixth season of thirteen episodes. The sixth season began on NBC on January 10, 2019. On February 27, 2019, NBC renewed the series for a seventh season. Set in the fictional 99th Precinct of the New York City Police Department in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Nine-Nine follows a team of detectives headed by the overly serious, newly-appointed Captain Raymond Holt; the detectives include Jake Peralta, who tops the squad in collars despite his relaxed, carefree attitude, much to the annoyance of his more stern and by-the-book partner, Amy Santiago. The hard-working but timid Charles Boyle is partnered with the stoic and sometimes aggressive Rosa Diaz. Detectives Michael Hitchcock and Norm Scully seem incompetent but have solved more cases than the others due to numerous years on the job; the detectives report to Sergeant Terry Jeffords, a gentle giant and devoted family man, afraid to go back to active police work for fear of dying in the line of duty and leaving his children fatherless.
Rounding out the precinct is sarcastic civilian administrator Gina Linetti, who dislikes her job, prefers to enjoy her social life, believes that dancing is her life goal. Andy Samberg as Jake Peralta Stephanie Beatriz as Rosa Diaz Terry Crews as Terry Jeffords Melissa Fumero as Amy Santiago Joe Lo Truglio as Charles Boyle Chelsea Peretti as Gina Linetti Andre Braugher as Captain Raymond Holt Dirk Blocker as Michael Hitchcock Joel McKinnon Miller as Norm Scully Michael Schur and Dan Goor, who had known each other since their time as students at Harvard and had collaborated on Parks and Recreation, liked the idea of setting a comedy in a police station, a setting which they felt was insufficiently used for television comedies since Barney Miller, they pitched the idea to NBCUniversal. NBC passed, the duo sold the show to Fox. On May 8, 2013, Fox placed a thirteen-episode order for the single-camera ensemble comedy. On October 18, 2013, the series was picked up for a full season of 22 episodes, was chosen to air with New Girl in a "special one-hour comedy event" as the Super Bowl XLVIII lead-out programs.
The exterior view of the fictional 99th Precinct building, complete with numerous NYPD vehicles parked in front of it, is the actual 78th Precinct building at the corner of Sixth Avenue and Bergen Street, one block south of the Barclays Center and one block east of the Bergen Street station on the New York City Subway's 2, 3, 4 routes. On May 10, 2018, Fox canceled the series after five seasons. Shortly afterwards, there were announcements that negotiations had begun with Hulu, TBS, NBC and Netflix for the possibility of reviving the show for a sixth season; the next day, TVLine reported Hulu had passed on the series. Shortly after, Goor announced. In a statement, NBC Entertainment chairman Robert Greenblatt expressed regret for passing on the series to Fox and was "thrilled" at its addition to NBC. A few days it was announced that the series would premiere mid-season in the 2018–19 television season. In September 2018, NBC ordered an additional five episodes for season 6, bringing the order to 18.
The sixth season began on NBC on January 10, 2019. On February 27, 2019, NBC renewed the series for a seventh season. Rotten Tomatoes gave Season 1 a score of 89% based on 55 reviews; the consensus is: "Led by the effective pairing of Andy Samberg and Andre Braugher, Brooklyn Nine-Nine is a charming, intelligently written take on the cop show format." For Season 2, it received a score of 100% based on 17 reviews. That season's consensus is: "Brooklyn Nine-Nine's winning cast, appealing characters and wacky gags make it good comfort food." Metacritic gives the first season of the show a weighted average rating of 70/100 based on 33 reviews, indicating "generally favorable reviews". The Huffington Post posted a list of "9 Reasons You Need To Start Watching Brooklyn Nine-Nine", while Paste magazine celebrated "The 10 Best Moments from Brooklyn Nine-Nine's First Season" in 2014. Brooklyn Nine-Nine has received praise for its forthright portrayal of LGBTQ
The Cleveland Show
The Cleveland Show is an American animated sitcom created by Seth MacFarlane, Richard Appel, Mike Henry for the Fox Broadcasting Company as a spin-off of Family Guy. The series centered on the Browns and Tubbs, two dysfunctional families consisting of parents Cleveland Brown and Donna Tubbs and their children Cleveland Brown, Jr. Roberta Tubbs, Rallo Tubbs. Similar to Family Guy, it exhibited much of its humor in the form of cutaway gags that lampoon American culture; the series was conceived by MacFarlane in 2007 after developing the two animated series Family Guy and American Dad! for the Fox network. MacFarlane centered the show on Family Guy character Cleveland Brown, his new wife Donna Tubbs, his step-children Rallo and Roberta Tubbs, his son Cleveland, Jr. who, in the show, is depicted as an obese, soft-spoken teen, as opposed to his depiction as a younger, hyperactive child with average body weight on Family Guy. The series aired from September 27, 2009, to May 19, 2013, for a total of four seasons and 88 episodes.
The Cleveland Show was nominated for one Annie Award, one Primetime Emmy Award, two Teen Choice Awards, but received mixed reviews from media critics. The series was canceled after its fourth season. Cleveland has since returned to Family Guy, accompanied by the rest of the Brown-Tubbs family, as of the twelfth season episode "He's Bla-ack!". Seth MacFarlane conceived The Cleveland Show in 2007 while working on his other two animated series, Family Guy and American Dad!. The Cleveland Show first appeared on the development slate at Fox in early 2008, under no official name for the pilot, after a report that Fox had purchased the series from creators. On May 5, 2008, MacFarlane and 20th Century Fox Television inked a deal; the pilot was named The Cleveland Show in May 2008, when it appeared on the primetime slate for the 2008–09 television season, although it wasn't on the network schedule. Shortly after a report that King of the Hill just ended, leaving air time for The Cleveland Show, the show was picked up for a full season after an additional nine episodes of the show were ordered.
In May 2009, The Cleveland Show appeared on the primetime slate for the 2009–10 television season, for airing on Sunday nights at 8:30 pm On June 15, 2009, it was announced that The Cleveland Show would premiere on September 27, 2009. MacFarlane and Henry pitched a 22-minute pilot to Fox which aired on September 27, 2009, but had been leaked on the internet in June 2009. Before the pilot episode premiered, the show had been renewed for a 22-episode second season. After the first season of the show aired, it was given the green light to start production. On June 10, 2010, less than three weeks into the first season's summer hiatus, it was announced that Fox was ordering a third season. A fourth season was announced on May 2011, just a few days before the second season concluded. Seth MacFarlane, Mike Henry and Richard Appel served as executive producers on the series since the first season. Mike Henry voices two of the show's main characters: Rallo Tubbs; the voice of Cleveland was developed for Family Guy by Henry after being influenced by one of his best friends who had a distinct regional accent.
For the voice of Rallo, Henry stated that he created the voice over twenty years before. Sanaa Lathan voices Donna Tubbs, the wife of Cleveland, stepmother of Cleveland Brown Jr. and mother of Roberta and Rallo Tubbs. In developing the character, Lathan said that the producers "wanted her to be educated, but to have some edge." Prior to voicing Donna, Lathan had only one other voice credit in a low-budget film entitled The Golden Blaze. In addition to the show, she primarily worked as an actress in such films as Alien vs. Predator, Love & Basketball and The Family That Preys. Reagan Gomez-Preston plays the stepdaughter of Cleveland. Gomez has stated that she uses her own voice to portray Roberta, that she herself gets mistaken for a fifteen-year-old over the phone "all the time." Before Gomez was cast as Roberta, Nia Long provided the character's voice during the first thirteen episodes. According to Long, she was replaced because producers decided they wanted an actress with a younger-sounding voice, given that the character is a teenager.
Kevin Michael Richardson, a recurring guest voice on Family Guy and American Dad, portrays Cleveland, Jr. as well as Cleveland's next door neighbor Lester Krinklesac. In portraying Cleveland, Jr. Richardson drew inspiration from a character named Patrick that he had played on the NBC drama series ER, mentally impaired and wore a football helmet. For Lester, Richardson stated in an interview that, being African American, he had "run into a few rednecks in time," and decided to perform a stereotypical redneck impression for the voice of Lester. Jason Sudeikis plays Holt Richter, one of Cleveland's drinking buddies with a short stature, Terry Kimple, one of Cleveland's longtime friends who now works with him at Waterman Cable. Sudeikis began as a recurring cast member, but starting with the episode "Harder, Faster, Browner", he was promoted to a series regular. Seth MacFarlane played Tim the Bear up until season 3 episode 10, which MacFarlane admits is a "Steve Martin impression a Wild and Crazy Guy impression".
Jess Harnell voices the character for the rest of the series from the next episode onward. Other voices include that of Arianna Huffington as Tim's wife Arianna the Bear, Nat Faxon as Tim and Arianna's son Raymond the Bear, Jamie Kennedy as Roberta's boyfriend Gabriel Friedman, a.k.a. "Federline Jones", Will Forte as Principal Wally, Frances Callier as E
Simultaneous substitution is a practice mandated by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission requiring broadcast distribution undertakings in Canada to distribute the signal of a local or regional over-the-air station in place of the signal of a foreign or non-local television station, when the two stations are broadcasting identical programming simultaneously. The CRTC first introduced the policy in 1972, it is sometimes erroneously called "simulcasting", the name of a practice different from simultaneous substitution in that there is no signal replacement. According to the CRTC, the practice of simultaneous substitution is necessary "to protect the rights of broadcasters, to enable television stations to draw enough advertising revenue and to keep advertising money in the Canadian market". Canadian broadcast networks, which must request each and every substitution on an individual basis, have been criticized for exploiting the regulation and not investing enough money into Canadian content.
The most prominent public criticism of simsubs has been centered around the Super Bowl—the championship game of the National Football League—which is well-known for featuring high-profile commercials on its U. S. broadcast. In 2015, citing the ads as having become an "integral part" of the broadcast, the CRTC announced that it would implement a policy to prevent broadcasters from requesting simsubs for the game; this has faced criticism over the change in policy from the game's rightsholder, CTV owner Bell Media. Bell has attempted appeals to get the policy overturned, whilst the as-yet-unratified United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement contains an annex that would require the CRTC to withdraw this policy, effective after Super Bowl LIII in 2019. During the 1950s, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation had a monopoly on television broadcasting in Canada. In 1960, the Board of Broadcast Governors, the predecessor of the CRTC, began granting licenses for commercial stations in order to provide an alternative to the CBC.
These broadcasters began operating in 1961, through international distributors, acquired the domestic broadcast rights to many American television programs. Since about 30% of the Canadian population – those who resided close enough to the Canada–US border – had access to over-the-air broadcast signals from networks based in both Canada and the United States, they could choose to watch American programs on either a Canadian or an American network. Many of these Canadians chose to watch the American network rather than the Canadian networks' broadcasts. Many Canadian broadcasters began broadcasting programs purchased from American-based broadcast networks before they aired on the American networks to attract more viewers and to earn money from domestic advertising, some Canadian businesses that advertised on the domestic stations purchased broadcast time on the American stations that were receivable in the same areas, although federal legislation was passed that limited the tax-deductibility of these purchases.
Several of the stations in smaller border markets in the United States targeted the larger cities in Canada by getting as close to the border as possible. Examples include most of the stations in the Buffalo, New York television market, which targeted Toronto and the Golden Horseshoe region, in the most extreme case, North Dakota station KCND-TV, based in a town with fewer than 1,000 residents but made its money by targeting the much larger city of Winnipeg across the border to its north; when cable television began to proliferate across Canada in the early-1970s, viewers far from the Canada–US border began to obtain access to American television services that were once unobtainable. In 1972, in response to pressure from Canadian broadcasters, the CRTC introduced the simultaneous substitution regulation as a method to circumvent diminution of the value of Canadian networks' exclusive broadcast rights to American programs. Through the 1990s, as direct-broadcast satellite television services gained popularity and were granted licenses in Canada, simultaneous substitution became a requirement on these as well.
By the late 1990s and early 2000s, the simultaneous substitution regulation had reached its full potential, with Canadian broadcast networks telecasting nearly all of their American programming at the same time as the U. S. network's broadcasts to ensure maximum eligibility to request substitution. The high incidence of simultaneous substitution requests by owned Canadian television networks to draw advertising revenue has had profound effects on various spectrums, ranging from Canadian network schedules to portions of programming being lost due to mistimed substitutions. Since private Canadian broadcast networks such as CTV, Global, CTV Two and City rely on American programs, their programming schedules are effectively dictated by the schedules of corresponding United States network broadcasters. For example, if a U. S. broadcaster moves a series to a new time slot, the Canadian broadcaster that holds domestic rights to carry first-run episodes of that program would need to move its broadcast to correspond with the new time slot if it wished to retain simultaneous substitution right
Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most