Ankara known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban centre and 5,150,072 in its province, it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century. Ankara covers an area of 24,521 km2. On 23 April 1920 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara, which became the headquarters of Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence. Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul following the fall of the Ottoman Empire; the government is a prominent employer, but Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city, located at the centre of Turkey's road and railway networks. The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat, the Angora cat; the area is known for its pears and muscat grapes. Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery, Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant, at 72 square metres per head.

Ankara is a old city with various Hittite, Hellenistic, Roman and Ottoman archaeological sites. The historical centre of town is a rocky hill rising 150 m over the left bank of the Ankara Çayı, a tributary of the Sakarya River, the classical Sangarius; the hill remains crowned by the ruins of the old citadel. Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 BC Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti; the orthography of the name Ankara has varied over the ages. It has been identified with the Hittite cult center Ankuwaš, although this remains a matter of debate. In classical antiquity and during the medieval period, the city was known as Ánkyra in Greek and Ancyra in Latin. Following its annexation by the Seljuk Turks in 1073, the city became known in many European languages as Angora; the form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, in the names of several locations in the US.

Ankara has a cold semi-arid climate. Under the Trewartha climate classification, Ankara has a middle latitude steppe climate. Due to its elevation and inland location, Ankara has cold and snowy winters, hot and dry summers. Rainfall occurs during the spring and autumn. Ankara lies in USDA Hardiness zone 7b, its annual average precipitation is low at 388 millimeters precipitation can be observed throughout the year. Monthly mean temperatures range from 0.3 °C in January to 23.5 °C in July, with an annual mean of 12.02 °C. Ankara had a population of 75,000 in 1927; as of 2016, Ankara Province has a population of 5,346,518. When Ankara became the capital of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, it was designated as a planned city for 500,000 future inhabitants. During the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the city grew in a planned and orderly pace. However, from the 1950s onward, the city grew much faster than envisioned, because unemployment and poverty forced people to migrate from the countryside into the city in order to seek a better standard of living.

As a result, many illegal houses called gecekondu were built around the city, causing the unplanned and uncontrolled urban landscape of Ankara, as not enough planned housing could be built fast enough. Although precariously built, the vast majority of them have electricity, running water and modern household amenities. Many of these gecekondus have been replaced by huge public housing projects in the form of tower blocks such as Elvankent, Eryaman and Güzelkent. Although many gecekondus still remain, they too are being replaced by mass housing compounds, as empty land plots in the city of Ankara for new construction projects are becoming impossible to find. Çorum and Yozgat, which are located in Central Anatolia and whose population is decreasing, are the provinces with the highest net migration to Ankara. About half of the Central Anatolia population of 15,608,868 people resides in Ankara; the population of Ankara has a higher education level than the country average. According to 2008 data, 15-years-higher literacy rate creates 88% of the total provincial population.

This ratio was 83% for Turkey. This difference is evident in the university educated segment of the population; the ratio of university and high school graduates to total population is 10.6% in Ankara, while 5.4% in Turkey. The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, by the Lydians, Greeks, Romans and Turks; the oldest settlements in and around the city center of Ankara belonged to the Hattic civilization which existed during the Bron

Heman Humphrey

Heman Humphrey was a 19th-century American author and clergyman who served as a trustee of Williams College and afterward as the second president of Amherst College, a post he held for 22 years. Humphrey was born in Hartford County, Connecticut, his father's name was Solomon Humphrey, descended in direct line from Michael Humphrey, an immigrant who came from England some time before 1643. Heman's mother Hannah Brown Humphrey was the second wife of Solomon and was the eldest of the six children of Captain John Brown, who died on June, 1776, during the American Revolution in defense of New York. Heman's father Solomon was a farmer and moved from Simsbury in 1755, first to Bristol and to Barkhamstead, where he died in 1834. Humphrey graduated from Yale University with an A. M. in 1805 and was ordained a Congregational minister on March 16, 1807. He became a minister in Fairfield, Connecticut in 1807, moving to Pittsfield, Massachusetts in 1817. Following his tenure at Williams College, in 1825 he was appointed president of Amherst.

He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1842. Humphrey was influential in the nineteenth-century temperance movement and typical of the early proponents of prohibition, he was the father of U. S. Representative James Humphrey. Humphrey, Heman. Intemperance: an address, to the churches and congregations of the Western district of Fairfield County. New Haven, Connecticut: Eli Hudson. P. 31. Hdl:2027/hvd.hxjnip – via HathiTrust. Humphrey, Heman; the Missouri Compromise. Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Reed, Hull & Peirson. Pp. 32. OL 7171247M – via Internet Archive. Humphrey, Heman. Revival Sketches and Manual: in Two Parts. Pittsfield, Massachusetts: American Tract Society. OL 6363048M – via Internet Archive


Jakdan was a Qing dynasty Manchu translator and poet from the Plain Red Banner. He is most well known for his translation of Pu Songling's collection of supernatural stories titled Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio, though he translated a number of other works, including seven volumes of translations of Chinese poetry and songs, to which he appended a volume of his own purely Manchu poetry. Jakdan was from the Manchu Bujilgen clan, his courtesy name was Chinese: 秀峰. His Manchu personal name, means "Pine Tree"; the precise dates of Jakdan's birth and death are not known, but he was born in the 1780s. In 1826, when he was in his forties, he passed the translation examination for the Metropolitan Graduate, was assigned to the post of Second Class Secretary of the Board of Works in Mukden; the rare books collection at Harvard University's Yenching Library possesses the only known copy of an eight fascicle work by Jakdan titled Jabduha ucuri amtanggai baita (simplified Chinese: 闲中佳趣. The first seven fascicles contain 345 poems or songs translated from Chinese into Manchu, some of which appear to be Zidishu.

Bosson and Toh were the first to note that the eighth fascicle of Jabduha ucuri amtanggai baita did not contain translations, but rather original poetry. In 2010, Toh published a further analysis of two of the longer poems of the collection. Toh proposes a system of scansion wherein these two longer poems are divided into stanzas of varying numbers of lines, lines of varying numbers of syllables, accompanied by end-rhyme and interrupted by non-prosodic phrases called chenzi simplified Chinese: 衬字. Toh Hoong Teik. "The poetic forms and two longer poems in the Manju gisun i yobo maktara sarkiyan." Bulletin of the SOAS, 73, 1, 65–99