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G. K. Podila

Gopi K. Podila was an Indian American biologist, a faculty member at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, he was one of three faculty members killed in a shooting at the university on February 12, 2010. He was chairperson of the university's department of biological sciences, with a particular interest in the ecology of Populus and their mycorrhizal symbionts, he listed his research interests as "engineering tree biomass for bioenergy, functional genomics of plant-microbe interactions, plant molecular biology and biotechnology". In particular, Podila studied genes that regulate growth in fast growing trees poplar and aspen, he has advocated prospective use of fast growing trees and grasses as an alternative to corn sources for producing ethanol. He was the coordinator of an international consortium of institutions that has deciphered the genome of mycorrhizal fungus, a fungus whose symbiotic properties allow trees to generate large amounts of biomass. G. K. Podila received a B. Sc. degree from Nagarjuna University in India.

He obtained a master's degree from Louisiana State University in 1983 and a PhD in molecular biology from Indiana State University in 1987. Prior to joining the University of Alabama in Huntsville, he worked at Michigan Technological University from 1990 to 2002. Podila was an Editorial Board member of the journals Symbiosis, New Phytologist and Molecular Biology of Plants, Journal of Plant Interactions. At the time of his death Podila was a Councilor of the International Symbiosis Society, he is survived by his widow, Vani Podila, two daughters. On February 12, 2010, Amy Bishop, a faculty member in Podila's department, drew a handgun during a staff meeting and shot six people. Podila and two other faculty members were killed. Bishop was charged with capital murder. Bishop was sentenced to life in prison. Ajit Varma. Biotechnological applications of microbes. Tunbridge Wells, Kent: Anshan. ISBN 1-904798-61-6. LCCN 2006411669. Gopi K. Podila. Current advances in mycorrhizae research. St. Paul, Minn.: American Phytopathological Society.

Pp. ix, 193. ISBN 0-89054-245-7. LCCN 99068446. Leland J. Cseke. Handbook of molecular and cellular methods in biology and medicine. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-8493-0815-1. G. K. Podila at the Wayback Machine UAH. G. K. Podila profile at

Reynell Taylor

Major-General Reynell George Taylor was a British military officer who served in the Bengal Army. Taylor was born in Brighton on 25 January 1822, the youngest son of Major-General Thomas William Taylor CB of Ogwell, who served with the 10th Royal Hussars at the Battle of Waterloo. From Sandhurst, where his father was lieutenant-governor, he was commissioned as a cornet in the Indian cavalry on 26 February 1840. Taylor first saw service with the 11th Bengal Light Cavalry in the Gwalior Campaign of 1843, at the close of the war was appointed to the bodyguard. In the First Anglo-Sikh War he was wounded in a cavalry charge in the Battle of Mudki on 18 December 1845. Sent to Lahore in 1847, he became one of that famous body of men who worked under Henry Lawrence, subsequently John Lawrence, in the Punjab; that same year he was left in charge of the city of Peshawar, leader of ten thousand Sikh troops and the whole district. Taylor organised a column of four thousand men who departed from Peshawar to occupy the Bannu District, safely led the men through the Kohat Pass in November–December 1847.

Taylor was in charge of Bannu at the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. When he heard reports of the murders of Patrick Vans Agnew and W. A. Anderson at Multan on 20 April 1848, he dispatched troops to assist Herbert Edwardes and remained at his post. In July he was ordered to proceed to Multan, at that time under siege, set out in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue British captives being held at Peshawar, he next gathered an irregular force of 1,021 foot, 650 horse, three guns, laid siege to the fort of Lukkee, the key to the Derajat, on 11 December 1848. The fort was captured on 11 January 1849. For his services he was promoted captain on 15 December 1851 and major the next day. In 1855, after a prolonged visit to England, he was appointed commandant of the Corps of Guides. During the Indian Mutiny he was in charge of the Kangra district, in 1859 he was appointed commissioner of the Derajat, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel on 21 December 1859, in 1860 was chief political officer of the Waziri expedition.

Before retiring from the Derajat, in order to become commissioner of Peshawar in the spring of 1862, he paid for the Church Missionary Society to establish a station in the district. The first head of the mission was Valpy French. In 1863 he served throughout the Ambela Campaign, was promoted to colonel on 3 April 1863, received the Order of the Bath the following month, he was granted the Order of the Star of India in June 1866. After a short visit to England in 1865 he returned for the last time to India, to serve as commissioner of the Ambala district From 1870 he held the same post in the Amritsar division. Taylor retired in 1877 as major-general, he was promoted lieutenant-general that year, general on 15 December 1880. He died at Newton Abbot on 28 February 1886. A biography by Ernest Gambier-Parry was published in 1888. On 11 December 1854 Taylor married Ann, daughter of Arthur Holdsworth of Widdicombe, Devon, she survived him, along with several children, including Millicent Mary, who founded the Society of the Precious Blood, an Anglican religious order, Henry, who played both first-class cricket and rugby union for Cambridge University.

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Taylor, Reynell George". Dictionary of National Biography. 55. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Hot air oven

Hot air ovens are electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize. They were developed by Pasteur, they use a thermostat to control the temperature. Their double walled insulation keeps the heat in and conserves energy, the inner layer being a poor conductor and outer layer being metallic. There is an air filled space in between to aid insulation. An air circulating fan helps in uniform distribution of the heat; these are fitted with the adjustable wire mesh plated trays or aluminium trays and may have an on/off rocker switch, as well as indicators and controls for temperature and holding time. The capacities of these ovens vary. Power supply needs vary from country depending on the voltage and frequency used. Temperature sensitive tapes or biological indicators using bacterial spores can be used as controls, to test for the efficacy of the device during use, they do not require water and there is not much pressure build up within the oven, unlike an autoclave, making them safer to work with.

This makes them more suitable to be used in a laboratory environment. They can still be as effective, they can be more rapid than an autoclave and higher temperatures can be reached compared to other means. As they use dry heat instead of moist heat, some organisms like prions, may not be killed by them every time, based on the principle of thermal inactivation by oxidation. A complete cycle involves heating the oven to the required temperature, maintaining that temperature for the proper time interval for that temperature, turning the machine off and cooling the articles in the closed oven till they reach room temperature; the standard settings for a hot air oven are: 1.5 to 2 hours at 160 °C 6 to 12 minutes at 190 ° the time required to preheat the chamber before beginning the sterilization cycle. If the door is opened before time, heat escapes and the process becomes incomplete, thus the cycle must be properly repeated all over. These are used to sterilize articles that can withstand high temperatures and not get burnt, like glassware and powders.

Linen gets burnt and surgical sharps lose their sharpness. Textbook of Microbiology by Prof. C P Baveja, ISBN 81-7855-266-3 Textbook of Microbiology by Ananthanarayan and Panikar, ISBN 81-250-2808-0

Olsenbanden tar gull

Olsenbanden tar gull is a 1972 Norwegian comedy-crime film of the Olsenbanden film series, directed by Knut Bohwim. The gang is now up to finding an old bunker in the southern parts of Norway. After the leader Egon has found a map leading to the old General's treasure, a suitcase of dollar bills and a safe containing gold bars; as they meet up and ready themselves, Egon claims that he is the only one who knows where this treasure is. At the same time, a local girl and blacksmith's daughter, allies herself with an international smuggler, wanted by Interpol. Karin claims she knows the bunker's location, because her father built it; the villain, Rico, is seen driving around in a Toyota Celica ST 2000. The smuggler says he wants to share the treasure with her as long as she shows him the location; the Olsen Gang travels down to Sørlandet. Halfway, the van breaks down, it appears to be a worn out head gasket. A scrap seller's towing truck picks them up and tows their van to the impound, where they sell it to the scrap seller, it is pressed flat.

The Olsen Gang borrows the scrap seller's Toyota Crown, intends to go the rest of the way down to the bunker. They find out that the access corridor to the bunker is filled with water, they need scuba gear, they buy the scuba gear with the money they got from the scrap seller when they sold the van, they are once again broke. They locate the bunker, they try to blow their way through, but dynamite cannot make a hole in the wall, so they try to hack their way through with a miner's pickaxe. The villain however, is armed with a harpoon and he tries to shoot them, but he is accidentally knocked out by one of the Olsen Gang members, he retaliates by kidnapping Basse, the son of the gang member'Kjell'. The clever boy manages causing him to fall, he escapes. The gang is now back, but this time with a two-stroke gasoline-driven pneumatic drill, it is working better this time, but the vibrations from the drill is triggering a secret defense mechanism set up by the Germans 30 years before the movie takes place.

This device, a huge yellow grenade, which runs on a trail in the ceiling is constructed to travel along the rails in the roof and torpedo the concrete wall to kill the intruders. Benny and Egon, busy holding the drill steady cannot hear or see the grenade sliding over their heads, Kjell tries to warn them, without luck; the drill runs out of gasoline, they hear the noise from the grenade traveling along the railing. They jump into the water-filled corridor to take cover, the grenade impacts the wall, blowing a hole; the explosion causes a headquarters building belonging to the Norwegian Army built over the bunker to blow up, scaring a lieutenant standing on a nearby wharf, causing him to fall in the water. Inside the bunker, there's a painting of Hitler and a decked table with silver forks and knives, along with nazi hats and symbols, and, of course, the vault containing the gold and the money. Egon, the skilled vault code cracker opens the safe and retrieves the goods, they make their escape from a small ventilation hole.

On their escape down to an awaiting boat, Rico catches up with them, firing his Browning at them, but they get away quickly. Rico catches pursuits them, he is, having engine trouble before he is able to reach the shore, is delayed. The Olsen Gang, now on the mainland, still with the suitcase filled with dollar bills, finds their awaiting escape car, the scrap seller's Toyota Crown, but with Kjell's wife, Valborg missing though she was supposed to be in the car, waiting, but they hear the whining screech of car tyres, Rico is on his way in the Celica. There's a wild car chase around the town, but Rico gets stuck in a puddle of mud; the gang is heading for the airport to travel to Majorca. 17 minutes before takeoff and still 13 kilometres away from the airport, their car runs out of gasoline, the scrap seller shows up to tow them back to the impound, where Valborg and Basse is. The gang heads for the town to the bank to exchange the dollars into Norwegian kroner. Meanwhile, the Rico and his Celica shows up at the scrap seller.

The smuggler wants all the gold for himself, but he doesn't notice that his car, with the gold inside, is parked directly under the heavy concrete block utilized as a crusher to crush cars. Just as he is about an inch away from the crusher, it drops down, he is given a few kroner to travel home by train, he is gone. Meanwhile, the gang, without Egon, at the bank exchanging money, celebrates with cake at a restaurant. Basse, the son accidentally flips a glass of Coca-Cola over a dollar bill lying at the table. Valborg tries to dry the bill with a napkin, but the water paint on the bill gets washed away. Basse utters "That's what I thought, they are all false". In the background, a police car, with the arrested Egon can be heard, the rest of the gang travels back to Oslo; the fictional town of Kløvstad, in which most of the action takes place, is in real life Stavern. On the wall in the cabin of the lieutenant there is a photograph of Rolf Stranger in uniform as a recognition of his long-standing services for the Norwegian film industry Ulf Kittelsen from Larvik was the stunt double of the lieutenant, in the scene where he drives out in the water with his military jeep Olsenbanden tar gull on IMDb

2013–14 Hoofdklasse

The 2013–14 season of the Hoofdklasse is competed in six leagues, three Saturday leagues and three Sunday leagues. The champions of each group will be promoted directly to the 2014–15 Topklasse; the 2013–14 Hoofdklasse started on Saturday 7 September 2013. The 3 period winners of each league are grouped together and play a semi-competition to decide which of the three continues to the second round; each team plays one match at one match away. The 3 remaining teams from the Saturday leagues and the team ranked 13th in the 2013–14 Topklasse Saturday league play in a knock-out system for 1 spot in the 2014–15 Topklasse Saturday league; the 3 remaining teams from the Sunday leagues and the team ranked 13th in the 2013–14 Topklasse Sunday league play in a knock-out system for 1 spot in the 2014–15 Topklasse Sunday league. For details and results see 2013–14 Topklasse Promotion/relegation play-offs; the teams ranked 11th and 12th of each of the 3 Saturday leagues and the 3 period winners of each of the 5 Saturday Eerste Klasse leagues, making a total of 21 teams are grouped in 7 groups of 3 teams in such a way that the Hoofdklasse teams each end up in a different group.

In each group the 3 teams play a semi-competition in such a way that each team plays one match at home and one match away. The 7 group winners will play next season in the 2014–15 Hoofdklasse and the remaining teams in the 2014–15 Eerste klasse; the teams ranked 11th and 12th of each of the 3 Sunday leagues and the 3 period winners of each of the 6 Sunday Eerste Klasse leagues, making a total of 24 teams, play in a 2-round 2 leg knockout system in such a way that the Hoofdklasse teams can never meet each other. The 6 winners of the second round matches will play next season in the 2014–15 Hoofdklasse and the remaining teams in the 2014–15 Eerste klasse