Dominican University of California
For other colleges with the same name, see Dominican CollegeDominican University of California is a private, not-for-profit, coeducational university located in San Rafael, California. It was founded in 1890 as Dominican College by the Dominican Sisters of San Rafael, it is one of the oldest universities in California. The history of Dominican University of California can be traced back to 1850, it was in this year. At the time of this appointment, he was in Italy attending a meeting of the Dominican Order, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic de Guzmán in France in 1216; as Bishop Alemany was returning to his new post in California, he stopped in Paris at the Dominican Monastery of the Cross and expressed his desire to have a few Dominican Sisters join him to teach the children of the Forty-niners. A Belgian novice, Sister Mary of the Cross Goemaere volunteered to accompany the new bishop and to begin a school in his new diocese. Within three years, nine women joined Sister Mary to form the Congregation of the Most Holy Name.
In 1854, the Dominicans moved to Benicia. Following the leadership of Mother Mary Goemaere, Mother Louis O'Donnell moved the motherhouse, a school and novitiate from Benicia to San Rafael in 1889. In 1890 the Congregation of the Most Holy Name, under the auspices of Mother O'Donnell, filed Articles of Incorporation with the Secretary of State of California. With the encouragement of faculty of the University of California in Berkeley, a junior college was opened in 1915, in 1917 a four-year college, Dominican College, was formed. At that point Dominican College became the first Catholic college in California to grant the bachelor's degree to women. A female-only institution, Dominican College became coeducational in 1971. 1917 – Dominican became the first Catholic college in California to grant the bachelor's degree to women. 1924 – The State Board of Education certifies Dominican to recommend candidates for public school teaching credentials. 1926 – Dominican was placed on the approved list of the Association of American Universities.
1931 – Dominican College of San Rafael was recognized by the American Association of University Women and in 1932, the Marin County Chapter of that group was established 1931 – Dominican became a member of the Northwestern Association of Colleges. 1950 – Dominican opened its graduate program to men. 1963 – Archbishop Alemany Library opened. 1971 – Dominican became coeducational. 1984 – Dominican opens the Ukiah Center, in Mendocino County, creating a satellite campus offering Teacher Credential Programs and MS in Education Programs 1990 – Dominican's Nursing program received accreditation from the National League of Nursing. 2000 – Dominican College of San Rafael becomes Dominican University of California 2006 – Bachelor of Fine Arts in Dance program initiated 2007 – Dominican opens a new Science Center 2009 – Dominican's School of Business and Leadership was accepted into the Association of Asia Pacific Business Schools 2010 – Dominican opened a federally funded national research facility focused on Sudden Oak Death 2012 – Dominican received an $8 million-plus gift to update Meadowlands Hall 2014 - The University's School of Business and Leadership is renamed the Andrew P. Barowsky School of Business 2014 - Began publishing master's theses and faculty scholarship online in Dominican Scholar 2016 - Working as a voter education partner for the Commission on Presidential Debates, Dominican hosts College Debate 2016.
The campus is located in California, 12 miles north of San Francisco. Class size averages 16. Dominican is accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. Four classifications of undergraduate degrees are offered: BA, BFA, BS, BSN. In 2017-2018, total enrollment was 1,812 graduate students. Students from 27 states and 19 nations are represented in the student body with 3% from other nations. 91% of students are from California. 88% of freshmen and 33% of all undergraduates reside on campus. For the 2017-18 academic year, undergraduate tuition is $44,240. In 2016-2017, 92% of undergraduates received financial aid; the school is a member of NCAA Division II, competes in the Pacific West Conference. Dominican occupies 80 acres in central Marin County in the City of San Rafael, it is situated in a residential neighborhood at the base of San Pedro Mountain. The gardens of the University are a combination of four former family estates and contain over 100 species of trees. A seasonal creek flows east to west through the middle of campus.
90% of freshmen live on-campus. Freshmen are automatically guaranteed a residency on campus while sophomores and seniors receive on-campus housing through a lottery. All residence halls are co-ed with gender specific bathrooms; each hall has a "resident advisor". In the 1980s, an alumna remembered that she had her picture taken when she was a student at the college in the 1950s, she went in search of the print. While she didn't find her photograph, nearly 100 original Ansel Adams photographs were discovered scattered across campus; these photographs, taken by the not-yet-famous Adams between 1932 and 1952, are part of the Dominican private collection. Enameled terra-cotta sculptures grace the entryways to Meadowlands Hall, Guzman Hall, Archbishop Alemany Library and Caleruega Hall; these terra-cotta sculptures have been made for centuries by the Della Robia family, a famous Florentine family of sculptors and ceramicists which started with Luca della Robbia. Forest Meadows Amphitheater is an amphitheater on Dominican's Campus.
While it used to hold the University's Commencement ceremonies, the amphit
San Rafael, California
San Rafael is an affluent city and the county seat of Marin County, United States. The city is located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area; as of the 2010 census the city's population is 57,713. What is now San Rafael was once the site of several Coast Miwok villages: Awani-wi, near downtown San Rafael, near Terra Linda and Shotomko-cha, in Marinwood. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was founded in what is now downtown San Rafael as the 20th Spanish mission in the colonial Mexican province of Alta California by three priests—Father Narciso Durán from Mission San José, Father Abella from Mission San Francisco de Asís, Father Luis Gíl y Taboada from La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles—on Dec. 14, 1817, four years before Mexico gained independence from Spain. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was located a donkey's day walk to the mission below it; the mission and the city are named after the Angel of Healing. The mission was planned as a hospital site for Central Valley American Indians who had become ill at the cold San Francisco Mission Dolores.
Father Luis Gil, who spoke several Native American languages, was put in charge of the facility. In part because of its ideal weather, San Rafael was upgraded to full mission status in 1822; the mission had 300 converts within its first year, 1,140 converts by 1828. The Mexican government took over the California missions in 1834, Mission San Rafael was abandoned in 1844 falling into ruin; the current mission was built in 1949 in the style of the original, but faces at right angles to the alignment of the original. The San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad reached San Rafael in 1879 and was linked to the national rail network in 1888; the United States Navy operated a San Pablo Bay degaussing range from San Rafael through World War II. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 16.5 square miles of it is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water. South of the county is San Francisco. Notable landmarks include: Mission San Rafael Arcángel, around which the city developed the Marin County Civic Center building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright the Rafael Film Center China Camp State Park, Kerner Studios.
Peacock Gap Golf Course, open to the public. There are several public parks in the city; the San Rafael shoreline has been filled to a considerable extent to accommodate land development, with underlying bay mud of up to 90 feet in thickness. At certain locations such as Murphys Point, the sandstone or shale rock outcrops through the mud. San Rafael has a wide diversity of natural habitats from forests at the higher elevations to marshland and estuarine settings, its marshes are home to the endangered species Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse. There are riparian areas including the San Rafael Creek and Miller Creek corridors. San Rafael has a Mediterranean climate, with mild winter lows reaching the freezing mark; the National Weather Service reports that August is the warmest month with a high of 80.1 °F or 26.7 °C and a low of 55.0 °F or 12.8 °C. December, the coldest month, has an average high of 55.1 °F or 12.8 °C and an average low of 41.0 °F or 5.0 °C. The highest temperature on record is 110 °F, recorded in June 1961.
The highest temperature in recent years, 108 °F, occurred on July 23, 2006. The record lowest temperature was 20 °F on December 22, 1990. There are an average of 17.9 afternoons annually with a high of 90 °F or 32.2 °C or more and 1.2 afternoons with a high of 100 °F or 37.8 °C or more. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of 3.6 mornings. Total annual precipitation averages 32.16 inches or 816.9 millimetres, with an average of 64.3 days with measurable rain. The rainy season is from November to early April: rain is rare outside of this period and it is normal to receive no rain in June, July and September; the wettest “rain year” was from July 1994 to June 1995 with 61.45 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 13.62 inches. The most rain in one month was 24.11 inches in January 1995, the heaviest 24-hour rainfall was 8.74 inches on December 11, 1995. A trace of snow was recorded on January 30, 1976; the 2010 United States Census reported that the city of San Rafael had a population of 57,713.
This figure does not, include portions of the Santa Venetia and Lucas Valley-Marinwood CDPs, nor various other unincorporated areas, all of which have San Rafael postal addresses. The following statistics refer to the incorporated limits of San Rafael only; the population density was 2,573.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Rafael was 40,734 White, 1,154 African American, 709 Native American, 3,513 Asian, 126 Pacific Islander, 8,513 from other races, 2,964 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17,302 persons; the Census reported that 55,594 people lived in households, 1,314 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 805 were institutionalized. There were 22,764 households, out of which 6,358 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,845 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,004 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,133 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,450 unmarried opp
Ashland is a home rule-class city in Boyd County, Kentucky, in the United States. Ashland, the largest city in Boyd County, is located upon the southern bank of the Ohio River; the population was 21,684 at the 2010 census. Ashland is a part of the Huntington-Ashland metropolitan area. Ashland is the second-largest city within the MSA, after West Virginia. Ashland serves as an important economic and medical center for northeast Kentucky and is part of the fifth-largest metropolitan area in Kentucky. Ashland dates back to the migration of the Poage family from the Shenandoah Valley via the Cumberland Gap in 1786, they named it Poage's Landing. Called Poage Settlement, the community that developed around it remained an extended-family affair until the mid-19th century. In 1854, the city name was changed to Ashland, after Henry Clay's Lexington estate and to reflect the city's growing industrial base; the city's early industrial growth was a result of the Ohio Valley's pig iron industry and the 1854 charter of the Kentucky Iron and Manufacturing Company by the Kentucky General Assembly.
The city was formally incorporated by the General Assembly two years in 1856. Major industrial employers in the first half of the 20th Century included Armco, Ashland Oil and Refining Company, the C&O Railroad, Allied Chemical & Dye Company's Semet Solvay, Mansbach Steel. Ashland is located at 38°27′50″N 82°38′30″W, it lies within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.8 square miles, of which 10.7 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 0.30%, is water. Ashland's central business district extends from 12th Street to 18th Street, from Carter Avenue to Greenup Avenue, it includes many preserved and notable buildings, such as the Paramount Arts Center and the Ashland Bank Building, built to Manhattan height and style standards and serves as a reminder of what Ashland leaders hoped it would become. Ashland is in the humid subtropical climate zone, distinctly experiences all four seasons, with vivid fall foliage and occasional snow in winter.
Average high is 88 °F in July, the warmest month, with the average lows of 19 °F occurring in January, the coolest month. The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F in July 1954; the lowest recorded temperature was −25 °F in January 1994. Average annual precipitation is 42.8 inches, with the wettest month being July, averaging 4.7 inches. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,981 people, 9,675 households, 6,192 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,984.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,763 housing units at an average density of 971.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.84% White, 2.30% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 9,675 households out of which 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.4% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families.
33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,309, the median income for a family was $40,131. Males had a median income of $35,362 versus $23,994 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,218. About 14.0% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.3% of those under age 18 and 12.3% of those age 65 or over. Ashland is governed by a City Manager form of government; the government switched from a council-manager to a city commissioner-manager form of government in 1950.
The City Manager is the chief administrative officer for the city who reports to a Board of Commissioners. Department heads ranging from the Police to Public works report to the City Manager; the City Manager is Michael Graese. The Mayor of Ashland is not term limited; the mayor presides over City Commission meetings, is a voting member of the City Commission and represents the city at major functions. The current mayor is Stephen E. Gilmore. Ashland's current City Commission members are Mayor Steve Gilmore and Commissioners Amanda Clark, Marty Gute, Matt Perkins and Patricia Steen. In 1925, a new city hall was erected at the corner of 17th Greenup Avenue; the Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Institution, Ashland in Summit, unincorporated Boyd County, 5 miles southwest of central Ashland. The United States Postal Service operates the Unity Contract Station; the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Kentucky maintains courtroom and office facilities in the Carl D. Perkins United States Courthouse & Federal Building in downtown Ashland.
In the late 19th century, what is now the Ashland Police Department was organized when the town was still known as Poage's Landing. The first executive officer was a town marshal, soon replaced by a professional police department; the city of Ashland has 49 sworn o
A studio is an artist or worker's workroom. This can be for the purpose of acting, painting, sculpture, woodworking, photography, graphic design, animation, industrial design, radio or television production broadcasting or the making of music; the term is used for the workroom of dancers specified to dance studio. The word studio is derived from the Italian: studio, from Latin: studium, from studere, meaning to study or zeal; the French term for studio, atelier, in addition to designating an artist's studio is used to characterize the studio of a fashion designer. Atelier has the connotation of being the home of an alchemist or wizard. Studio is a metonym for the group of people who work within a particular studio; the studio of any artist from the 15th to the 19th centuries, characterized all the assistants, thus the designation of paintings as "from the workshop of..." or "studio of..." An art studio is sometimes called an atelier in earlier eras. In contemporary, English language use, "atelier" can refer to the Atelier Method, a training method for artists that takes place in a professional artist's studio.
The above-mentioned "method" calls upon that zeal for study to play a significant role in the production which occurs in a studio space. A studio is more or less artful to the degree that the artist who occupies it is committed to the continuing education in his or her formal discipline. Academic curricula categorize studio classes in order to prepare students for the rigors of building sets of skills which require a continuity of practice in order to achieve growth and mastery of their artistic expression. A versatile and creative mind will embrace the opportunity of such practice to innovate and experiment, which develops uniquely individual qualities of each artist's expression, thus the method raises and maintains an art studio space above the level of a mere production facility or workshop. Safety is or may be a concern in studios, with some painting materials required to be handled, stored, or used properly to prevent poisoning, chemical burns, or fire. Media related to atelier at Wikimedia Commons In educational studios, students learn to develop skills related to design, ranging from architecture to product design.
In specific, educational studios are studio settings where large numbers of students learn to draft and design with instructional help at a college. Educational studios are colloquially referred to as "studio" by students, who are known for staying up late hours into the night doing projects and socializing; the studio environment is characterized by 2 types in education: The workspace where students do visually-centered work in an open environment. This time and space is beyond that of instructional time and faculty guidance is not available, it allows for students to engage each other, help each other, inspire each other while working. A type of class that takes the above-mentioned workshop space, recreates its core component of an open working environment, it differentiates itself based on a topic of instruction, isolated space, instructor led/included, an added focus of directed criticism. A great take on this latter type of "studio classroom" is described by Carleton University. Studio pottery is made by an individual potter working on his own in his studio, rather than in a ceramics factory.
Production studios are those studios. In radio and television production studio is the place where programs and radio commercial and television advertising are recorded for further emission. Animation studios, like movie studios, may be financial entities. In some cases in anime, they continue the tradition of a studio where a master or group of talented individuals oversee the work of lesser artists and crafts persons in realising their vision. Animation studios are a fast rising entity and they include established firms such as Walt Disney and Pixar. Artists or writers, predominantly those producing comics, still employ small studios of staff to assist in the creation of a comic strip, comic book or graphic novel. In the early days of Dan Dare, Frank Hampson employed a number of staff at his studio to help with the production of the strip. Eddie Campbell is another creator who has assembled a small studio of colleagues to help him in his art, the comic book industry of the United States has based its production methods upon the studio system employed at its beginnings.
Many universities are creating studio settings for courses outside the artist's realm. There are several different projects along these lines, most notably the SCALE-UP initiated at NC State. In audio, a mastering studio is a facility specialised in audio mastering. Tasks may include but not be limited to audio restoration and tone-shaping EQ, dynamic control, stereo or 5.1 surround editing and tape transfers, vinyl cutting, CD compilation. Depending on the quality of the original mix, the mastering engineer's role can change from small corrections to improving the overall sound of a mix drastically. Studios contain a combination of high-end analogue equipment with low-noise circuitry and digital hardware and plug-ins; some may contain tape machines and vinyl lathes. They may contain full-range monitoring systems and be acoustically tuned to provide an accurate reproduction of the sound information contained in the original medium; the mastering engineer must prepare the file for
Eli Capilouto, DMD, Sc. D. is the twelfth president of the University of Kentucky. He had been the provost of The University of Alabama at Birmingham. Capilouto is a native of Alabama, he has spent much of his career within the state. Capilouto obtained his bachelor's degree from the University of Alabama, his Doctor of Dental Medicine and master's degrees in epidemiology came from UAB. In 1991, he received a doctorate in health policy and management from Harvard School of Public Health, he joined the UAB faculty in 1975. He is married to Mary Lynne Capilouto, a dentist and former dean of the School of Dentistry at UAB; the couple has one daughter. Capilouto served as Dean of the UAB School of Public Health from 1994 to 2001 before he returned to his research and faculty appointment as professor, he was named Acting Provost in 2002, assumed the post permanently in 2005. On 4 May 2011, Capilouto was selected to succeed Lee Todd, Jr. the eleventh president of the University of Kentucky. He was hired under a five-year contract with a base annual salary of $500,000 plus $125,000 in benefits and a possible bonus of up to $50,000.
Under his administration, the University of Kentucky sued the university's student newspaper to appeal an open records dispute with the Kentucky Attorney General regarding a sexual harassment case involving students and a faculty member. The judge upheld the appeal, stating that the student records in the case are protected under the Federal Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act; the newspaper plans to appeal the decision. The situation has created substantial controversy. President's page at uky.edu
Treasury Relief Art Project
The Treasury Relief Art Project was a New Deal arts program that commissioned visual artists to provide artistic decoration for existing Federal buildings during the Great Depression in the United States. A project of the United States Department of the Treasury, TRAP was administered by the Section of Painting and Sculpture and funded by the Works Progress Administration, which provided assistants employed through the Federal Art Project; the Treasury Relief Art Project created murals and sculpture for Public Works Administration housing projects. TRAP was established July 21, 1935, continued through June 30, 1938; the Treasury Relief Art Project was created July 21, 1935, with an allocation of $530,784 from the Works Progress Administration. The project was overseen by Treasury Department arts administrator Edward Bruce. Artist Olin Dows was chief of the Treasury Relief Art Project. Forbes Watson was director. Unlike the concurrent Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture, TRAP was a work-relief program, subject to the income and employment standards of the WPA.
The September 1935 announcement of the program estimated. The principal mission of the Treasury Relief Art Project was to provide artistic decoration for existing Federal buildings; these projects could not be performed by the Section of Painting and Sculpture, which commissioned art for new construction using a percentage of the budget overseen by the Treasury Department's procurement division. The Treasury Relief Art Project was funded by the WPA; the Section supervised the creative output of TRAP, selected a master artist for each project. Assistants were chosen by the artist from the rolls of the WPA Federal Art Project; as chief of the Treasury Relief Art Project, Dows was responsible for maintaining financial records for relief and non-relief personnel. A fixed proportion of all workers was to be taken from the relief rolls—initially 90 percent, but revised to 75 percent in December 1935. Although it was regarded as a success, the Treasury Relief Art Project was ended June 30, 1938. At a total cost of $833,784, 89 mural projects and 65 sculpture projects were completed under the Treasury Relief Art Project, as well as 10,000 easel paintings that were distributed to Federal offices.
Reginald Marsh was the master artist commissioned in 1937 to create a cycle of murals in fresco for the rotunda of the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House. Marsh's team of assistants included Oliver M. Baker, Xavier J. Barile, Charles Bateman, Mary Fife, Lloyd Lozes Goff, Ludwig Mactarian, John Poehler, Erica Volsung and J. Walkley, students he knew from his teaching at the Art Students League, it was TRAP's most successful project in New York, encompassing 2,300 square feet. Existing post office buildings that received TRAP artwork included the following: In addition to producing artwork for Federal buildings, the Treasury Relief Art Project created murals and sculpture for Public Works Administration housing projects in Boston, Chicago, New York, Washington, D. C. and Stamford. To maintain its high artistic standards, the Treasury Relief Art Project commissioned only a small number of artists—356 workers at its peak in 1936. Richmond Barthé, Ahron Ben-Shmuel, Paul Cadmus, Marion Greenwood, William Gropper, Reginald Marsh and Heinz Warneke were among the master artists who led projects.
A complete list of projects and artists employed by TRAP is included in the final report held by the Smithsonian's Archives of American Art. New Deal Artwork: Ownership and Responsibility—General Services Administration Treasury Relief Art Project selected administrative and business records, 1935–1939—Archive of American Art, Smithsonian Institution
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the