Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Black Beauty (1946 film)
Black Beauty is a 1946 American drama film directed by Max Nosseck and based on Anna Sewell's novel of the same name. The story picks up in 1880s England, when Duchess, the mare of a widower, a country squire, called Wendon is about to foal, he has forbidden his adolescent daughter Anne to watch, but the girl sneaks into the stables and watches anyway. Anne gets the colt on her birthday and because of its colour. Anne grows affectionate towards the horse as they grow up together during the years. One day a young man from America, Bill Dixon, comes to visit the neighbors on the next farm, he notices Black Beauty, he can't stay for tea because he is leaving for America, but two years he sends Anne a gift and a letter from Bill, saying that he will be back soon. Anne starts riding her horse and teaching him to jump, but just as she has learned to appreciate taking care of her horse, her father wants to send her away to a boarding school to learn how to be a woman. Bill soon returns after graduating from an Ivy League college.
Anne falls in love with the handsome young man. When they are out riding together, Bill brings the neighbors' daughter, Evelyn Carrington, Anne gets jealous, she decides to prove herself as a horsewoman and rides side-saddle like the grown women do, to try to catch Bill's interest. After Evelyn's horse is injured, she borrows Black Beauty to go riding with Bill. Anne decides to follow them afterwards, borrows another horse from her father, called Ginger - but she falls off when jumping recklessly in front of Bill Dixon, attempting to show off, she is knocked unconscious by the fall and Bill has to fetch Doctor White on Black Beauty. The horse is exhausted from the hard riding, in need of rest and treatment for a leg injury; the groom, fails to stop the horse drinking a large amount of cold water, bad for horses when they're hot. Overnight, Black Beauty becomes sick; when Anne wakes up again she discovers that Black Beauty is ill, that Joe has left his employment, blaming himself for the horse's condition.
But the horse begins to get well again, Bill and Evelyn come to visit Anne. Anne hasn't overcome her jealousy, the visit prompts her to go off to boarding school as her father has suggested. One of Wendon's employees, promises Anne he will take care of her horse while she is gone, but it turns out. It is decided the horse is to be put down, but John only pretends to carry out the deed, firing his gun once out of sight, deliberately missing the horse, he hides the horse from his employer. When Anne comes back from school she hears the good news from John, but Black Beauty is sold on an auction by the man, supposed to be hiding him. Black Beauty is now owned by a local baker who does not treat him well, Anne and John go looking for him, followed by Bill, who has begun to take a romantic interest in Anne. In their search they bump into Joe, they get there as the stable catches fire. Anne tries to save Black Beauty from the flames, but she and the horse both need rescuing by Bill, who arrives just in time to get them out.
The story ends with Anne and Bill kissing and Black Beauty the proud father of a new colt. Mona Freeman as Anne Wendon Richard Denning as Bill Dixon Evelyn Ankers as Evelyn Carrington Charles Evans as Squire Wendon J. M. Kerrigan as John Moyna Macgill as Mrs. Blake Terry Kilburn as Joe Thomas P. Dillon as Skinner Arthur Space as Terry John Burton as Dr. White Olaf Hytten as Mr. Cordon Leyland Hodgson as Auctioneer Black Beauty on IMDb Black Beauty at the TCM Movie Database Black Beauty at AllMovie Black Beauty at the American Film Institute Catalog
Ansonia is a city in New Haven County, United States, on the Naugatuck River north of Derby, about 12 miles northwest of New Haven. The population was 19,249 at the 2010 census; the ZIP code for Ansonia is 06401. The city is served by the Metro-North Railroad. Ansonia Station is a stop on the railroad passenger commuter service's Waterbury line, connecting to New York's Grand Central Terminal. Ansonia is served by the Connecticut Transit bus carrier. Connecticut Route 8 serves Ansonia. Ansonia referred to as "The Copper City", is recognized for its history of heavy machine manufacturing industry in the lower Naugatuck Valley. Production included copper, brass and plastics processing and tubing, iron castings, sheet metal, automatic screw machine and foundry products; the well-known Ansonia Clock Company was founded here in 1851. Ansonia is the birthplace of Diplomat David Humphreys; the city's high school football team, the Ansonia Chargers, annual game against arch-rival Naugatuck, on Thanksgiving morning, is one of the more significant events of the year for the two cities.
The area along the Naugatuck River, comprising the present Elm Street section of Ansonia and Derby Avenue section of Derby, was first settled by English colonists in 1652. Early settlers developed subsistence farming, used the river for sawmills and gristmills. In 1844, Anson Green Phelps, a merchant and philanthropist, wanted to expand the old borough of Birmingham to the north along the west side of the Naugatuck River to enable industrial development. Unable to purchase the land from its owner, in 1844 Phelps acquired land along the east side of the river. A canal was dug for river power to drive the factories and businesses in the new industrial village, which Phelps named "Ansonia", he wanted to name the industrial village as "Phelpsville", but learned there was another village in the region by that name. As suggested by a friend, Phelps Latinized his first name to create the name "Ansonia"; as industry developed, soon Ansonia became the most populous area of Derby. The state chartered Ansonia as a borough of Derby in 1864 and amended it in 1871, granting full municipal privileges.
In 1888, a petition was circulated in the borough of Ansonia for the purpose of becoming a separate township from Derby. In 1889 the State General Assembly granted the separation, constituting the Borough, West Ansonia, Elm Street areas as a separate town known as Ansonia; this was the 168th township in the state of Connecticut. In 1893, Ansonia was incorporated as a city, consolidating with the coterminous Town and the old borough. By the end of the 19th century, the city had manufacturers of heavy machinery, electric supplies and copper products, silk goods. Ansonia, Shelton and Beacon Falls formed one of the most important industrial communities in the state. In 1866, while residing in Ansonia, inventor Pierre Lallement, a native of Pont-a-Mousson, submitted a patent application for the first pedaled bicycle. Ansonia suffered grievous damage in the Flood of 1955 on August 19, when the Naugatuck River flooded due to heavy rain from Hurricane Diane. Submerging the land along the river, the flood destroyed many businesses.
The high river waters swept away Maple Street Bridge, one of two bridges linking the east and west sides of Ansonia. After the inundation, the authorities erected a flood wall along the east bank of the river to protect the city's factories and Main Street. On the west bank, federal public housing was built to replace blocks of destroyed homes and businesses on Broad Street, now known as Olson Drive. In the decades following the flood and suburbanization, Ansonia's Main Street fell into decline as retail shoppers decamped to the Ansonia Mall at its far end. Other malls attracted shoppers to nearby Milford and Waterbury. Since the late 20th century, Main Street has been enlivened by he opening of several antique stores, a wine bar, a coffee shop, a Polish delicatessen, other retail businesses. Main Street now has a ` TARGET' Store. Wire Mill Farrel's Corp, building was located For years, Ansonia had a daily newspaper, the "Evening Sentinel", that enjoyed a wide readership throughout the Naugatuck Valley.
However, the parent company of the Connecticut Post bought the Sentinel in the 1980s and closed it, despite their promises not to do so. The "Post" wanted to consolidate their position as the region's main newspaper. To provide an alternative, a non-profit, online-only news site, named The Valley Independent Sentinel in honor of the historic paper, has been organized and launched June 22, 2009. In the early morning hours of November 6, 1960, Senator John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign motorcade stopped on its way to Waterbury for the candidate to make an appearance and brief address in front of City Hall, he drew thousands to downtown, many with transistor radios tuned to live reports on WADS of Senator Kennedy's progress towards Ansonia. President Kennedy returned to Ansonia on October 17, 1962, while on his way to Waterbury, but did not stop here. President George H. W. Bush paid a visit to Ansonia by helicopter during the 1992 presidential election campaign, he was running far behind schedule due to severe weather damage to a large area of New Jersey.
He arrived late and delivered a truncated speech, causing many residents in this Democratic area
Sewell Park, Norwich
Sewell Park is a triangular-shaped park between Constitution Hill and St. Clement's Hill in Norwich, England; the park was given to the Norwich Corporation and Norwich City Council as an open space by members of the Sewell family and former mayor E. G Buxton in 1908; the park was formally opened on July 5, 1909. At the entrance to the park is a commemorative horse trough in honour of Anna Sewell, the author of Black Beauty, other members of the Sewell family. Facilities in the park include a designated play area for children; the park contains specimen trees including several London Planes. From the top of the park, the steeples of Norwich Cathedral, St John the Baptist Cathedral, Norwich, St. Peter Mancroft and the clock-tower of Norwich City Hall can be seen. Adjacent to the park is Sewell Park Academy. There is another entrance to the park opposite Sewell Road; the park celebrated its centenary on Sunday July 6, 2008. The event will involve members of local schools. Sewell Park College Website Sewell Park Sewell Park centenary celebrations-News report
Wick is a town and royal burgh in Caithness, in the far north of Scotland. The town extends along both sides of Wick Bay. Wick Locality had a population of 6,954 at the time of the 2011 census, a decrease of 3.8% from 2001. Pulteneytown, developed on the south side of the river by the British Fisheries Society during the 19th century, was merged into the burgh in 1902; the town is on the main road linking John o' Groats with southern Britain. The Far North railway line links Wick railway station with southern Scotland and with Thurso, the other burgh of Caithness. Wick Airport is on Wick's northern outskirts; the airport has two usable runways. A third is derelict; the main offices of The John O'Groat Journal and The Caithness Courier are located in Wick, as are Caithness General Hospital, the Wick Carnegie Library and local offices of the Highland Council. Wick Sheriff Court is one of 16 sheriff courts serving the sheriffdom of Grampian and Islands. Iron Age activity in the parish of Wick is evident in the hill fort at Garrywhin.
Evidence of activity around Wick from the Norse pagan period was discovered in 1837 when brooches and bracelets from the Norse were uncovered by archaeologists. The name Wick appears to be from a Norse word, vík, meaning bay, cf. the word viking. In the eighth century, Saint Fergus, an Irish missionary, lived in Wick or its immediate vicinity during his mission to the people in the area, he is the patron saint of Wick. One of the fairs in Wick, the Fergusmas, is named for this saint, it is believed that the Chapel of St. Tear in Wick Parish near Ackergill was founded in the eighth century by St Drostan, whose ministry was in Aberdeenshire. Wick belonged to Norway, as did all of Caithness, until the reign of William the Lion, at which time the Norwegian earls held of the king of Scotland; the Castle of Old Wick known as “The Old Man of Wick” is thought to have been built in about 1160 by Harald Maddadson, Earl of Caithness and Orkney. Earl Harald, half Norse, is thought to have resided there, it was long used by fishermen as an aid to navigation in the North Sea.
The Origines Parochiales Scotiae records these events for twelfth-century Wick: Between the years 1142 and 1149 Rognvald Earl of Orkney went into Katanes and was there entertained at Vik by a husbandman named Sveinn the son of Hroald, a brave man. When Sveinn Asleifson was in the Hebrides, he committed the keeping of Dungulsbae, which he had received from Earl Rognvald, to Margad Grimson, whose oppressions caused many to take refuge with Hroald in Wik; this occasioned a dispute between Hroald and Margad, the latter soon afterwards went to Wik with nineteen men and slew Hroald. Between the years 1153 and 1156, Harald Maddadson joint Earl Katanes and Orkney with Earl Rognvald, passed into Katanes and wintered at Wik. In about 1330, the parish of Wick was included among the Caithness lands owned by the family of Cheyne; the last male heir, Sir Reginald de Cheyne, died c. 1345 and was succeeded by his two daughters, who, by marriage, carried the lands into the clans Sinclair and Keith. Between 1390 and 1406, King Robert III granted the town of Wick in heritage to Neill Sutherland with a burgh of barony.
In 1438, the clans Gunn and Keith joined battle near Wick on the moor of Tannach with both sides suffering heavy losses. However, hostilities between the two clans were not ended at that time. In 1503, the Parliament of Scotland established a sheriff for Caithness, who “should sit and have a place for administration of his office within the town of Wick.”In 1538, Ackergill Tower, three miles north of Wick, was granted to William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal and Lady Margaret Keith, his wife. Nine years George, Earl of Caithness, others seized the tower house, taking hostage Alexander Keith, captain of the castle, John Scarlet, his servitor, who were imprisoned in Girnigoe, Braal Castle, other places, they were granted remission by Queen Mary. In 1583, when George Sinclair, 4th Earl of Caithness, died at Edinburgh, his heart was brought to Wick where it was encased in lead and placed in Sinclair's aisle at the church of Wick. However, it entered the story of Wick once again in 1588 when Wick suffered at the hands of Alexander Gordon, 12th Earl of Sutherland, in his campaign against the 5th Sinclair Earl of Caithness, who had killed his kinsman.
While Sinclair and his men concealed themselves in Girnigoe Castle nearby, Sutherland proceeded to burn the town of Wick, “an achievement of no great difficulty, as the place at that time consisted of a few mean straggling houses thatched with straw.” All structures in the town except the church were burned. During the chaos of the fire, a Highlander intent on plundering the church broke open the lead case which contained the heart of the late Earl of Caithness, disappointed that no treasure was in the casque, flung the heart into the wind. In 1589, James VI made the town into a royal burgh in favour of the fifth Earl of Caithness. Wick did not escape the turbulence of the Reformation period when, in 1613, the Anglican archdeacon Richard Merchiston of Bower, a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, was brought into Caithness by Bishop Patrick Forbes. Merchiston, a zealous iconoclast, angered the Catholic townspeople when he broke up the stone sculpture of St. Fergus, the town's patron saint.
At first yielding to the city authorities who tried to prevent violence, a band of men followed the parson as he returned home in the evening, took him by force, drowned him in the Wick River. When questioned about the murder, they alleged that it had been the work of the saint himse
Sewell Barn Theatre
Sewell Barn Theatre is located in the grounds of Sewell Park Academy on Constitution Hill in Norwich, England. It is home to a popular amateur theatre company, with close historical links to the author Anna Sewell who wrote Black Beauty; the auditorium features raked seating on three sides of an open acting space. This unusual staging helps to draw the audience into the performance. Ground level spaces can be provided for audience members with limited mobility; the auditorium provides an unusual and convenient space for presentations and other private hire uses. The barn belonged to Clare House, owned by Philip Sewell, a local benefactor, from 1864 to 1906. Anna Sewell, author of the children’s story "Black Beauty", was Philip’s sister and lived in the White House, Spixworth Road, Spixworth. Philip owned a mare called Black Bess which used to draw his carriage along Spixworth Road and it might be supposed that Bess was the original inspiration for Black Beauty, the barn a prototype for Black Beauty’s stable.
The book was published by Jarrolds in 1877. Philip Sewell left his house and estate to the City of Norwich. Clare House became an open air school for city children suffering from respiratory complaints and the barn became their washroom and handicraft centre. Since the old hay barn has seen many uses. During the First World War it was used as a theatre when Catton residents put on a concert for troops billeted in the area, it was used for storage and as a bicycle shed for girls of the Blyth School. Clare House was demolished in 1970 and out of the rubble rose the foundations of part of the new Blyth Jex school; the barn housed the first school minibus. During a visit to the school in 1974 it was suggested by Norfolk County Councillors that the barn might make an admirable small theatre. At the time the barn was a dirty, leaky building stacked with broken school furniture and other accumulated rubbish, it took several years for this building, with the help of Valerie Glauert - head of Blyth Jex School - to be turned into a functioning small theatre.
In 1980, the Sewell Barn Theatre Company was formed. Their first public production The Norfolk Furies was written and directed by Henry Burke, staged at the barn; the company stages a number of productions every year. In February 2008 the company presented its 200th production The Winter's Tale. Membership of the Sewell Barn company is open to everyone, workshops are open to non-members; the foyer was renovated in 2012. As of 2016, the Artistic Directors are Clare Williamson. Maddermarket Theatre Theatre Royal, Norwich Sewell Park Norwich Playhouse Sewell Barn Theatre website