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Annals of Quedlinburg

The Annals of Quedlinburg were written between 1008 and 1030 in the convent of Quedlinburg Abbey. In recent years a consensus has emerged that it is that the annalist was a woman; the annals are dedicated to the history of the Holy Roman Empire. The original document has disappeared, surviving only as a 16th-century copy held in Dresden, but its contents endure as a scholarly resource; the city of Quedlinburg, was first mentioned in writing in a document dated to 922. Saint Mathilda founded a religious community for women at its abbey, serving as abbess from 966 to 999; the abbey became a premier educational institution for the female nobles of Saxony, maintained its mission for nearly 900 years. The city served as an imperial palatinate of the Saxon emperors, where Henry the Fowler, the founder of the Ottonian dynasty, was buried. Quedlinburg was situated not far from Magdeburg, the Royal Assembly of the empire, its annalists could therefore rely on genuine information from the royal house and obtain eyewitness accounts.

The city lost some stature under the rule of Henry II, who broke with the tradition of celebrating Easter there. The Annals open with a chronicle of world history from the time of Adam to the Third Council of Constantinople in 680-681, based on chronicles by Jerome and Bede; the narrative is borrowed from multiple older sources until the year 1002, although original reports from as early as 852 are present. Beginning in 993, the narrative begins including events which represent the annalist's own eyewitness testimony concerning events at and around Quedlinburg; the amount of detail increases from 1008 onwards, leading some analysts to conclude that 1008 was the actual date that the Annals were first compiled, although Robert Holzman argues for a start date of 1000. It has been suggested that the annalist temporarily abandoned the project between 1016 and 1021; the exact reasons for this suspension of the work are unknown. Work on the project continued between 1021 and 1030, when its authors were able to report a military victory against Mieszko II.

The primary task of the annalists was to record the heritage of the Ottonian dynasty and of Quedlinburg itself. The Annals incorporate the stories of a number of historic and legendary figures such as Attila the Hun, King Dietrich of the Goths, others; the historian Felice Lifshitz has suggested that the amount of saga material integrated into its narrative is without parallel. The Annals of Quedlinburg became an important research source. Felice Lifshitz asserts that the Annals of Quedlinburg played a key role in shaping the ways in which influential Germans of the 19th and 20th centuries saw their medieval past, they continue to be analyzed in other contexts: by scholars of Beowulf discussing its use of the term Hugones to mean Franks, by climatologists, in a book discussing fear of the millennium. The first written occurrence of Lithuania's name has been traced to the Quedlinburg Annals and dated to 9 March 1009; the passage reads: From other sources that describe Bruno of Querfurt, it is clear that this missionary attempted to Christianize the pagan king Netimer and his subjects.

However, Netimer's brother, refusing to accept Christianity, killed his followers. The historian Alfredas Bumblauskas has suggested that the story records the first baptismal attempt in the history of Lithuania; the Annals of the Holy Roman Empire. The Annals of Quedlinburg. Translated and annotated by Grzegorz Kazimierz Walkowski ISBN 978-83-930932-6-7


A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones never have symptoms; when a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a cramp-like pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder, inflammation of the pancreas and infection of a bile duct. Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, yellowish skin, dark urine, pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss; the bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, bilirubin. Gallstones formed from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, those from bilirubin are termed pigment stones.

Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests; the risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight with exercise and a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is recommended; this can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible, medication can be used to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break them down. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more have stones than men and they occur more after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones.

Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are good. Gallstone disease refers to the condition where gallstones are either in the gallbladder or common bile duct; the presence of stones in the gallbladder is referred to as cholelithiasis, from the Greek chol- + lith- + -iasis. Presence of gallstones in the common bile duct is called choledocholithiasis, from the Greek chol- + docho- + lith- + iasis-. Choledocholithiasis is associated with obstruction of the bile ducts, which in turn can lead to cholangitis, from the Greek: chol- + ang- + itis-, a serious infection of the bile ducts. Gallstones within the ampulla of Vater can obstruct the exocrine system of the pancreas, which in turn can result in pancreatitis. Gallstones, regardless of size or number, may be asymptomatic for years; such "silent stones" do not require treatment. A characteristic symptom of a gallstone attack is the presence of a colicky pain in the upper-right side of the abdomen accompanied by nausea and vomiting; the pain increases for 30 minutes to several hours.

A person may experience referred pain between the shoulder blades or below the right shoulder. Attacks occur after a fatty meal and always happen at night, after drinking. In addition to pain and vomiting, a person may experience a fever. If the stones block the duct and cause bilirubin to leak into the bloodstream and surrounding tissue, there may be jaundice and itching. If this is the case, the liver enzymes are to be raised. Gallstones in cases of severe inflammation may erode through the gallbladder into adherent bowel causing an obstruction termed gallstone ileus. Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in the biliary tree and liver, acute pancreatitis as blockage of the bile ducts can prevent active enzymes being secreted into the bowel, instead damaging the pancreas. Gallbladder cancer may occur as a complication. Gallstone risk increases for people near or above 40 years. A lack of melatonin could contribute to gallbladder stones, as melatonin inhibits cholesterol secretion from the gallbladder, enhances the conversion of cholesterol to bile, is an antioxidant, able to reduce oxidative stress to the gallbladder.

Researchers believe that gallstones may be caused by a combination of factors, including inherited body chemistry, body weight, gallbladder motility, low calorie diet. The absence of such risk factors does not, preclude the formation of gallstones. Nutritional factors that may increase risk of gallstones include constipation. Wine and whole-grained bread may decrease the risk of gallstones. Rapid weight loss increases risk of gallstones; the weight loss drug orlistat is known to increase the risk of gallstones. Cholecystokinin deficiency caused by celiac disease increases risk of gallstone formation when diagnosis of celiac disease is delayed. Pigment gallstones are most seen in the developing world. Risk factors for

Plantagenet (radio plays)

Plantagenet is a three-series sequence of BBC Radio 4 radio plays by the British dramatist Mike Walker, broadcast in the Classic Serial strand, based on the account of the Plantagenet dynasty in Holinshed's Chronicles. Each series consisted of three weekly episodes, the first premiering from 14 February 2010, the second from 29 May 2011 and the third from 1 April 2012. King Henry IIDavid Warner Queen EleanorJane Lapotaire Prince Richard – Joseph Cohen-Cole Prince HalPiers Wehner Prince Geoffrey – Rhys Jennings William MarshallStephen Hogan Bertran de Bourne – Bruce Alexander King Louis – Philip Fox CourtierJohn Biggins Queen Eleanor – Jane Lapotaire Richard – Ed Stoppard King Henry II – David Warner William Marshall – Stephen Hogan King Philip – John Biggins Saladin – Raad Rawi El-adel – Khalid Laith Baldwin – Ewan Hooper Prince John King John – Neil Stuke Hugh – Philip Fox Robert of Champagne – Rhys Jennings Conrad – Piers Wehner Queen Eleanor – Jane Lapotaire King Richard – Ed Stoppard King John – Neil Stuke William Marshall – Stephen Hogan Prince ArthurRyan Watson Queen Isabelle – Emerald O'Hanrahan King Philip – John Biggins Saladin – Raad Rawi El-Adel – Khalid Laith Doctor/Langton – Ewan Hooper Girard – Joseph Cohen-Cole De Roche – Bruce Alexander Fitzwalter – Piers Wehner Will Marshall – Rhys Jennings Prince Henry Henry III – Bertie Gilbert King Edward IPhilip Jackson Margaret, Edward's second wife – Ellie Kendrick Ned King Edward IISam Troughton Piers GavestonSimon Bubb William WallaceJames Lailey Roger BigodJonathan Forbes King Edward II – Sam Troughton Isabella, Edward's wife and Mortimer's lover – Hattie Morahan Roger MortimerTrystan Gravelle Prince Edward King Edward III – Joseph Samrai Hugh Despenser – Jonathan Forbes King Richard II, Edward III's grandson and heir – Patrick Kennedy Henry BolingbrokeBlake Ritson Queen Ann – Alex Tregear GloucesterPeter Polycarpou John of GauntSean Baker Hal King Henry V...

Luke Treadaway Katherine of France, Henry V's wife... Lydia Leonard Thomas of Earlham... James Lailey Sir John Oldcastle... Nicky Henson King Henry IV... Paul Moriarty Badby... Simon Bubb Bradmore... Carl Prekopp King Henry VI... Al Weaver Margaret... Aimee-Ffion Edwards Richard, Duke of York... Shaun Dooley Cardinal Beaufort... Paul Moriarty Earl of Warwick... Gerard McDermott Duke of Somerset... Carl Prekopp Edward of York... Simon Bubb Queen Elizabeth, wife of Edward IV... Nancy Carroll King Edward IV... Simon Bubb King Richard III... Carl Prekopp Clarence... Christopher Webster Margaret, widow of Henry VI... Aimee Ffion Edwards Warwick... Gerard McDermott Stafford... Adam Billington Lewis... James Lailey Bishop... Paul Moriarty BBC site – Series 1 BBC site – Series 2

Fuze (band)

Fuze are an English pop rock band who formed in 2010. The band consists of George Kirchner, Jack Goldsmith and Keir Adamson, they were signed by LUMI Records in 2011 prior to the release of their debut album, That's What She Said. The band's name originates from Fuze, their debut single, Hey You, was used in the soundtrack for the UK film, The Shouting Men, which featured Craig Fairbrass, Warren Llambias, John Barnes and Matt Daniel-Baker. Their second single, When You Come Home, was released in July 2011. Fuze were crowned Chelmsford's YFest winners in August 2011 after return from their tour of England; the band are believed to have finished writing for their second album, due for release in 2012. Prior to Fuze, in 2008 George Kirchner invited Jack Goldsmith, who lived just four doors away, to join his band Blue Faze Fuze. After a load of gigs and three different drummers, in 2009 Jack Goldsmith was introduced by his brother-in-law to Keir Adamson who just by chance happened to attend Trinity Catholic High School, the same school that George had attended.

George auditioned Keir during the school lunch hour and it was not only Keir's drumming ability that impressed George, but his sense of humour and like-ability. Keir joined Fuze in November 2009 and was thrown straight into the deep end by playing fifteen gigs in the space of two months. In January 2010, Fuze started auditioning for a new front man however, nobody caught their eye, it was that year in April, when George Kirchner came across an acoustic cover of Supermassive black hole on YouTube by Ed Alston. George emailed Ed and invited him to come along to their next gig, however due to Ed living in Chelmsford, he found traveling to London a problem, it wasn't until May, when Fuze played at The Box in Chelmsford, when Ed came to a gig. After liking what he saw, Ed joined the band a week later; the band released their first EP, named "It's An EP Fool!", in June 2010. The EP was recorded live in studio 7K, included songs, "Lies", "Don't Cry", "Waste My Time" and "Changed Ways"; the EP was played by many local radio stations and led to new gigs at venues the band had not played before.

Fuze posted a couple of video blogs on YouTube to gain popularity and more hits on their MySpace page

Ujala (film)

Ujala is a Bollywood movie released in 1959, starring Shammi Kapoor, Mala Sinha, Raaj Kumar, Leela Chitnis and Tun Tun. Naresh Saigal was the story writer as well as the director of the movie. Ujala features one of the popular Bollywood songs "Jhoomta Masoom, Mast Mahina" played by Shammi Kapoor and Mala Sinha, sung by Manna Dey and Lata Mangeshkar; the film came with a message. Ramu, his family consisting of his mother and three siblings, his sweetheart Chhabili are poor, but they dream of a better life and keep trying to achieve it. In the process his childhood friend and villain in the movie Kalu creates obstacles for his ambitions. Ramu is dragged into an evil world, where Kalu makes him realize that it is easy money to rob someone. Ramu gets pulled into this world, he needs money for her treatment and she dies due to the lack of it. Ramu now joins his gang. Kalu kills one of his gang members. Kalu convinces Ramu that he may get blamed for the murder, he works for a man making knives from where Kalu steals a silver knife, which belongs to a police officer.

This implicates Ramu further. After a final fight with Kalu, Ramu is able to prove his innocence. Shammi Kapoor as Ramu Mala Sinha as Chabeli Raaj Kumar as Kalu Leela Chitnis as Ramu's mother Dhumal as Bholu Kumkum as Kammo Ramesh Sinha as Police Inspector Shivraj as Acharya Raaj Kumar was unhappy as none of the songs were picturized on him, rather picturized on Shammi Kapoor, a rising superstar of the late 50s. So Director, Naresh Saigal sorted out the situation by creating a Friendship song between the 2 male stars "Yaaron surat hamari pe mat jao", sung by Mukesh and Mohammed Rafi, the 2 famous lead playback singers of that time; the film score is composed by the musical duo Shankar Jaikishan. The lyrics were written by Hasrat Jaipuri. Ujala on IMDb

Jere Koponen

Jere Koponen is a Finnish football goalkeeper for Turun Palloseura. Koponen started his career at FC Inter Turku and won the Finnish U19 championship with his club in 2011. In April 2012, he joined KTP on loan until August, but he returned to FC Inter in June after having made 9 appearances for KTP. In December 2012, he extended his contract with FC Inter until end of 2014. For the 2015 season he joined SJK on a one-year contract and won the Finnish championship as second goalkeeper behind Mihkel Aksalu with one appearance during the season. Koponen left Inter Turku for the second time, at the end of the 2018 season. From spring 2019 he is a member of lithuanian FK Palanga. In summer 2019 he left FK Palanga. In August 2019, he returned to his former club, TPS. Jere Koponen at Soccerway Jere Koponen profile at Veikkausliiga