Diarmuid Ua Duibhne
Diarmuid Ua Duibhne or Diarmid O'Dyna, was a demigod, son of Donn and one of the Fianna in the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology. He is best known as the lover of Gráinne, the intended wife of Fianna leader Fionn mac Cumhaill in the legend The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne. Among his sons were Donnchadh, Iollann and Ioruad. In the legend, the Tuatha Dé Danaan god of love and creativity Aenghus Óg was Diarmuid's foster father and protector. According to the story Diarmuid was a skilled warrior and a well-liked and valued member of the Fianna who single-handedly killed 3,400 warriors in a battle and saved Fionn and the Fianna. Aengus Óg owned a deadly sword named Móralltach or Nóralltach – the Great Fury, given to him by the sea-god Manannán mac Lir. In The Pursuit of Diarmuid and Gráinne it is said of Móralltach that it left no stroke nor blow unfinished at the first trial. Aonghus gave this sword to his foster-son Diarmuid, in addition to a sword named Beagalltach, the Little Fury. Along with these two swords, Diarmuid is known to have wielded two spears, Gáe Buidhe and Gáe Dearg, which caused wounds that could not be healed.
He used Gáe Dearg and Moralltach for adventures which were matters of life and death, Gáe Buidhe and Beagalltach for lesser battles. Diarmuid's father, was a warrior of the Fianna. At a dinner party, jealous of the attention given to the son of Aengus' steward, killed the steward's son Congus when no one was looking. Aengus resurrected the steward's son in the form of a boar, but the steward required Fionn to find out the truth and, upon learning the truth, put a curse upon Diarmuid: He was to be killed by the boar, the steward's transformed son. Diarmuid was famous for his beauty, for his'love spot', which made him irresistible to women. While hunting one night he met a woman, the personification of youth. After sleeping with him she put a magical love spot under his eye that caused any woman who looked at it to fall in love with him. One freezing winter's night, a'Loathly Lady' entered the Fianna lodge where the warriors had just gone to bed after a hunting expedition. Drenched to the bone, her sodden hair was knotted.
She demanded a blanket, beginning with Fionn. Only young Diarmuid, whose bed was nearest to the fireplace, took pity on the woman, giving her his bed and blanket, she said that she had wandered the world alone for seven years. Diarmuid told her she could sleep all night and he would protect her. Towards dawn, she became a beautiful young woman; the next day, she rewarded Diarmuid's kindness by offering him his greatest wish—a house overlooking the sea. Overjoyed, Diarmuid asked the woman to live with him, she agreed on one condition: he must promise never to mention how ugly she looked on the night they met. After three days together, Diarmuid grew restless, she offered to watch his hound and her new pups. On three separate occasions, Diarmuid’s friends, envious of his luck, visited the lady and asked for one of the new pups; each time, she honoured the request. Each time, Diarmuid was angry and asked her how she could repay him so meanly when he overlooked her ugliness the first night they met. On the third mention and house disappeared and his beloved greyhound died.
Realizing that his ungratefulness has caused him to lose everything he valued, Diarmuid set out to find his lady. He used an enchanted ship to cross a stormy sea to the Otherworld, where he searched for the lady through meadows filled with brightly coloured horses and silver trees. Three times he saw a drop of blood; when a stranger revealed that the King’s gravely ill daughter had just returned after seven years, Diarmuid realised it must be his lady. Rushing to her side, he discovered; the three drops of blood Diarmuid collected were from her heart, spilled each time she thought of Diarmuid. The only cure was a cup of healing water from the Plain of Wonder, guarded by a jealous king and his army. Diarmuid vowed to bring back the cup. At an impassable river, Diarmuid was helped by the Red Man of All Knowledge, who had red hair and eyes like glowing coals, he guided him to the king of the healing cup's country. Diarmuid called out that the cup should be sent out from the king's castle to him, or else champions to fight with him should be sent out.
Twice eight hundred fighting men were sent out, in three hours there was not one of them left to stand against him. Twice nine hundred better fighters were sent out against him, within four hours there was not one of them left; the king gave him the cup of healing. On the return trip, the Red Man advised Diarmuid on, he warned the hero that when her sickness ended, Diarmuid’s love for her would end as well. Having cured his lover, Diarmuid boarded an enchanted ship to return to the Fianna, where he was greeted by his friends and his greyhound, which the lady had returned to life as her final gift to him. Tóraigheacht Dhiarmada agus Ghráinne – in English "The Pursuit of Díarmuid and Gráinne" is a popular romance of a love triangle. Although the surviving text of The Pursuit of Díarmait and Gráinne is dated no earlier than the 17th century, there is a reference to this tale in the late 12th-century manuscript The Book of Leinster. Fionn Mac Cumhaill, much older than in his other adventures, had several wives over the years.
When his last wife died, his son Oisín and his companions one day asked Fionn. Diorruing suggested that the best woman for Fionn
Trinity College Library
The Library of Trinity College Dublin serves Trinity College and the University of Dublin. It is a legal deposit or "copyright library", which means that publishers in Ireland must deposit a copy of all their publications there, free of charge, it is the only Irish library to hold such rights for the United Kingdom. The Library is the permanent home to the Brian Boru harp, a national symbol of Ireland, a copy of 1916 Proclamation of the Irish Republic, the Book of Kells. Two of the four volumes of the Book of Kells are on public display, one opened to a major decorated page and the other to a typical page of text; the volumes and pages shown are changed. Members of the University of Dublin have access to the libraries of Tallaght Hospital and the Irish School of Ecumenics, Milltown; the Library proper occupies several buildings, six of which are at the Trinity College campus itself, with another part of the Trinity Centre at St James's Hospital, Dublin: The oldest library building, now known as the Old Library, is Thomas Burgh’s magnum opus.
Construction began in 1712. A large building which took twenty years to complete in its original form, it towered over the university and city after its completion in 1732. Today, surrounded by scaled buildings, it is imposing and dominates the view of the university from Nassau Street; the Book of Kells is located in the Old Library, along with the Book of Durrow, the Book of Howth and other ancient texts. Incorporating the Long Room, the Old Library is one of Ireland's biggest tourist attractions, holds thousands of rare, in many cases early, volumes. In the 18th century, the college received the Brian Boru harp, one of the three surviving medieval Gaelic harps, a national symbol of Ireland, now housed in the Library. Housed within the Old Library are: Special Collections. Manuscripts & Archives; the Berkeley/Lecky/Ussher Libraries complex, incorporating: The Berkeley Library, in Fellows' Square. Designed by Paul Koralek of ABK Architects, an imposing Brutalist structure opened in 1967; the Lecky Library, attached to the Arts Building.
Designed by ABK opened in 1978. The Ussher Library, overlooking College Park. Designed by McCullough Mulvin Architects opened in 2003; the Glucksman Map Library. The Preservation and Conservation Department; the Hamilton Science and Engineering Library, located within the Hamilton Building. The 1937 Reading Room; the John Stearne Medical Library, housed at St James's Hospital. Further materials are held in storage in Stacks, either in closed access within College or at a book depository in the Dublin suburb of Santry; the Library began with the founding of Trinity College in 1592. In 1661, Henry Jones presented it with the Book of its most famous manuscript. James Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, whose most important works were "Veterum Epistolarum Hibernicarum Sylloge" and "Brittanicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates", left his valuable library, comprising several thousand printed books and manuscripts, to the Library, his complete works were published by the Library in twenty-four volumes. In 1801, the Library was given legal deposit rights, making it the only library in Ireland to have such rights for the United Kingdom at that time.
According to the Republic of Ireland's Copyright and Related Rights Act, 2000, the Library is entitled, along with the National Library of Ireland and the libraries of the National University of Ireland, the University of Limerick, Dublin City University, to receive a copy of all works published in the Republic of Ireland. As a result of the British Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003, which continues a more ancient right dating from 1801, the Library is entitled, along with the British Library, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, Cambridge University Library, the National Library of Wales and the National Library of Scotland, to receive a copy on request of all works published in the United Kingdom. Many works are now being received electronically rather than in print under new UK regulations which came into force in April 2013; the 65-metre-long main chamber of the Old Library, the Long Room, was built between 1712 and 1732 and houses 200,000 of the Library's oldest books. The Long Room had a flat ceiling, shelving for books only on the lower level, an open gallery.
By the 1850s the room had to be expanded as the shelves were filled due to the fact that the Library had been given permission to obtain a free copy of every book, published in Ireland and Britain. In 1860, The Long Room's roof was raised to accommodate an upper gallery; the Long Room is lined with marble busts. The marble bust collection was formed when 14 busts from the sculptor Peter Scheemakers were acquired by the college. Many of the busts are of great philosophers and men who supported the college; the most outstanding bust in the collection is of the writer Jonathan Swift, created by Louis François Roubiliac. The Long Room holds one of the last remaining copies of the 1916 Proclamation of the Irish Republic; this proclamation was read by Patrick Pearse near the General Post Office on 24 April 1916. Visitors may view the Trinity College harp in the Long Room, the oldest of its kind in Ireland dating back to the 15th century; the harp includes 29 brass strings. The Jedi archives of the Jedi Temple in the movie Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones bear a startling resemblance to the Long Room of the Trinity College Library.
This resemblance resulted in controversy as permission had not been sought to use the building's likeness in the film. How
Annals of the Four Masters
The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland or the Annals of the Four Masters are chronicles of medieval Irish history. The entries span from the Deluge, dated as 2,242 years after creation to AD 1616. Due to the criticisms by Irish historian Tuileagna Ó Maol Chonaire, the text was not published in the lifetime of any of the participants; the annals are a compilation of earlier annals, although there is some original work. They were compiled between 1632 and 1636 at a Franciscan friary near the Drowes river in County Leitrim, on the border with County Donegal and County Sligo; the patron of the project was Fearghal Ó Gadhra, M. P. a Gaelic lord in Coolavin, County Sligo. The chief compiler of the annals was Brother Mícheál Ó Cléirigh from Ballyshannon, assisted by, among others, Cú Choigcríche Ó Cléirigh, Fearfeasa Ó Maol Chonaire and Peregrine Ó Duibhgeannain. Although only one of the authors, Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, was a Franciscan friar, they became known as'The Four Friars' or in the original Irish, Na Ceithre Máistrí.
The Anglicized version of this was "The Four Masters", the name that has become associated with the annals themselves. The annals are written in Irish; the several manuscript copies are held at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal Irish Academy, University College Dublin and the National Library of Ireland. The first substantial English translation was published by Owen Connellan in 1846; the Connellan translation included the annals from the eleventh to the seventeenth centuries. The only version to have a four-colour frontispiece, it included a large folding map showing the location of families in Ireland; this edition, neglected for over 150 years, was republished in the early twenty-first century. The original Connellan translation was followed several years by a full translation by the historian John O'Donovan; the translation was funded by a government grant of £1,000 obtained by the notable mathematician Sir William Rowan Hamilton while he was president of the Royal Irish Academy. The Annals are one of the principal Irish-language sources for Irish history up to 1616.
While many of the early chapters are lists of names and dates, the chapters, dealing with events of which the authors had first-hand accounts, are much more detailed. The reliability and usefulness of the Annals as a historical source has sometimes been questioned on the grounds that they were limited to accounts of the births and activities of the Gaelic nobility of Ireland and ignore wider social trends or events. On the other hand, the Annals, as one of the few prose sources in Irish from this period provide a valuable insight into events such as the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years War from a Gaelic Irish perspective; the early part of this work is based upon the Lebor Gabala. Today, most scholars regard the Lebor Gabála as myth rather than history, it appears to be based on medieval Christian pseudo-histories, but it incorporates some of Ireland's native pagan mythology. Scholars believe the goal of its writers was to provide an epic history for Ireland that could compare to that of the Israelites or the Romans, which reconciled native myth with the Christian view of history.]
It is suggested, for example, that there are six'takings' to match the "Six Ages of the World" Lebor Gabála Érenn is considered a "highly influential Middle Irish prose-and-verse treatise written in order to bridge the chasm between Christian world-chronology and the prehistory of Ireland". O'Donovan, John, ed. Annala rioghachta Eireann: Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Four Masters, from the earliest period to the year 1616, 7 volumes, Royal Irish Academy. Volume 1, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 2, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 3, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 4, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 5, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, Volume 6, HTML e-text via CELT: irish, english † Volume 7 † The appendix of volume 6 contains the done pedigrees of a small selection of the Gaelic Irish nobility, pp.2377 ff Irish annals The Chronicle of Ireland Template:Cite AFM for citing the Annal in articles at Wikipedia Cunningham, Bernadette. The Annals of the Four Masters: Irish History and Society in the Early Seventeenth Century.
Dublin: Four Courts. ISBN 978-1-84682-203-2. Cunningham, Bernadette, ed.. O'Donnell Histories: Donegal and the Annals of the Four Masters. Rathmullan: Rathmullan & District Local Historical Society. Mc Carthy, Daniel P.. The Irish Annals: Their Genesis and History. Dublin: Four Courts. Mc Carthy, Daniel P.. "Irish Chronicles and Their Chronology". Retrieved 5 April 2010. Ó Muraíle, Nollaig. "The autograph manuscripts of the Annals of the Four Masters". Celtica. 19: 75–95. O'Sullivan, William. "The Slane manuscript of the Annals of the Four Masters". Ríocht na Mídhe: Journal of the County Meath Historical Society. 10: 78–85. Catholic Encyclopedia: Annals of the Four Masters List of Published Texts at CELT — University College Cork's Corpus of Electronic Texts project has the full text of the annals online, both in the original Irish and in O'Donovan's translation. Irish Script On Screen — The ISOS project at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies has high-resolution digital images of the Royal Irish Academy's copy of the Annals
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being updated in 1154. Nine manuscripts survive in whole or in part, though not all are of equal historical value and none of them is the original version; the oldest seems to have been started towards the end of Alfred's reign, while the most recent was written at Peterborough Abbey after a fire at that monastery in 1116. All of the material in the Chronicle is in the form of annals, by year; these manuscripts collectively are known as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The Chronicle is not unbiased: there are occasions when comparison with other medieval sources makes it clear that the scribes who wrote it omitted events or told one-sided versions of stories.
Taken as a whole, the Chronicle is the single most important historical source for the period in England between the departure of the Romans and the decades following the Norman conquest. Much of the information given in the Chronicle is not recorded elsewhere. In addition, the manuscripts are important sources for the history of the English language. Seven of the nine surviving manuscripts and fragments now reside in the British Library; the remaining two are in the Bodleian Library at Oxford and the Parker Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. All of the surviving manuscripts are copies, so it is not known for certain where or when the first version of the Chronicle was composed, it is agreed that the original version – sometimes known as the Early English Annals – was written in the late 9th century by a scribe in Wessex. Frank Stenton argued from internal evidence that it was first compiled for a secular, but not royal, patron. After the original Chronicle was compiled, copies were distributed to various monasteries.
Additional copies were made, for further distribution or to replace lost manuscripts, some copies were updated independently of each other. Some of these copies are those that have survived; the earliest extant manuscript, the Parker Chronicle, was written by a single scribe up to the year 891. The scribe wrote DCCCXCII, in the margin of the next line; this appears to place the composition of the chronicle at no than 892. It is known, it is difficult to fix the date of composition, but it is thought that the chronicles were composed during the reign of Alfred the Great, as Alfred deliberately tried to revive learning and culture during his reign, encouraged the use of English as a written language. The Chronicle, as well as the distribution of copies to other centres of learning, may be a consequence of the changes Alfred introduced. Of the nine surviving manuscripts, seven are written in Old English. One, known as the Bilingual Canterbury Epitome, is in Old English with a translation of each annal into Latin.
Another, the Peterborough Chronicle, is in Old English except for the last entry, in early Middle English. The oldest is known as the Winchester Chronicle or the Parker Chronicle, is written in the Mercian dialect until 1070 Latin to 1075. Six of the manuscripts were printed in an 1861 edition for the Rolls Series by Benjamin Thorpe with the text laid out in columns labelled A to F, he included the few readable remnants of a burned seventh manuscript, which he referred to as destroyed in a fire at Ashburnham House in 1731. Following this convention, the two additional manuscripts are called and; the known surviving manuscripts are listed below. The manuscripts are all thought to derive from a common original, but the connections between the texts are more complex than simple inheritance via copying; the diagram at right gives an overview of the relationships between the manuscripts. The following is a summary of the relationships. Was a copy of, made in Winchester between 1001 and 1013. was used in the compilation of at Abingdon, in the mid-11th century.
However, the scribe for had access to another version, which has not survived. Includes material from Bede's Ecclesiastical History written by 731 and from a set of 8th-century Northumbrian annals and is thought to have been copied from a northern version that has not survived. Has material that appears to derive from the same sources as but does not include some additions that appear only in, such as the Mercian Register; this manuscript was composed at the monastery in Peterborough, some time after a fire th
Armagh is the county town of County Armagh and a city in Northern Ireland, as well as a civil parish. It is the ecclesiastical capital of Ireland – the seat of the Archbishops of Armagh, the Primates of All Ireland for both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of Ireland. In ancient times, nearby Navan Fort was a pagan ceremonial site and one of the great royal capitals of Gaelic Ireland. Today, Armagh is home to two cathedrals and the Armagh Observatory, is known for its Georgian architecture. Although classed as a medium-sized town, Armagh was given city status in 1994 and Lord Mayoralty status in 2012, both by Queen Elizabeth II, it had a population of 14,749 people in the 2011 Census, making it the least-populated city in Ireland and the fifth smallest in the United Kingdom. Eamhain Mhacha, at the western edge of Armagh, is believed to have been an ancient pagan ritual or ceremonial site. According to Irish mythology it was one of the great royal sites of Gaelic Ireland and the capital of Ulster.
It appears to have been abandoned after the 1st century. In the 3rd century, a ditch and bank was dug around the top of Cathedral Hill, the heart of what is now Armagh, its circular shape matches the modern street layout. Evidence suggests that it was the successor to Navan. Like Navan, it too was named after the goddess Macha – Ard Mhacha means "Macha's height"; this name was anglicised as Ardmagh, which became Armagh. After Christianity spread to Ireland, the pagan sanctuary was converted into a Christian one, Armagh became the site of an important church and monastery. According to tradition, Saint Patrick founded his main church there in the year 457, it became the "ecclesiastical capital" of Ireland. Saint Patrick was said to have decreed. According to the Annals of the Four Masters: Ard Mhacha was founded by Saint Patrick, it having been granted to him by Daire, son of Finnchadh, son of Eoghan, son of Niallan. Twelve men were appointed by him for building the town, he ordered them, in the first place, to erect an archbishop's city there, a church for monks, for nuns, for the other orders in general, for he perceived that it would be the head and chief of the churches of Ireland in general.
In 839 and 869, the monastery in Armagh was raided by Vikings. As with similar raids, their goal was to acquire valuables such as silver, which could be found in churches and monasteries; the Book of Armagh came from the monastery. It is a 9th-century Irish manuscript now held by Trinity College Library in Dublin, it contains some of the oldest surviving specimens of Old Irish. Brian Boru is believed to be buried in the graveyard of the St. Patrick's Church of Ireland cathedral. After having conquered the island during the 990s, he became High King of Ireland in 1002, until his death in 1014. In 1189, John de Courcy, a Norman knight who had invaded Ulster in 1177, plundered Armagh. Armagh has been an educational centre since the time of Saint Patrick, thus it has been referred to as "the city of saints and scholars"; the educational tradition continued with the foundation of the Royal School in 1608, St Patrick's College in 1834 and the Armagh Observatory in 1790. The Observatory was part of Archbishop Lord Rokeby's plan to have a university in the city.
This ambition was fulfilled, albeit in the 1990s when Queen's University of Belfast opened an outreach centre in the former hospital building. Three brothers from Armagh died at the Battle of the Somme during World War I. None of the three has a known grave and all are commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. A fourth brother was wounded in the same attack. On 14 January 1921, during the Irish War of Independence, a Royal Irish Constabulary sergeant was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army in Armagh, he was attacked with a grenade as he walked along Market Street and died of his wounds. On 4 September 1921, republican leaders Michael Collins and Eoin O'Duffy addressed a large meeting in Armagh, attended by up to 10,000 people. During the Troubles in Armagh, the violence was substantial enough for the city to be referred to by some as "Murder Mile". Over the span of 20 years, 24 individuals were killed in 13 different incidents. Armagh City and District Council was a single district council until 2015 when it merged with Banbridge District Council and Craigavon Borough Council under local government reorganisation in Northern Ireland to become Armagh and Craigavon District Council known as the ABC council.
In the Armagh and Craigavon District Council election, 2014, a total of two Sinn Fein, two SDLP, one DUP and one UUP councillors were elected from Armagh electoral area. In 2018 the Lord Mayor of the ABC council was Julie Flaherty and the Deputy Lord Mayor was Paul Duffy. Armagh is part of the Armagh. In the 2017 elections, the following were elected to the Northern Ireland Assembly: Megan Fearon, Cathal Boylan, Conor Murphy, Justin McNulty of the SDLP and William Irwin of the DUP. Together with part of the district of Newry and Mourne, it forms the Newry & Armagh constituency for elections to the Westminster Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly; the Member of Parliament is Mickey Brady of Sinn Féin. He won the seat in the United Kingdom general election, 2015; as the seat of the Primate of All Ireland, Armagh was regarded as a city, recognisably had the status by 1226. It claimed the title by prescription.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne known as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland. Holy Island has a recorded history from the 6th century AD. After the Viking invasions and the Norman conquest of England, a priory was reestablished. A small castle was built on the island in 1550; the island of Lindisfarne appears under the Old Welsh name Medcaut in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. Following up on a suggestion by Richard Coates, Andrew Breeze proposes that the name derives from Latin Medicata, owing to the island's reputation for medicinal herbs. Both the Parker Chronicle and Peterborough Chronicle annals of AD 793 record the Old English name, Lindisfarena; the soubriquet Holy Island was in use by the 11th century. The reference was to Saints Cuthbert; the name Lindisfarne has an uncertain origin. The first part, Lindis-, may refer to people from the Kingdom of Lindsey in modern Lincolnshire, referring to either regular visitors or settlers.
Alternatively the name may be Celtic in origin, with the element Lindis- meaning "stream or pool". It is not known if this is a small lake on the island; the second element, -farne comes from farran, meaning "land", but may come from faran, meaning "traveller". There is a supposition that the nearby Farne Islands are fern like in shape and the name may have come from there; the island measures 3 miles from east to west and 1 1⁄2 miles from north to south, comprises 1,000 acres at high tide. The nearest point of the island is about 1 mile from the mainland of England; the island of Lindisfarne is located along the northeast coast of England, close to the border with Scotland. It is accessible, most times, at low tide by crossing sand and mudflats which are covered with water at high tides; these sand and mud flats carry an ancient pilgrims' path, in more recent times, a modern causeway. Lindisfarne is surrounded by the 8,750-acre Lindisfarne National Nature Reserve, which protects the island's sand dunes and the adjacent intertidal habitats.
As of 27 March 2011, the island had a population of 180. Warning signs urge visitors walking to the island to keep to the marked path, to check tide times and weather and to seek local advice if in doubt. For drivers, tide tables are prominently displayed at both ends of the causeway and where the Holy Island road leaves the A1 Great North Road at Beal; the causeway is open from about three hours after high tide until two hours before the next high tide, but the period of closure may be extended during stormy weather. Tide tables giving the safe crossing periods are published by Northumberland County council. Despite these warnings, about one vehicle each month is stranded on the causeway, requiring rescue by HM Coastguard, Seahouses RNLI lifeboat, or RAF helicopter. A sea rescue costs £1,900, while an air rescue costs more than £4,000. Local people have opposed a causeway barrier on convenience grounds. Trinity House operates two lighthouses to guide vessels entering Holy Island Harbour, named Guile Point East and Heugh Hill.
The former is one of a pair of stone obelisks standing on a small tidal island on the other side of the channel. The obelisks are leading marks; when Heugh Hill bears 310° the bar is cleared and there is a clear run into the harbour. Since the early 1990s, a sector light has been fixed to it about one-third of the way up Guile Point East; the latter is a metal framework tower with a black triangular day mark, situated on a ridge on the south edge of Lindisfarne. Before November 1995 both were owned/operated by Newcastle-upon-Tyne Trinity House. Nearby is a former coastguard station. An adjacent ruin is known as the Lantern Chapel. Not a lighthouse but a daymark for maritime navigation, a white brick pyramid, 35 feet high and built in 1810, stands at Emmanuel Head, the north-eastern point of Lindisfarne, it is said to be Britain's earliest purpose-built daymark. The northeast coast of England was unsettled by Roman civilians apart from the Tyne valley and Hadrian's Wall; the area had been little affected during the centuries of nominal Roman occupation.
The countryside had been subject to raids from both Scots and Picts and was "not one to attract early Germanic settlement". King Ida started the sea-borne settlement of the coast, establishing an urbs regia at Bamburgh across the bay from Lindisfarne; the conquest was not straightforward, however. The Historia Brittonum recounts how, in the 6th century, prince of Rheged, with a coalition of North British kingdoms, besieged Angles led by Theodric of Bernicia at the island for three days and nights, until internal power struggles led to the Britons' defeat; the monastery of Lindisfarne was founded circa 634 by Irish monk Saint Aidan, sent from Iona off the west coast of Scotland to Northumbria at the request of King Oswald. The priory was founded before the end of 634 and Aidan remained there until his death in 651; the priory remained the only seat of a bishopric in Northumbria for nearly thirty ye