SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII. Their marriage, her execution for treason and other charges by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that marked the start of the English Reformation. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, was educated in the Netherlands and France as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry 9th Earl of Ormond. Early in 1523 Anne was secretly betrothed to Henry Percy, son of Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland, but the betrothal was broken off when the Earl refused to support their engagement. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey refused the match in January 1524 and Anne was sent back home to Hever Castle. In February or March 1526, Henry VIII began his pursuit of Anne, she resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, which her sister Mary had been. Henry soon focused his desires on annulling his marriage to Catherine so he would be free to marry Anne.

When it became clear that Pope Clement VII would not annul the marriage and his advisers began the breaking of the Catholic Church's power in England. In 1532, Henry granted Anne the Marquessate of Pembroke. Henry and Anne formally married on 25 January 1533, after a secret wedding on 14 November 1532. On 23 May 1533, newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and Catherine's marriage null and void. Shortly afterwards, the Pope decreed sentences of excommunication against Cranmer; as a result of this marriage and these excommunications, the first break between the Church of England and Rome took place, the King took control of the Church of England. Anne was crowned Queen of England on 1 June 1533. On 7 September, she gave birth to the future Queen Elizabeth I. Henry was disappointed to have a daughter rather than a son but hoped a son would follow and professed to love Elizabeth. Anne subsequently had three miscarriages and, by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour.

In order to marry Seymour, Henry had to find reasons to end the marriage to Anne. Henry VIII had Anne investigated for high treason in April 1536. On 2 May she was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, where she was tried before a jury of peers – which included Henry Percy, her former betrothed, her own uncle Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, she was beheaded four days later. Modern historians view the charges against her, which included adultery and plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing; some say that Anne was accused of witchcraft but the indictments make no mention of this charge. After her daughter, was crowned as queen in 1558, Anne became venerated as a martyr and heroine of the English Reformation through the written works of John Foxe. Over the centuries, she has inspired, or been mentioned, in many artistic and cultural works and thereby retained her hold on the popular imagination, she has been called "the most influential and important queen consort England has had", as she provided the occasion for Henry VIII to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon and declare the English church's independence from the Vatican.

Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. Thomas Boleyn was a well-respected diplomat with a gift for languages. Anne and her siblings grew up at Hever Castle in Kent. However, the siblings were born in Norfolk at the Boleyn home at Blickling. A lack of parish records from the period has made it impossible to establish Anne's date of birth. Contemporary evidence is contradictory, with several dates having been put forward by various historians. An Italian, writing in 1600, suggested that she had been born in 1499, while Sir Thomas More's son-in-law, William Roper, indicated a much date of 1512, her birth is accepted by scholars and historians as being most sometime between 1501 and 1507. As with Anne herself, it is uncertain when her two siblings were born, but it seems clear that her sister Mary was older than Anne. Mary's children believed their mother had been the elder sister.

Mary's grandson claimed the Ormonde title in 1596 on the basis she was the elder daughter, which Elizabeth I accepted. Their brother George was born around 1504; the academic debate about Anne's birth date focuses on two key dates: 1501 and 1507. Eric Ives, a British historian and legal expert, advocates the 1501 date, while Retha Warnicke, an American scholar who has written a biography of Anne, prefers 1507; the key piece of surviving written evidence is a letter Anne wrote sometime in 1514. She wrote it in French to her father, still living in England while Anne was completing her education at Mechelen, in the Burgundian Netherlands, now Belgium. Ives argues that the style of the letter and its mature handwriting prove that Anne must have been about thirteen at the time of its composition, while Warnicke argues that the numerous misspellings and grammar errors show that the letter was written by a child. In Ives' view, this would be around the minimum age that a girl could be a maid of honour, as Anne was to the regent, Margaret of Austria.

This is supported by claims of a chronicler from the late 16th century, who wrote that Anne was twenty when she returned from Fra

Ruth Clark (pollster)

Ruth Clark was an American pollster and researcher. Her 1979 report The Changing Needs of Changing Readers was influential on the renewal of American newspapers, leading to a greater focus on service journalism and local news. Ruth Clark was born Ruth Fine in 1917 in New York City, she graduated from Hunter College in 1936. A Communist in her youth, she moved to Moscow in 1950 with her husband Joseph Clark, foreign editor for the Daily Worker. Clark worked as a door-to-door interviewer for marketing campaigns during the 1950s. In 1960 she was hired by Louis Harris' firm. Clark was credited to introducing exit polls in American election surveys, she became vice-president of Louis Harris and Associates in the 1960s, moving to Yankelovich, Skelly & White around 1970. In 1979, the American Society of Newspaper Editors, concerned about the declining readership of newspapers, commissioned a study for analysing that situation. Clark, vice-president at Yankelovich, Skelly & White, conducted a survey with 120 readers in a dozen focal groups.

Clark's findings were published in the report The Changing Needs of Changing Readers. The report influenced newspapers around the world. In 1983, Clark left Yankelovich and White to found her own firm, Martire & Bartolomeo, they conducted surveys for newspapers such as The New York Times, The New York Daily News and The Chicago Tribune. Clark died in February 1997 of lung cancer. Ruth Clark was married to Joseph Clark, she had two children: radical activist Judith Clark, Andrew

Dal Khalsa (International)

Dal Khalsa is a banned Centrist Sikh organisation, based in the city of Amritsar. The organisation was formed in 1978 and came to prominence under the inspiration and time of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in 1981, they claim that their primary aim of Dal Khalsa is to achieve the independence of the Punjabi-speaking Sikh majority region of North West India through peaceful and democratic means in order to establish a sovereign Sikh state, Khalistan. Dal Khalsa state their aims and objectives as follows: To provide principled direction to Sikh politics, while campaigning for a sovereign Sikh Republic or State of Khalistan and exposing the 1984 Sikh Genocide. To promote respect and commitment for human rights as enshrined in the Sikh faith as well in various international arrangements. To ensure that South Asia is a nuclear-free zone. To strengthen the economy of the Punjab through active association with world economy and to nurture and develop the Sikh Diaspora worldwide. To revamp the education system in accordance with Sikh traditions and to cater to the needs of modern society.

There is a controversy on the foundation of Dal Khalsa. Noted journalist Mark Tully in his book claimed that Sanjay Gandhi and Giani Zail Singh were instrumental in its formation in order to promote Bhinderawale and to harass Akalis. Another version is that it was founded by Gurbachan Singh Manochahal on 6 August 1978, at a convention held at Gurdwara Akal-Garh, Sector 35, with the objective of establishing an independent Sikh state outside the Union of India. A number of Sikh Youth organisations had participated in the convention to discuss affairs of the Sikh Panth; the formation of the Dal Khalsa occurred shortly after an infamous clash between Sikhs belonging to the Akhand Kirtani Jatha and the followers of a Sikh sect known as the Nirankaris. This clash had occurred at a Nirankari event at the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar on 13 April 1978, in which 3 Nirankaris and 13 Sikhs were killed. At its first annual conference held in Gurdaspur during December, 1979, the Dal Khalsa passed a resolution demanding that Amritsar be declared a "holy city".

A demand, supported by other Sikh organisations such as the Sikh Students Federation and one, taken up with the Indian government by the SGPC in 1980. However, the Indian government made no decision on the demand to declare Amritsar a "holy city" which prompted the Dal Khalsa and the Sikh Students Federation to organise a procession on 31 May 1981; the Hindu community was opposed to the demand of declaring Amritsar a "holy city" and held their own parallel procession in Amritsar on 29 May 1981. For the first time the flag of Khalistan was hoisted on 1 August 1980, by activists of the Dal Khalsa at the spot in Amritsar where 13 Sikhs had been killed during a clash with the Nirankaris on 13 April 1978. Shortly after activists of the Dal Khalsa again raised the flag of Khalistan at various places in the Punjab state during India's Independence day on 15 August 1980. During 1981 the Dal Khalsa along with other Sikh organisations such as the Sikh Students Federation, SGPC and Shiromani Akali Dal demanded associate membership in the United Nations for the'Sikh Nation'.

Owing to the Dal Khalsa a resolution to this effect was passed at the "Sikh Educational Conference" held in Chandigarh on 15 March 1981, organised by the Chief Khalsa Diwan. During this event American based Khalistan protagonist, Ganga Singh Dhillon, delivered a speech on why the Sikhs are a nation and slogans of "Khalistan Zindabad" were raised at the event. A 10-year ban was put on the Dal Khalsa by the Indian government in 1982 following militant activities carried out by the organization; these included several plane hijackings such as the 1981 hijacking of an Indian Airlines Jetliner. The plane was hijacked on 29 September 1981, by five members of the Dal Khalsa as a form of protest against the arrest of Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, accused of being involved in the murder of Jalandhar based Hindu newspaper owner Jagat Narain on Ranjit Singh confessed to murdered Jagat Narain. Ranjit Singh did not belong to Bhindranwale; the hijackers were under the leadership of Gajinder Singh who a few years was nominated as Chairman of the organization while on asylum in Pakistan.

The Dal Khalsa activists forced the plane to land in Lahore and demanded the release of Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in addition to demanding the release of all persons, detained in connection with the Khalistan movement, a ransom of 500,000 dollars and compensation of 100,000 Indian Rupees for the families of each Sikhs, killed on 20 September 1981, at Chowk Mehta after the arrest of Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. A day after the hijacking Pakistani commandos arrested the Dal Khalsa activists; the hijackers were identified as Gajinder Singh, Satnam Singh of Paonta Sahib, Jasbir Singh of Ropar, Tejinderpal Singh of Jalandhar and Karam Singh of Jammu. Though Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had never or associated with the Dal Khalsa the organization was seen have had close links with him. In January 1982, Harsimran Singh, chief organizer of the Dal Khalsa was arrested from Mohali near Chandigarh; the Dal Khalsa leaders believed that his arrest was possible due to a conspiracy by some member of the organization.

Harsimran Singh was tortured by the police and was told that they had the permission of the Government to kill him in a fake encounter near the Indo-Pakistan border. Harsimran Singh was forced to read out a written statement. Sometime during April 1982, two cow heads were severed and placed outside two Hindu temples i