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Anne Brontë

Anne Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the youngest member of the Brontë literary family. The daughter of Patrick Brontë, a poor Irish clergyman in the Church of England, Anne Brontë lived most of her life with her family at the parish of Haworth on the Yorkshire moors, she attended a boarding school in Mirfield between 1836 and 1837. At 19 she left Haworth and worked as a governess between 1839 and 1845. After leaving her teaching position, she fulfilled her literary ambitions, she published a volume of poetry with two novels. Agnes Grey, based upon her experiences as a governess, was published in 1847, her second and last novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, considered to be one of the first sustained feminist novels, appeared in 1848. Like her poems, both her novels were first published under the masculine pen name of Acton Bell. Anne's life was cut short when she died of what is now suspected to be pulmonary tuberculosis at the age of 29; because the re-publication of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall was prevented by Charlotte Brontë after Anne's death, she is not as well known as her sisters.

However, her novels, like those of her sisters, have become classics of English literature. Anne's father, Patrick Brontë, was born in a two-room cottage in Emdale, County Down, Ireland, he was the oldest of ten children born to Hugh Brunty and Eleanor McCrory, poor Irish peasant farmers. The family surname mac Aedh Ó Proinntigh was Anglicised as Brunty. Struggling against poverty, Patrick from 1798 taught others. In 1802, at 25, he won a place to study theology at St. John's College, Cambridge where he changed his name, Brunty, to the more distinguished sounding Brontë. In 1807 he was ordained in the priesthood in the Church of England, he served as a curate first in Essex and latterly in Shropshire. In 1810, he published his first poem Winter Evening Thoughts in a local newspaper, followed in 1811 by a collection of moral verse, Cottage Poems. In 1811, he became vicar of St. Peter's Church in Hartshead in Yorkshire; the following year he was appointed an examiner in Classics at Woodhouse Grove School, near Bradford a Wesleyan academy where, aged 35, he met his future wife, Maria Branwell, the headmaster's niece.

Anne's mother, Maria Branwell, was the daughter of Thomas Branwell, a successful, property-owning grocer and tea merchant in Penzance and Anne Carne, the daughter of a silversmith. The eleventh of twelve children, Maria enjoyed the benefits of belonging to a prosperous family in a small town. After the death of her parents within a year of each other, Maria went to help her aunt administer the housekeeping functions of the school. A tiny, neat woman aged 30, she was well read and intelligent, her strong Methodist faith attracted Patrick Brontë. Though from different backgrounds, within three months Patrick Brontë and Maria Branwell were married on 29 December 1812, their first child, was born after they moved to Hartshead. In 1815, Patrick was appointed curate of the chapel near Bradford. Four more children followed: Charlotte, Patrick Branwell and Anne. Anne, the youngest of the Brontë children, was born on 17 January 1820, on the outskirts of Bradford where her father was curate and she was baptised there on 25 March 1820.

Anne's father was appointed to the perpetual curacy in Haworth, a small town seven miles away. In April 1820, the Brontës moved into the five-roomed Haworth Parsonage which became their home for the rest of their lives. Anne was a year old when her mother became ill of what is believed to have been uterine cancer. Maria Branwell died on 15 September 1821. In order to provide a mother for his children, Patrick tried without success. Maria's sister, Elizabeth Branwell, moved to the parsonage to nurse her dying sister, but she spent the rest of her life there raising the children, she did it from a sense of duty. There was little affection between her and the older children, but Anne, according to tradition, was her favourite. In Elizabeth Gaskell's biography of Charlotte, Anne's father remembered her as precocious, reporting that once, when she was four years old, in reply to his question about what a child most wanted, she answered: "age and experience". In summer 1824, Patrick sent Maria, Elizabeth and Emily to Crofton Hall in Crofton, West Yorkshire, subsequently to the Clergy Daughter's School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire.

When his eldest daughters died of consumption in 1825, Maria on 6 May and Elizabeth on 15 June and Emily were brought home. The unexpected deaths distressed the family so much that Patrick could not face sending them away again. For the next five years, they were educated at home by their father and aunt; the children made little attempt to mix with others outside the parsonage, but relied on each other for friendship and companionship. The bleak moors surrounding Haworth became their playground. Anne shared a room with her aunt. Anne's studies at home included drawing. Anne and Branwell had piano lessons from the Keighley church organist, they had art lessons from John Bradley of Keighley and all drew with some skill. Their aunt tried to teach the girls how to run a household, but their minds were more inclined to literature, their father's well-

List of people from Wakefield

This is a list of people from the City of Wakefield, a local government district in West Yorkshire, England. This list includes notable people from Wakefield, the wider district, so includes people from Normanton, Featherstone and Knottingley and other areas; this list is arranged alphabetically by surname: Victor Adebowale, The Lord Adebowale CBE, Baron Adebowale of Thornes William Baines, pianist Ron Barber, politician Stan Barstow FRSL, writer Nigel Boocock, speedway rider Matthew Booth, Emmerdale Geoffrey Boycott OBE, former Yorkshire and England cricketer Tom Briscoe, rugby league footballer who has played for Hull. Norman Hardy, cricketer John Harrison, clockmaker who solved the longitudinal problem, leading to sea power and GMT Chanelle Hayes, Big Brother 8 contestant, now a glamour model John Healey and the former Financial Secretary to the Treasury Barbara Hepworth DBE, sculptor Nichi Hodgson, author and broadcaster Keith Holliday, rugby league footballer of the 1950s and 1960s for Great Britain and Wakefield Trinity Reenie Hollis, bassist in indie band The Long Blondes Duane Holmes, footballer for Derby County David Hope KCVO PC, former Archbishop of York Benjamin Ingham, 18th-century evangelist Gary Jarman, member of indie band The Cribs Ross Jarman, member of indie band The Cribs Ryan Jarman, member of indie band The Cribs Chloe Khan, tv personality and Playboy model Cyril Knowles, former footballer for Tottenham Hotspur and England Peter Knowles, former footballer for Wolverhampton Wanderers Andy Kelly, rugby league player and coach Neil Kelly, rugby league player and coach Richard Kelly, rugby league player and coach Bobby Krlic, musician and film score writer under the moniker The Haxan Cloak Sir Albert Lamb, newspaper editor John Leech, Lib Dem leader in Manchester, Member of Parliament for Manchester Withington, one of two MPs to rebel against the formation of the 2010 Coalition Government.

Jimmy Ledgard, 1954 Rugby League World Cup winning rugby league footballer of the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, for Great Britain and Dewsbury Kenneth Leighton, composer Alison Littlewood, author Eric Lockwood, English rugby league footballer who played in the 1950s and 1960s Johnny Longden, champion jockey, founder of Jockey's Guild Frederick Lowrie, rugby union footballer who played in the 1880s and 1890s Leonard Marson, rugby league footballer of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, for England and Wakefield Trinity Anne O'Hare McCormick, first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize Brian McDermott, rugby league player and coach Jane McDonald and television personality David Mercer, playwright Henry Moore OM CH FBA RBS, sculptor Andrew Moynihan VC, recipient of the Victoria Cross in 1855 Bill Nelson, lead guitarist and singer of 1970s progressive rock band Be-Bop Deluxe and of the New Wave and synthpop group Red Noise.

La Semeuse de Paris

La Semeuse de Paris was a consumer credit company owned by the La Samaritaine department store in Paris. It sold coupons to working class consumers, they could spend the coupons at other stores. The Art Deco building that housed the company is now a historical monument, Georges Dufayel developed a system of buying vouchers through installment payments, which could be spent in stores that accepted the vouchers. Dufayel owned a retail chain that accepted his vouchers, they were accepted by independent stores; these included La Samaritaine. La Semeuse was created in 1913 with a similar credit model; the motto was "Capital. Door-to-door salespeople sold coupons to working class consumers. After making a small down-payment, the buyer could buy goods with the coupon, they could wait until they had paid for the coupon before using it, treating it as a form of savings account. The founders were praised by l'Humanité as "syndicalists and revolutionaries". La Semeuse won the La Samaritaine account. Dufayel tried to block the move.

When that failed he entered into direct competition with La Samaritaine in selling clothing. Soon after La Samaritaine bought La Semeuse; the form of consumer credit provided by La Semeuse and others spread in France in the interwar period, in competition with credit arrangements offered by unions of retailers and with consumer finance companies backed by car and appliance manufacturers. The company did well, by 1929 three hundred retailers were accepting its coupons. Consumers in France in 1949 could buy appliances on credit from La Semeuse, from Gaz de France and the CAF. By 1953 La Semeuse had outstanding consumer sales loans of 5 billion old francs; the La Semeuse coupons were replaced by the Sofinco credit card. Sofinco was founded in 1951 by the Fédération nationale de l'ameublement. In 2000 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Crédit Agricole; the "La Semeuse" building was constructed between 1910 and 1912 at 14–16, rue du Louvre in the 1st arrondissement. The building contained apartments.

The architect was Frantz Jourdain and it was built by Ernest Cognacq. It has an Art Nouveau decor; the elongated forms and protrusions are typical of the modern style. The elevator and its cage have preserved the original style, with windows designed by Francis Jourdain, the son of Franz Jourdain; as of 11 December 2000 the facades and public areas were listed on the inventory of historical monuments. It was listed as a 20th-century heritage building