Henrik Johan Ibsen was a Norwegian playwright, theatre director, poet. As one of the founders of modernism in theatre, Ibsen is referred to as "the father of realism" and one of the most influential playwrights of his time, his major works include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Pillars of Society, The Lady from the Sea, The Master Builder, John Gabriel Borkman. He is the most performed dramatist in the world after Shakespeare, by the early 20th century A Doll's House became the world's most performed play. Several of his dramas were considered scandalous to many of his era, when European theatre was expected to model strict morals of family life and propriety. Ibsen's work examined the realities that lay behind the façades, revealing much, disquieting to a number of his contemporaries, he had a critical eye and conducted a free inquiry into the conditions of life and issues of morality. His early poetic and cinematic play Peer Gynt, has strong surreal elements.
Ibsen is ranked as one of the most distinguished playwrights in the European tradition. Richard Hornby describes him as "a profound poetic dramatist—the best since Shakespeare", he is regarded as the most important playwright since Shakespeare. He influenced other playwrights and novelists such as George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O'Neill, Miroslav Krleža. Ibsen was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1902, 1903, 1904. Ibsen wrote his plays in Danish and they were published by the Danish publisher Gyldendal. Although most of his plays are set in Norway—often in places reminiscent of Skien, the port town where he grew up—Ibsen lived for 27 years in Italy and Germany, visited Norway during his most productive years. Born into a merchant family connected to the patriciate of Skien, Ibsen shaped his dramas according to his family background, he was the father of Prime Minister Sigurd Ibsen. Ibsen's dramas have a strong influence upon contemporary culture.
Ibsen was born to Knud Ibsen and Marichen Altenburg, into a well-to-do merchant family, in the small port town of Skien in Telemark county, a city, noted for shipping timber. As he wrote in an 1882 letter to critic and scholar Georg Brandes, "my parents were members on both sides of the most respected families in Skien", explaining that he was related with "just about all the patrician families who dominated the place and its surroundings", mentioning the families Paus, von der Lippe and Blom. Ibsen's grandfather, ship captain Henrich Ibsen, had died at sea in 1797, Knud Ibsen was raised on the estate of ship-owner Ole Paus, after his mother Johanne, née Plesner, remarried. Knud Ibsen's half-brothers included lawyer and politician Christian Cornelius Paus and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus, lawyer Henrik Johan Paus, who grew up with Ibsen's mother in the Altenburg home and after whom Henrik Ibsen was named. Knud Ibsen's paternal ancestors were ship captains of Danish origin, but he decided to become a merchant, had some initial success.
His marriage to Marichen Altenburg, a daughter of ship-owner Johan Andreas Altenburg and Hedevig Christine Paus, was a successful match. Theodore Jorgenson points out that "Henrik's ancestry reached back into the important Telemark family of Paus both on the father's and on the mother's side. Hedvig Paus must have been well known to the young dramatist, for she lived until 1848." Henrik Ibsen was fascinated by his parents' "strange incestuous marriage," and would treat the subject of incestuous relationships in several plays, notably his masterpiece Rosmersholm. When Henrik Ibsen was around seven years old, his father's fortunes took a significant turn for the worse, the family was forced to sell the major Altenburg building in central Skien and move permanently to their small summer house, Venstøp, outside of the city. Henrik's sister Hedvig would write about their mother: "She was a quiet, lovable woman, the soul of the house, everything to her husband and children, she sacrificed herself time again.
There was no bitterness or reproach in her." The Ibsen family moved to a city house, owned by Knud Ibsen's half-brother, wealthy banker and ship-owner Christopher Blom Paus. His father's financial ruin would have a strong influence on Ibsen's work. Ibsen would both name characters in his plays after his own family. A central theme in Ibsen's plays is the portrayal of suffering women, echoing his mother Marichen Altenburg. At fifteen, Ibsen was forced to leave school, he began writing plays. In 1846, when Ibsen was 18, he had a liaison with Else Sophie Jensdatter Birkedalen which produced a son, Hans Jacob Hendrichsen Birkdalen, whose upbringing Ibsen paid for until the boy was fourteen, though Ibsen never saw Hans Jacob. Ibsen went to Christiania intending to matriculate at the university, he soon rejected the idea (his earlier attempts at entering university were blocked as he did not pass all
Ellen Karolina Sofia Key was a Swedish difference feminist writer on many subjects in the fields of family life and education and was an important figure in the Modern Breakthrough movement. She was an early advocate of a child-centered approach to education and parenting, was a suffragist, she is best known for her book on education, Barnets århundrade, translated in English in 1909 as The Century of the Child. Ellen Key was born at Sundsholm mansion in Småland, Sweden, on 11 December 1849, her father was Emil Key, the founder of the Swedish Agrarian Party and a frequent contributor to the Swedish newspaper Aftonposten. Her mother was Sophie Posse Key, born into an aristocratic family from the southernmost part of Skåne County. Emil bought Sundsholm at the time of his wedding. Ellen was educated at home, where her mother taught her grammar and arithmetic and her foreign-born governess taught her foreign languages, she cited reading Amtmandens Døtre by Camilla Collett and Henrik Ibsen's plays Kjærlighedens komedie and Peer Gynt as her childhood influences.
When she was twenty years old, her father was elected to the Riksdag and they moved to Stockholm, where she would capitalize on the access to libraries. Ellen Key studied at the progressive Rossander Course. After a correspondence with Urban von Feilitzen, who wrote Protestantismens Maria-kult, she had written a review of the book for a periodical, under the pseudonym Robinson, his book gave her thoughts structure, helping to define her beliefs concerning the role of women as mothers and nurturers. Key hoped Feilitzen would leave his wife, as they did not share similar interests. In the summer of 1874, Key studied their folk colleges. Folk colleges were institutions of higher learning for young people from the countryside. One of her early ambitions was to found a Swedish folk high school, but instead she decided, in 1880, to become a teacher at Anna Whitlock's school for girls in Stockholm. Shortly after she moved to Stockholm, she befriended Sophie Adlersparre, the editor of Tidskrift för Hemmet, founded in 1859 by Adlersparre and Rosalie Olivecrona.
In 1874 Tidskrift för Hemmet published her first article. It was about Camilla Collett, other articles soon followed, she would do some biographical studies on George Eliot and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Fredrika-Bremer-förbundet, the liberal women's organization, was founded in 1884. Many of the writers for Tidskrift för Hemmet were members. In 1883, Key began teaching at Anton Nyström new school, the People's Institute, founded in 1880, she helped organize "The Twelves", a group of twelve upper class ladies who sponsored and organized social functions to help improve working class ladies' manners. Though Key did share a lot of similar beliefs with the members of Fredrika-Bremer-förbundet, two main issues made her oppose the group in the mid-1880s: the importance of sexuality and the social significance of the biological differences between women and men. 1886 saw Key publishing Om reaktionen mot kvinnofrågan, critical and argued against the egalitarian tendencies of the Swedish women's movement.
The piece was published in Gustaf af Geijerstam's journal Revy i litterära och sociala frågor. In 1886, she wrote a review of En sommarsaga by Anne Charlotte Leffler in the short-lived journal Framåt, she was critical of the piece for having one woman's attempt to combine marriage, a career as an artist. Key contributed to three journals all with different views on women's rights: Tidskrift för Hemmet and Framåt; the latter was edited by Göteborg Alma Åkermark and tended to have taboo information, including publishing texts on syphilis, sexual repression and socialism. Mathilda Malling's Pyrrhus-segrar, published in 1886 under the pseudonym Stella Kleve, was controversial among Scandinavian intellectuals; the story dealt with a dying young woman, who laments that if she had done the things she wanted to do, she may not be dying. In Naturenliga arbetsområden för kvinnan and Kvinnopsykologi och kvinnlig logik Key said a "monogamous heterosexual relationship aimed toward procreation formed the crux of a woman's happiness and fulfillment."In 1889, she published Några tankar om huru reaktioner uppstå, jämte ett genmäle till d:r Carl v. Bergen, samt om yttrande och tryckfrihet, which marked her a social radical, which she would never deny.
Key grew up in an atmosphere of liberalism, throughout the 1870s her political beliefs were radically liberal. She was republican-minded, with the idea of freedom holding vast importance for her; as the 1880s advanced, her thinking became more radical, affecting first her religious beliefs and her views on life in society in general. This was the outcome of extensive reading. During the latter part of the 1880s and in the 1890s, she began to read socialist literature and turned towards socialism. Key was raised in a rigid Christian household, but while growing up she started questioning her views. From 1879 she studied Herbert Spencer and T. H. Huxley. In the autumn of that year she met both Huxley and Haeckel, the German biologist and philosopher, in London; the principle of evolution, in which Ellen Key had come to belie
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Annie Fredrika Furuhjelm was a Finnish journalist, feminist activist, writer. She was a member of the Parliament of Finland from 1913 to 1924 and again from 1927 to 1929, representing the Swedish People's Party of Finland, she was the first enfranchised woman in Europe to serve as a delegate to the International Women Suffrage Alliance and the first elected female legislator to speak before the British Parliament. She was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland for her service to the nation. Annie Fredrika Furuhjelm was born on 11 December 1859 at Rekoor Castle in Sitka on Baranof Island in the Russian Colony of Alaska, her father, Johan Hampus Furuhjelm, was the penultimate Russian governor of Alaska and her mother Anna von Schoultz was the daughter of a Swedish-Finnish adventurer. When Alaska was purchased by the United States, the family left in 1867 for Russian Siberia, where they spent six years in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur before returning to Helsinki. In 1870, Furujhelm was sent to Dresden for schooling before rejoining her family in Helsinki in 1872.
She was educated and fluently spoke English, German, Italian and Swedish, having completed studies at the girl's gymnasium in 1876 and post-graduate college in 1887. After completing her schooling, Furuhjelm founded a school, she worked as a nurse for many years in the local community, but grew tired of the isolation and decided to become a journalist in 1890. She founded a newspaper called New Tide, which would become the mouthpiece of the Finnish women's organization. In 1899, Furuhjelm met with other likeminded women, including Lucina Hagman, Alli Nissinen, Sofia Rein, to help Hagman organize the Martha organisation, a humanitarian organization to help women manage their homes. Since assembly was banned at that time by the Finnish government, the women met clandestinely in different members homes. Furuhjelm served as the first secretary of the organization. In 1904, Furuhjelm attended the 5th congress of the International Council of Women in Berlin and asked for help from the organization to found a Finnish suffrage organization.
The ICW refused as Finland was still ruled by the Russian Empire, but Carrie Chapman Catt gave reassurances that the International Women Suffrage Alliance would support a Finnish suffrage organization. Furuhjelm returned from the conference energized and organized a conference, attended by 1,000 women; the following year, she established the Committee for Women's Suffrage. Following the general strike, Finland re-gained its autonomy from Russia which de facto had been under dispute since 1899. Universal suffrage was granted to all Finnish citizens in 1906; when Finland's suffrage organization was approved for alliance with the IWSA in 1906, Furuhjelm became the first enfranchised European delegate of the association. Between 1909 and 1920, she was a board member of the IWSA and attended congresses of the organization from Finland's admittance in 1906 until 1929, she was the keynote speaker of the 1906 Copenhagen conference of the IWSA and was given a standing ovation for her speech. The Swedish Women's Association of Finland was founded in 1907 with Furuhjelm elected to the presidency.
She would maintain that position for her lifetime. She became a regular speaker at international suffrage meetings. In 1913, Furuhjelm was elected to the Parliament of Finland, one of the first twenty-one females elected. In the following year, she accompanied Catt. In 1917, she served as part of the Law Committee which reestablished the Finnish Monarchy and issued the Finnish Declaration of Independence, which led to the Finnish Republic. In 1919, she began working as an editor of the journal Astra and would continue in that capacity until 1927. Furuhjelm served in the Diet until she was defeated in 1924 despite her campaign to end Finland's Prohibition Law, she was reelected to serve in 1927 as a representative of the Swedish People's Party of Finland. When Furuhjelm retired from politics in 1929, she was awarded the Order of the White Rose of Finland. In her last years, Furuhjelm dedicated her time to women's rights organizations, she continued to push for the repeal of prohibition believing that the law was creating an upsurge in crime and smuggling and was not controlling the consumption of alcohol.
She published two volumes of memoirs, shortly before her death on 17 July 1937. Kvinnorna och lantdagsvalen Människor och öden Den stigande oron Gryning List of members of the Parliament of Finland, 1919–22 List of members of the Parliament of Finland, 1922–24
Magnus Gustaf Mittag-Leffler was a Swedish mathematician. His mathematical contributions are connected chiefly with the theory of functions, which today is called complex analysis. Mittag-Leffler was born in Stockholm, son of the school principal John Olof Leffler and Gustava Wilhelmina Mittag, his sister was the writer Anne Charlotte Leffler. He matriculated at Uppsala University in 1865, completed his Ph. D. in 1872 and became docent at the university the same year. He was curator of the Stockholms nation, he next traveled to Göttingen and Berlin, studying under Weierstrass in the latter place. He took up a position as professor of mathematics at the University of Helsinki from 1877 to 1881 and as the first professor of mathematics at the University College of Stockholm. Mittag-Leffler went into business and became a successful businessman in his own right, but an economic collapse in Europe wiped out his fortune in 1922, he was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters, the Royal Swedish Society of Sciences in Uppsala, the Royal Physiographic Society in Lund and about 30 foreign learned societies, including the Royal Society of London and Académie des sciences in Paris.
He held honorary doctorates from the University of several other universities. Mittag-Leffler was a convinced advocate of women's rights and was instrumental in making Sofia Kovalevskaya a full professor of mathematics in Stockholm, as the first woman anywhere in the world to hold that position; as a member of the Nobel Prize Committee in 1903, he was responsible for inducing the committee to relent and award the prize for Physics to Marie Curie as well as her husband Pierre. Mittag-Leffler founded the mathematical journal Acta Mathematica, with the help of King Oscar's sponsorship, paid for with the fortune of his wife Signe Lindfors, who came from a wealthy Finnish family, he collected a large mathematical library in his villa in the Stockholm suburb of Djursholm. The house and its contents was donated to the Academy of Sciences as the Mittag-Leffler Institute. Mittag-Leffler function Mittag-Leffler star Mittag-Leffler summation Mittag-Leffler theorem Mittag-Leffler Institute Mittag-Lefflerbreen Works by Gösta Mittag-Leffler at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Gösta Mittag-Leffler at Internet Archive O'Connor, John J..
Gösta Mittag-Leffler at the Mathematics Genealogy Project