CBS is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major facilities and operations in New York City. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the iconic logo. It has called the Tiffany Network, alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley. It can refer to some of CBSs first demonstrations of color television, the network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations that was purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paleys guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, in 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known simply as CBS, Inc. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, which was formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971, CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom.
The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated stations throughout the United States. The origins of CBS date back to January 27,1927, Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18,1927, with a presentation by the Howard Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, and fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep, particularly the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, in early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the networks Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, and their partner Jerome Louchenheim. With the record out of the picture, Paley quickly streamlined the corporate name to Columbia Broadcasting System. He believed in the power of advertising since his familys La Palina cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchenheim share of CBS, during Louchenheims brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H.
Grebes Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the networks flagship station. WABC was quickly upgraded, and the relocated to 860 kHz. The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, by the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures. The deal came to fruition in September 1929, Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time
Pasadena /ˌpæsəˈdiːnə/ is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. As of 2013, the population of Pasadena was 139,731. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County, Pasadena was incorporated on June 19,1886, becoming one of the first cities be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, the only one being incorporated earlier being its namesake. It is one of the cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting the annual Rose Bowl football game, the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They spoke the Tongva language and had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years, Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in thatched, dome-shape lodges and they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, and other small animals.
They traded for fish with the coastal Tongva. They made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island, the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon. When the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people Gabrielino Indians, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area. The Rancho comprised the lands of todays communities of Pasadena, before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area, Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton, much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians, owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles and he was the grandfather of WWII General George S.
Patton, Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. Berry was an asthmatic and claimed that he had his best three nights sleep at Rancho San Pascual, to keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area Muscat after the grape that Wilson grew. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it. The newcomers were able to purchase a portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31,1874. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, at the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue
Robert Fuller (actor)
Leonard Leroy “Buddy” Lee, better known by his stage name of Robert Fuller, is an American horse rancher and retired actor. Kelly Brackett in the 1970s medical drama Emergency, Fuller was born as Leonard Leroy Lee on July 29,1933, in Troy, New York, the only child of Betty Simpson, a dance instructor. Prior to his birth, Betty married Robert Simpson, Sr. a Naval Academy officer, the family moved to Key West, where, already known by the nickname of “Buddy, ” he took the name Robert Simpson Jr. The early highlights of his life were acting and dancing and his parents owned a dancing school in Florida. His family moved to Chicago, where lived for 1 year. Simpson Jr. as he was still formally known, attended the Miami Military School for fifth and sixth grade. He dropped out in 1948, at the age of 14, in 1950, at the age of 16, he traveled with his family to Hollywood, where his first job was as a stunt man. He worked at Graumans Chinese Theatre, beginning as a doorman, Fullers first small role was as an extra in the 1952 film Above and Beyond.
This part led to extra work on many projects, one of which was in I Love Melvin. In 1953, he again had another part in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Fullers career went on hold for service in the United States Army and he served a tour of duty in Korea and returned to the United States in 1955. Though he had been considering giving up acting, Fuller, at the suggestion of his best friend, Chuck Courtney, boone suggested that Fuller study under the tutelage of Sanford Meisner at New York Citys Neighborhood Playhouse. Fullers first speaking role was in Friendly Persuasion in 1956, where he worked with his future Laramie co-star John Smith and another close friend, in the 1956 episode The Comeback in the religion anthology series, Fuller played the part of a former soldier. Grant Withers appeared as Coach Whitey Martin and Crossroads regular Robert Carson appeared as a coach, in 1957, Fuller was cast in his first major film role in Teenage Thunder. He said of it, Also in 1957, Fuller starred in the fiction film The Brain from Planet Arous. S.
M Squad, The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin, and the Lux Playhouse and he appeared in the series Strange Intruder as a villain who dies in the third episode. In 1959, he portrayed a character accused of arson in Broderick Crawfords syndicated series and he made appearances in ABCs The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp and Mickey Spillanes syndicated Mike Hammer. He made a appearance in the film Maverick
Hollywood is an ethnically diverse, densely populated neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. It is notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its studios, and its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the industry. Hollywood was a community in 1870 and was incorporated as a municipality in 1903. It was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910, in 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished, the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains immediately to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley, known as the Father of Hollywood, along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood. The man got out of the wagon and bowed, the Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, I holly-wood, meaning hauling wood. H. J. Whitley had an epiphany and decided to name his new town Hollywood, Holly would represent England and wood would represent his Scottish heritage.
Whitley had already started over 100 towns across the western United States, Whitley arranged to buy the 500-acre E. C. Hurd ranch and disclosed to him his plans for the land. They agreed on a price and Hurd agreed to sell at a date, before Whitley got off the ground with Hollywood, plans for the new town had spread to General Harrison Gray Otis, Hurds wife, eastern adjacent ranch co-owner Daeida Wilcox, and others. Daeida Wilcox may have learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and she recommended the same name to her husband, Harvey. In August 1887, Wilcox filed with the Los Angeles County Recorders office a deed and parcel map of property he had sold named Hollywood, Wilcox wanted to be the first to record it on a deed. The early real-estate boom busted that year, yet Hollywood began its slow growth. By 1900, the region had a post office, hotel, Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, and citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent, the old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood. The Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley who was a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard, having finally acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitleys company developed and sold one of the residential areas
Route 66 (TV series)
Route 66 is an American television drama that premiered on CBS on October 7,1960, and ran until March 20,1964, for a total of 116 episodes. The series was created by Herbert B, Leonard and Stirling Silliphant, who were responsible for the ABC drama Naked City, from which Route 66 was indirectly spun off. Route 66 followed two young men traversing the United States in a Chevrolet Corvette convertible, and the events, Martin Milner starred as Tod Stiles, a recent college graduate with no future prospects due to circumstances beyond his control. He was originally joined on his travels by Buz Murdock, a friend and former employee of his father, with the character leaving midway through the third season after contracting echovirus. Route 66 was a hybrid between episodic television drama, which has continuing characters and situations, and the format, in which each weeks show has a completely different cast. It was inspired by On the Road, written by Jack Kerouac, in this narrative format, dubbed semi-anthology by the trade paper Variety, the drama usually centers on the guest stars rather than the regular cast.
Series creator Stirling Silliphants concurrently running drama, Naked City, followed this semianthology format, both shows were recognized for their literate scripts and rich characterizations. The open-ended format, featuring two roaming observers/facilitators, gave Silliphant and the writers an almost unlimited landscape for presenting a wide variety of dramatic story lines. Virtually any tale could be adapted to the series, the two regulars merely had to be worked in and the setting tailored to fit the location. Like Richard Kimble from The Fugitive, the wanderers moved from place to place and got caught up in the struggles of the people there. Unlike Kimble, nothing was forcing them to stay on the move except their own sense of adventure, thus making it closer to Run for Your Life, Movin On. George Maharis was signed to a contract by Leonard before the Route 66 concept had even been fully developed, an actor named Bob Morris was set to be the other lead. At that point, the Route 66 title was not yet decided upon, the Naked City episode that served as the Searchers pilot was called Four Sweet Corners, and in it, Maharis played Johnny Gary, while Morris was Link Ridgeway.
Johnny and Link ended the episode by leaving Johnnys familys apartment building, setting out for parts unknown, the half-hour pilot and the chemistry between the leads was judged to be good by the producers, although Herbert B. Leonard could not interest a network or a sponsor in the spin-off show, Morris died in 1960 of a cerebral hemorrhage. The title of the series became Route 66, the leads became Tod and Buz, Maharis was given the role of Buz, while Martin Milner beat out several actors for the role of Tod. Leonard personally financed the shooting of a new pilot episode. Tod and Buz symbolized restless youth searching for meaning in the early 1960s, the lead characters are not always the focus of any given episode, and their backstories are revealed only in occasional references across widely spaced episodes
Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario.
Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario.
Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions
Lewis Frederick Ayres III was an American actor whose film and television career spanned 65 years. He is best known for starring as German soldier Paul Bäumer in the film classic All Quiet on the Western Front and he was nominated for an Academy Award for his performance in Johnny Belinda. Ayres was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota to Irma Bevernick and Louis Ayres, Louis, an amateur musician and court reporter, remarried soon afterwards. As a teen and his mother moved with his step-father, William Gilmore, leaving high school before graduating, he started a small band which traveled to Mexico. He returned months to pursue a career, but continued working full-time as a musician. He played banjo and guitar for big bands, including the Henry Halstead Orchestra and he recorded one of the earliest Vitaphone movie shorts called Carnival Night in Paris. Ayres wrote, I was a member of Henry Halsteads orchestra in 1927 at the Mission Beach Ballroom in San Diego and my instruments were tenor banjo, long-neck banjo and guitar.
After a hiatus, I rejoined Mr. Halstead with a new group, including Phil Harris, on New Years Eve the same year for the night of the Beverly Wilshire Hotel. He left a tour to pursue a career as an actor full-time. Ayres was discovered at a club by talent agent Ivan Kahn. He made a number of mostly forgotten B movies for Universal and he moved to Paramount Pictures before finally being signed to MGM in 1938. In 1938, he was loaned from Paramount to play the role of Ned in Holiday, the role earned him considerable critical attention, including interest from MGM to put him under contract specifically for the role of Dr. James Kildare in an upcoming film series. His final film as Dr. Kildare, Born to Be Bad, was re-edited after he was drafted and this stance almost destroyed Ayres reputation until it was revealed that he had served honorably as a non-combatant medic from 1942 to 1946. He returned to acting in the films The Dark Mirror and The Unfaithful with Ann Sheridan, in 1948, his role in Johnny Belinda earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor.
The film was nominated for 13 Oscars, but only won Best Actress for Jane Wyman, Ayres lost that year to Laurence Oliviers portrayal of the title role in Hamlet, which won Best Picture. Ayres gradually moved to television, appearing in anthology series in guest roles. In the summer of 1958, he hosted eleven original episodes of a CBS Western anthology television series called Frontier Justice and he was offered the part of Dr. Kildare in an NBC series. But his prescient request that the show have no cigarette advertising led to the offer being withdrawn, and the part going, in 1961, to Richard Chamberlain
The Iron Maiden
The Iron Maiden is a 1962 British comedy film. The film was directed by Gerald Thomas, and stars Michael Craig, Anne Helm, Jeff Donnell and Alan Hale and it was widely perceived as an attempt to repeat the success of the film Genevieve, with traction engines in place of vintage cars. The film follows Jack Hopkins, a designer with a passion for traction engines. His boss is eager to sell a new supersonic jet plane that Jack has designed to American millionaire Paul Fisher, Jack is desperate to enter the annual Woburn Abbey steam rally with the machine, but his fireman is injured and unable to participate. When all seems lost, the millionaire himself is won over by Jacks plight and joins him in driving the engine, after an eventful journey and Jack reach Woburn Abbey and enter the rally, only for Fisher to injure his back at the last minute. When all seems lost, his daughter, the sceptical Kathy, the two pilot the Iron Maiden from last place to first, winning the rally, at the finish line and Kathy embrace and kiss, while the Iron Maiden boils over and explodes.
The engine is memorialised when Jacks new jet is named after it, carry On stalwarts Jim Dale and Joan Sims have minor roles in the film. The veteran actor Sam Kydd appeared in the film with his six-year-old son Jonathan Kydd, a Handley Page Victor subsonic bomber features prominently in the film as the prototype of Jack Hopkinss supersonic jetliner. A number of show the plane in close-up, taking off, flying past. These scenes were filmed at Radlett Aerodrome, Michael Craig as Jack Hopkins Anne Helm as Kathy Fisher Jeff Donnell as Miriam Fisher Alan Hale Jr. 7nhp showmans road locomotive. She was built in September 1920 as a class R3 road locomotive for heavy work and saw many years service on the Isle of Portland. She returned to Fowlers works for conversion into an engine, which entailed the addition of a dynamo bracket in front of the chimney. Once converted she was based in Alfreton and undertook fairground work, from new she was named Kitchener – until the film was made, whereupon she was renamed The Iron Maiden.
The engine was first owned during restoration by John Crawley, the man behind its use in the filming of The Iron Maiden. The engine was featured on the cover of the Official Programme for the 38th Great Dorset Steam Fair, in 2006, and continues to make regular appearances at that event. It has made at least one appearance at the Yorkshire Air Museum at Elvington near York to be photographed next to the Handley Page Victor belonging to Andre Tempest that is preserved there, the Iron Maiden at the Internet Movie Database The Iron Maiden at AllMovie
A diner is a small fast food restaurant that is found in the American Northeastern United States and Midwest, as well as in other states and parts of Western Europe. Diners offer a range of foods, mostly American, a distinct exterior structure, a casual atmosphere, a long counter with bar stools where patrons eat their meals. Diners frequently stay open 24 hours a day, especially in cities, bar patrons seeking a post-last call venue to socialize and get food and shift workers leaving their factories historically provided a key part of the customer base. From the 1920s to the 1940s, diners were usually prefabricated in factories, as a result, old diners were typically narrow and small, because they had to fit onto a rail car or truck for delivery to the restaurant site. Some vintage diners have been expanded over the years, by building additions into the prefab structure, in the 2010s, many new diners are built on site instead. Diners were historically small businesses operated by the owner, in the 2010s, some diners are operated by chains.
Diners typically serve American food such as hamburgers, french fries, club sandwiches, much of the food is grilled, as early diners were based around a grill. Coffee is the ubiquitous beverage at diners, even if it is not always of high quality, diners often serve hand-blended milkshakes and desserts such as pies, which are typically displayed in a glass case. Classic American diners often have a layer of stainless steel siding—a feature unique to diner architecture. In some cases, diners share nostalgic, retro style features found in some restored drive-ins, some car culture enthusiasts enjoy going to diners, such as hot rod and vintage muscle car fans. The first diner was created in 1872 by Walter Scott, who sold out of a horse-pulled wagon to employees of the Providence Journal, in Providence. Scotts diner can be considered the first diner with “walk up” service, commercial production of lunch wagons began in Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1887, by Thomas Buckley. Buckley was successful and became known for his White House Cafe wagons, charles Palmer received the first patent for the diner, which he billed as a Night-Lunch Wagon.
He built his fancy night cafes and night lunch wagons in the Worcester area until 1901. Built by the J. B. Judkins coach company, who had built custom car bodies, two Sterling Streamliners remain in operation, the Salem Diner at its original location in Salem and the Modern Diner in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. As the number of seats increased, wagons gave way to pre-fabricated buildings made by many of the manufacturers who had made the wagons. Like the lunch wagon, a stationary diner allowed one to set up a service business quickly using pre-assembled constructs. Until the Great Depression, most diner manufacturers and their customers were located in the Northeast, after World War II, as the economy returned to civilian production and the suburbs boomed, diners were an attractive small business opportunity
Rawhide (TV series)
Rawhide is an American Western TV series starring Eric Fleming and Clint Eastwood. The series was produced and sometimes directed by Charles Marquis Warren, set in the 1860s, Rawhide portrays the challenges faced by the drovers of a cattle drive. Most episodes are introduced with a monologue by Gil Favor, the trail boss, in a typical Rawhide story, the drovers come upon people on the trail and are drawn into solving whatever problem they present or confront. Sometimes, one or more of the venture into a nearby town. Rowdy Yates was young and at times impetuous in the earliest episodes, Favor was a savvy and strong leader who always played square with his fellow men - a tough customer who could handle the challenges and get the job done. Favor had to fight at times and usually won, some of the stories were obviously easier in production terms, but the peak form of the show was convincing and naturalistic, and sometimes brutal. Its situations could range from parched plains to anthrax, ghostly riders to wolves, cattle raiding, murderers, and so forth.
A problem on such drives was the constant need for water, in some ways, the show was similar to the TV series Wagon Train, which had debuted on NBC on September 18,1957. The series was not afraid to face tough issues, robert Culp played an ex-soldier on the drive who had become dangerously addicted to morphine. Mexican drover Jesús faced racism at times, trail boss Favor had been a Confederate captain in the war. Some American Indians demanded cattle as payment for going through their land, rough characters were in the shows, and in one episode Gil Favor was tortured by having his face held near a fire. In another episode, one titled Incident of the Town in Terror, people thought a sick Rowdy Yates had the plague, cattle rustlers were around, including Commancheros. The show could on occasions be eerily atmospheric, in episode 67, Incident Near the Promised Land, the cattle drive finally reached Sedalia. Unusually, episode 68 continues on from that, where the cattle have been sold, instead of the usual ending, wherein Gil Favor gives the command Head em up.
And the cattle move off, this episode had the end titles over a view of a Sedalia street, episode 69 has Gil Favor visiting his two daughters and Maggie, who live with their aunt Eleanor Bradley in Philadelphia. In episode 70, a number of the men are together and heading back to San Antonio about 650 miles away. These five episodes made up one storyline instead of the usual single-episode stories which could have been set anywhere in the West. Favor had many bad moments in the series, but none worse than the Lost Herd episode wherein, close to drives finish, he wants to beat another herd to town to get the best prices
Cowboys and gunslingers typically wear Stetson hats, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Other characters include Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, mounted cavalry, Westerns often stress the harshness of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains. Often, the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a. mythic vision of the plains, specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Many Westerns use a plot of depicting a crime, showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution. The Western was the most popular Hollywood genre, from the early 20th century to the 1960s, Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Fords landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939, Westerns were very popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time – including High Noon, The Searchers, the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–frontier justice–dispensed by gunfights.
These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them. The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer, a showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. And like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns frequently rescue damsels in distress, the wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture. The Western typically takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, Westerns often stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and frequently set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Apart from the wilderness, it is usually the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West, it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting.
The American Film Institute defines western films as those set in the American West that embodies the spirit, the struggle, the term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World Magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th century popular Western fiction and were firmly in place before film became an art form. Protagonists ride between dusty towns and cattle ranches on their trusty steeds, Western films were enormously popular in the silent film era. With the advent of sound in 1927-28, the major Hollywood studios rapidly abandoned Westerns, leaving the genre to smaller studios and these smaller organizations churned out countless low-budget features and serials in the 1930s. Released through United Artists, Stagecoach made John Wayne a mainstream star in the wake of a decade of headlining B westerns
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides