The Rundetaarn or Rundetårn is a 17th-century tower located in central Copenhagen and one of the many architectural projects of Christian IV of Denmark, built as an astronomical observatory. It is most noted for its equestrian staircase, a 7.5-turn helical corridor leading to the top, for the expansive views which it affords over Copenhagen. The tower is part of the Trinitatis Complex which provided the scholars of the time with a university chapel, the Trinitatis Church, an academic library which were the first facilities of the Copenhagen University Library, founded in 1482. Today, the Round Tower serves as an observation tower for views of Copenhagen, a public astronomical observatory, a historical monument; the Library Hall above the church is only accessible along the tower's ramp and is a venue for exhibitions and concerts. Astronomy had grown in importance in 17th-century Europe. Countries had begun competing with each other in establishing colonies, creating a need for accurate navigation across the oceans.
Many national observatories were therefore established, the first in 1632 at Leiden in the Dutch Republic. Only five years the Round Tower Observatory, first referred to as STELLÆBURGI REGII HAUNIENSIS, would follow. After Tycho Brahe had fallen out of favour and left Denmark, Christian Longomontanus had become Christian IV's new astronomer and the first professor of astronomy at the University of Copenhagen. In 1625 he suggested the king build an astronomical tower as a replacement for Brahe's Stjerneborg, demolished after his death in 1601. Longomontanus' initial proposal was to erect the new observatory on the top of the hill Solbjerget, now known as Valby Bakke, but since there were plans for the construction of a new students' church and a library for the university, the idea of merging the three buildings into one grand complex emerged. In 1622, Christian IV had bought the land where it was decided to build the Trinitatis Complex, his original plans for the site are not known but as it was conveniently located next to the Regensen dormitories and the university, it was chosen for his new prestigious project.
Although there is no clear proof, it is accepted that Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger was charged with the commission to design the new edifice though he did not live to see the tower completed. From 24 November 1636, stones were brought to the site for the foundation, first from the city's ramparts and from the area around Roskilde. Bricks were ordered from the Netherlands since local manufacturers could not meet the high quality standards requested. In February 1637, a contract was signed with a Henrik van Dingklage in Emden for the supply of bricks for the construction; the first three ship loads were to be delivered in May, the next three loads the following month and the remainder on demand. The Trinitatis Complex was set for construction in a crowded neighbourhood of narrow streets and alleyways; the area first had to be cleared. On 18 April 1637, 200 men and personnel from Bremerholm began to demolish the half-timbered houses occupying the site; the foundation stone was laid on 7 July 1637.
When Hans van Steenwinckel died on 6 August 1639, Leonhard Blasius was brought to Denmark from the Netherlands as new Royal Building Master. Unlike his predecessor, he would become a mere transitional figure in Danish architecture, dying just four years after his arrival in the country without leaving any notable buildings of his own design. On several occasions construction work came to a standstill due to shortage of funds. Churches in Denmark and Norway were therefore ordered to contribute a share of their earnings during the construction years. In 1642, the tower was completed, though the church was completed only in 1657 and the library in 1657. Christian Longomontanus became the first director of the observatory. In the Great Fire of 1728 the Trinitatis Complex was damaged but was rebuilt. During the early 19th century, the Round Tower became outdated as an astronomical observatory. Instruments were growing still larger while the tower could not be expanded and, at the same time, light pollution from the surrounding city and vibrations caused by the increasing traffic in the streets below had made the observations inaccurate.
The University therefore decided to build Østervold Observatory on the old bastioned fortifications of the city, which had become outdated and were being decommissioned. The new observatory was inaugurated in 1861 to the design of Christian Hansen. In 1716, The Czar Peter the Great ascended the staircase on horseback while visiting Copenhagen, his wife, Catherine I ascended behind him in a carriage. In 1902, a Beaufort car was the first motorised vehicle to ascend this Round Tower. A medal in the Round Tower's collection of medals indicates that the first bicycle race held in the tower took place as early as 1888 in connection with The Nordic exhibition of Industry and Art. In 1911, the newspaper Socialdemokraten arranged a bicycle race down the Round Tower. In 1971, Ole Ritter won a bicycle race against Leif Mortensen up the Round Tower in a time of 55.3 seconds. In 1993, Henrik Djernis won a bicycle race against Jens Veggerby in a time of 50.05 seconds. In 1989, Thomas Olsen went up and down the Round Tower on a unicycle in 1 minute and 48.7 seconds, a world record.
The Round Tower is a cylindrical tower built in masonry of alternating yellow and red bricks, the colours of the Oldenburgs. The bricks used were manufactured in the Netherlands and are of a hard-burned, slender type known as muffer or mopper. On the rear side, it is attached to the Trinitatis Church, but it has never served as a church tower. Steenwinckel — whose name is otherwise synonymo
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish sculptor of international fame and medallist, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old. Working part-time with his father, a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy, he was awarded a stipend to continue his education. In Rome, Thorvaldsen made a name for himself as a sculptor. Maintaining a large workshop in the city, he worked in a heroic neo-classicist style, his patrons resided all over Europe. Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero; the Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace. Thorvaldsen is buried within the courtyard of the museum. In his time, he was seen as the successor of master sculptor Antonio Canova, his strict adherence to classical norms has tended to estrange modern audiences. Among his more famous public monuments are the statues of Nicolaus Copernicus and Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw.
Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen in 1770, the son of Gottskálk Þorvaldsson, an Icelander who had settled in Denmark. His father was a wood-carver at a ship yard, where he made decorative carvings for large ships and was the early source of influence on his son Bertel's development as a sculptor and on his choice of career. Thorvaldsen's mother was a Jutlandic peasant girl, his birth certificate and baptismal records have never been found, the only existing record is of his confirmation in 1787. Thorvaldsen had claimed descent from the first European born in America. Thorvaldsen's childhood in Copenhagen was humble, his father had a drinking habit. Nothing is known of Thorvaldsen's early schooling, he may have been schooled at home, he never became good at writing, he never acquired much of the knowledge of fine culture, expected from an artist. In 1781, by the help of some friends, eleven-year-old Thorvaldsen was admitted to Copenhagen's Royal Danish Academy of Art first as a draftsman, from 1786 at the modeling school.
At night he would help his father in the wood carving. Among his professors were Nicolai Abildgaard and Johannes Wiedewelt, who are both influences for his neo-classicist style. At the Academy he was praised for his works and won all the prizes from the small Silver Medal to the large Gold Medal for a relief of St. Peter healing the crippled beggar in 1793; as a consequence, he was granted a Royal stipend. Leaving Copenhagen on August 30 on the frigate Thetis, he landed in Palermo in January 1797 traveled to Naples where he studied for a month before making his entry to Rome on 8 March 1797. Since the date of his birth had never been recorded, he celebrated this day as his "Roman birthday" for the rest of his life. In Rome he lived at Via Sistina in front of the Spanish Steps and had his workshop in the stables of the Palazzo Barberini, he was taken under the wing of Georg Zoëga a Danish numismatist living in Rome. Zoëga took an interest in seeing to it that the young Thorvaldsen acquired an appreciation of the antique arts.
As a frequent guest at Zoëga's house he met Anna Maria von Uhden, born Magnani. She had married a German archeologist, she became Thorvaldsen's mistress and left her husband in 1803. In 1813 she gave birth to Elisa Thorvaldsen. Thorvaldsen studied with another Dane, Asmus Jacob Carstens whose handling of classic themes became a source of inspiration. Thorvaldsen's first success was the model for a statue of Jason, but the work was slow in selling and his stipend having run out, he planned his return to Denmark. In 1803, as he was set to leave Rome, he received the commission to execute the Jason in marble from Thomas Hope, a wealthy English art-patron. From that time Thorvaldsen's success was assured, he did not leave Italy for sixteen years; the marble Jason was not finished until 25 years as Thorvaldsen became a busy man. In 1803, he started work on Achilles and Briseïs his first classically themed relief. I 1804 he finished Dance of the Muses at Helicon and a group statue of Cupid and Psyche and other important early works such as Apollo, Bacchus og Ganymedes.
During 1805, he had to enlist the help of several assistants. These assistants undertook most of the marble cutting, the master limited himself to doing the sketches and finishing touches. Commissioned by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1808 and finished in 1832 a statue of Adonis is one of the few works in marble carved by Thorvaldsen's own hand, at the same time it is one of the works, closest to the antique Greek ideals. In the spring of 1818 Thorvaldsen fell ill, during his convalescence he was nursed by the Scottish lady Miss Frances Mackenzie. Thorvaldsen proposed to her on March 29, 1819. Thorvaldsen had fallen in love with another woman: Fanny Caspers. Torn between Mackenzie and Anna Maria Von Uhden the mother of his daughter, Thorvaldsen never succeeded in making Miss Caspers his wife. In 1819, he visited his native Denmark. Here he was commissioned to make the colossal series of statues of Christ and the Twelve Apostles for the rebuilding of Vor F
Århus Statsgymnasium is a school of secondary education and a Danish Gymnasium in the neighborhood Åbyhøj in Aarhus, Denmark. The school offers the 3 year Matriculation examination programme, it was the third Gymnasium to be built in the 38th State Gymnasium in country. The school is an independent self-owning institution under the Danish state with about 800 students divided across 30 classes. Aarhus Municipality and a number of surrounding municipalities took initiative to build the school in the 1950s. In 1958 a group of students from Marselisborg Gymnasium were transferred and the first classes began August 1958, in rented localities until Juni 1959, when construction on the school had completed; the school was managed by the Danish state until 1986 when supervision was handed over to Aarhus County. In 2007 the Danish counties were disbanded and the school has, like most other Danish educational institutions, been self-owning and independent under the state since then. In 1971 Århus Statsgymnasium started a Higher Preparatory Examination programme which lasted until 1992.
The building of Aarhus Statsgymnasium is a listed structure. It was the first State Gymnasium. Only architects from Aarhus County could participate and some 55 submissions entered the contest won by Johan Richter with a submission incorporating 1950s modernity with elements of 1920s classicism and 1930s functionalism; the Danish state art institution Statens Kunstfond initiated an art project which resulted in a large ceramic installation by Asger Jorn in the foyer. The Matriculation examination programme is divided into four programmes; the school offers the common languages seen in Danish high schools including English, German and Spanish. 1972: Anne Linnet 1979: Elsebeth Egholm 1983: Henrik Qvortrup 1993: Cindy Lynn Brown 1994: Niels Brinck 1997: Tina Dickow 1998: Asbjørn Sennels 2008: Frederik Krabbe Århus Statsgymnasium
B. T. is a Danish tabloid newspaper which offers general news about various subjects such as sports and current affairs. B. T. was established in 1916. The paper is based in Copenhagen. A large, red neon sign displays the company's logo at the square Trianglen in Østerbro, a part of Copenhagen. B. T. is part of Berlingske Media Group. It had a conservative stance in the 1960s. During the last six months of 1957 the circulation of B. T. was 157,932 copies on weekdays. The paper had a circulation of 196,000 copies in 1991 and 192,000 copies in 1992, it fell to 181,000 copies in 1993, to 164,000 copies in 1994 and to 155,000 copies in 1995. Its circulation further fell to 147,000 copies in 1996, to 138,000 copies in 1997 and to 134,000 copies in 1998; the paper's circulation continued to decrease, it was 124,000 copies in 1999, 123,000 copies in 2000 and 122,000 copies in 2001. The circulation of B. T. in 2003 was 110,000 copies. In 2004 the paper had a circulation of 100,000 copies; the 2007 circulation of the paper was 87,319 copies.
Its circulation was 82,024 copies in 2008 and 74,330 copies in 2009. It was 69,839 copies in 2010 and 67,983 copies in 2011. Since B. T. was first published, Ekstra Bladet published by JP/Politikens Hus has been its main competition. Official website "Berlingske Media A/S". Det Centrale Virksomhedsregister. Central Business Register