Joanna of Austria, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Joanna of Austria was born an Archduchess of Austria as the youngest daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. By marriage, she was the Grand Princess of Tuscany and the Grand Duchess of Tuscany, one of her daughters was Marie de Medici, second wife of King Henry IV of France. Joanna was born in Prague as the youngest of 15 children and she never knew her mother and eldest sister as her mother died 2 days after Joannas birth and her sister Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of Poland, died two years before Joanna was born. Her paternal grandparents were Philip I of Castile and Joanna of Castile and her maternal grandparents were King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary, and Anna of Foix-Candale. Through her father, Joanna was a descendant of Isabella I of Castile and her marriage to Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, took place on 18 December 1565 in Florence, after she solemnly arrived in the city by the Porta al Prato. Giorgio Vasari and Vincenzo Borghini, with the help of Giovanni Caccini made big festivities for these event, the party was taken to the Medici Villa in Poggio a Caiano.
Nevertheless, Joanna was homesick and unhappy, ignored by her husband, and despised by the Florentines for her Austrian hauteur, she never felt at home in Florence. Her father-in-law, Cosimo I de Medici, was kind to Joanna. The position of Joanna in the Florentine court was difficult during most of her marriage, finally, in 1577 Joanna gave birth to the long-awaited heir, baptised Filippo in honour of King Philip II of Spain, Joannas first cousin. In the end, however, it was all for naught, Joannas brother-in-law, Ferdinando, on 10 April 1578, Joanna – heavily pregnant with her eighth child – fell from the stairs in the Grand Ducal Palace in Florence. Some hours later, she gave birth to a son, born prematurely and she died the next day on 11 April. Francesco subsequently married his mistress, Bianca Cappello and made her grand duchess, the mysterious circumstances around this accident caused rumours accusing her husband and his mistress of murdering Joanna, so that they could be married. However, modern medical investigation of her remains confirm the reports of her death as caused by the birth.
Joanna suffered from scoliosis, her spine and pelvis were severely deformed and it is clear from the condition of her pelvis that her previous births had been difficult, and it seems remarkable that she had survived them. The eight children of Francesco and Joanna were, Eleanor de Medici married Vincenzo I Gonzaga, romola de Medici died in infancy. Isabella de Medici died in infancy, lucrezia de Medici died in infancy. Maria de Medici married Henri IV of France and had issue, Philip de Medici died in infancy. Out of a total of eight children, only two daughters and Marie lived to adulthood, the rest of the children died young
Archduchess Eleanor of Austria
Archduchess Eleanor of Austria was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Eleanor was the child and sixth daughter out of fifteen children born to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Anna of Bohemia. She was a sister of Johanna of Austria, who married Francesco I de Medici, thus making Eleonora the aunt of Marie de Medici and she married William I, Duke of Mantua on 26 April 1561. Their children were, Vincent I, Duke of Mantua, married her maternal uncle Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria. At about age 5, Eleanors daughter Anne Catherine became severely ill and she contracted a high fever and her extremities began to swell. For two years she was ill, finally Eleanor and William appealed to the Virgin Mary with deep prayer, promising to raise Anne as a child of Mary if she lived on. Eleanor and William told their daughter of the Virgin Marys intervention on her behalf, from there out Eleanor educated and guided Anne Catherine in the cultivation of devotion to Mary.
Throughout childhood Anne Catherine displayed a consistent sense of piety, Eleonora died on 5 August 1594 at the age of 59, she had been a widow since 1587 when her husband died
An empress regnant is a female monarch who reigns in her own right over an empire. A queen regnant possesses and exercises sovereign powers, a queen consort shares her husbands rank and titles, but does not share the sovereignty of her husband. The husband of a queen regnant traditionally does not share his wifes rank, the concept of a king consort is not unheard of in contemporary or classical periods. A queen dowager is the widow of a king, a queen mother is a queen dowager who is the mother of a reigning sovereign. The Byzantine Empress Irene sometimes called herself basileus, rather than basilissa and Jadwiga of Poland was crowned as Rex Poloniae, King of Poland. Among the Davidic Monarchs of the Kingdom of Judah, there is mentioned a queen regnant, Athaliah. The much Hasmonean Queen Salome Alexandra was highly popular, accession of a regnant occurs as a nations order of succession permits. The scope of succession may be matrilineal, patrilineal, or both, or, open to general election when necessary, the right of succession may be open to men and women, or limited to men only or women only.
Historically, many realms forbade succession by women or through a line in obedience to the Salic law. No queen regnant ever ruled France, for example, only one woman, Maria Theresa, ruled Austria. As noted in the list below of widely known ruling queens, in the waning days of the 20th century and early days of the 21st, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark and the UK amended their acts of succession to absolute primogeniture. In some cases the change does not take effect during the lifetimes of people already in the line of succession at the time the law was passed, in 2011, the 16 Realms of the Commonwealth agreed to remove the rule of male-preference primogeniture. Once the necessary legislation was passed, this means that had Prince William had a daughter first, in China, Wu Zetian became the Chinese empress regnant and established the Zhou Dynasty after dismissing her sons. It should be noted, that Empress Wu used the title huangdi and in many European sources, although the Chrysanthemum Throne of Japan is currently barred to women, this has not always been the case, throughout Japanese history there have been eight empresses regnant.
Again, the Japanese language uses the term josei tennō for the position which would be empress regnant in English, monarch Order of succession Queen consort Rani Regent Salic law Sultana Monter, William. The Rise of Female Kings in Europe, 1300-1800, studies 30 women who exercised full sovereign authority in Europe
Archduchess Anna of Austria
Anna of Austria was the daughter of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Anna of Bohemia and Hungary. Anna was the third of fifteen children, annas paternal grandparents were Philip I of Castile and his wife Joanna of Castile. Her maternal grandparents were Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his third wife Anne de Foix and she was engaged several times as a child, first to Prince Theodor of Bavaria, to Charles dOrléans, but both died young. Anna finally married on July 4,1546 in Regensburg at the age of 17, Duke Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, the brother of her first fiancé. This marriage was part of a web of alliances in which her uncle Charles V, the wedding gift was 50,000 Guilder. The couple lived at the Trausnitz Castle in Landshut, until Albert became Duke and Albert had great influence on the spiritual life in the Duchy, and enhanced the reputation of Munchen as a city of art, by founding several museums and the Bavarian State Library. Anna and Albert were patrons to the painter Hans Müelich, in 1552, Albert commissioned an inventory of the jewelry in the couples possession.
The resulting manuscript, still held by the Bavarian State Library, was the Jewel Book of the Duchess Anna of Bavaria, karl William V Ferdinand Maria Anna married Archduke Charles II of Austria Maximiliana Maria Friedrich Ernst, Archbishop of Cologne
Charles II, Archduke of Austria
Charles II Francis of Austria was an Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria from 1564. He was a member of the House of Habsburg, a native of Vienna, he was the third son of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Anne of Bohemia and Hungary, daughter of King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his wife Anne of Foix-Candale. In 1559 and again from 1564–1568 there were negotiations for a marriage between Charles and Elizabeth I of England, Emperor Ferdinand I expected Elizabeth to promise in the proposed marriage treaty that Charles, as her widower, would succeed her if she died childless. The negotiations dragged on until Queen Elizabeth decided that she would not marry the Archduke, religion was the obstacle to the match. In 1563, Charles was a suitor of Mary, Queen of Scots, with her uncle Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine, however, disagreed, as did Charless older brother Maximilian. Unlike his brother, Emperor Maximilian II, Charles was a religious Catholic and promoted the Counter-Reformation, however, in 1572, he had to make significant concessions to the Inner Austrian Estates in the Religious Pacifications of Graz, and 1578 and the Libellum of Bruck.
In practice, this resulted in tolerance towards Protestantism, as the Inner Austrian line had to bear the major burden of the wars against the Turks, the fortress of Karlstadt/Karlovac in Croatia was founded in 1579 and named after him. Charles is remembered as a benefactor of the arts and sciences, in particular, the composer Orlando di Lasso was one of his protégés, as was the music theorist Lodovico Zacconi. In 1573, Charles founded the Akademisches Gymnasium in Graz, the oldest secondary school in Styria, in 1580, Charles founded a stud for horses of Andalusian origin in Lipica, thereby playing a leading role in the creation of the Lipizzan breed. In 1585, Charles founded the University of Graz, which is named Karl-Franzens-Universität after him, Charles mausoleum in Seckau Abbey, in which other members of the Habsburg family are buried, is one of the most important edifices of the early Baroque in the South-Eastern Alps. It was built from 1587 onwards by Alessandro de Verda and completed by Sebastiano Carlone by 1612, in Vienna on 26 August 1571 Charles married his niece Maria Anna of Bavaria.
Anne, married on 31 May 1592 to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Maria Christina, married on 6 August 1595 to Sigismund Bathory, Prince of Transylvania, they divorced in 1599. Ferdinand, Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II in 1619, married on 18 April 1599 to Philip III, King of Spain. Leopold, Archduke of Further Austria and Count of Tirol, married on 11 December 1605 to Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Sweden. Maria Magdalena, married on 19 October 1608 Cosimo II de Medici, the Posthumous, Bishop of Wroclaw and Brixen, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. Monarchy and Matrimony, The Courtships of Elizabeth I
Philip I of Castile
Philip I called the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain, the future King Henry VIII of England met Philip the Handsome on a visit Philip made to Henrys fathers court in London and regarded him as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired. The two would become brothers-in-law since Philip married Joanna of Castile, and Henry married Joannas youngest sister, in 1482, upon the death of his mother, he succeeded to her Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, the towns of Flanders and the supporters of Maximilian. Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493 and this smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip prince in the following year. On 20 October 1496, he married Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, the matter became more urgent after Charles VIIIs invasion of Italy.
Philips sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and heir apparent to the crowns of Castile. The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control, at the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and their sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny. In 1500, shortly after the birth in Flanders of Joanna and Philips second child, the heir apparent, had died in 1497 very shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The crown thereby seemed destined to devolve upon his and Joannas elder sister Isabella, the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna. Because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognize Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon, in the Kingdom of Castile, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joanna.
Philip and the majority of the returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna behind in Madrid. Philips life with Joanna was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, most historians now agree she was merely clinically depressed at the time, not insane as commonly believed. Before her mothers death, in 1504, husband and wife were living apart. In 1504, Philips mother-in-law, Queen Isabella of Castile, Isabella Is widower and former co-monarch, King Ferdinand II, endeavored to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw. Philip was summoned to Spain, where he was recognized as king, however, en route to Spain in January 1506, Philip and Joanna were caught in a tempest and shipwrecked off the Dorset coast, forcing them on shore near Melcombe Regis. The couple stayed as guests of Henry VII of England but were in fact hostages for the duration of their stay, after handing over Edmund and Joanna were allowed to leave England after a stay of six weeks
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope, the title originally referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of Emperor at the hands of the Pope. Later it came to be used solely for the apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor. The territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century, during this time, the kings claim to coronation was increasingly contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henrys authority was merely local, Henry continued to regularly use the title Romanorum Rex until he finally was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084.
Henrys successors imitated this practice, and were called Romanorum Rex before, candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies. As these units broke up, rulers of principalities and even non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements generally observed were that the candidate be a male, a Catholic Christian. The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates, often in the city of Frankfurt after 1147. They were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, after the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome, the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empires dissolution in 1806. After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans, though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated.
The details of Ottos coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae, the kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, at some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy. Finally, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope, in such cases, the king might retain the title King of the Romans for his entire reign. At this time Maximilian took the new title King of the Germans or King in Germany, the following were ruling Kings of the Romans, i. e. men who ruled the Kingdom without subordination to another King but who had not yet been crowned Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy, no person had a legal right to the succession simply because he was related to the current Emperor.
However, the Emperor could, and often did, have an elected to succeed him after his death
Louis II of Hungary
Louis II was King of Hungary and Bohemia from 1516 to 1526. He was killed during the Battle of Mohács fighting the Ottomans, born prematurely in Buda on 1 July 1506, the court doctors kept him alive by slaying animals and wrapping him in their warm carcasses as a primitive incubator. He was the son of Vladislaus II Jagiellon and his third wife. In 1515 Louis II was married to Mary of Austria, granddaughter of Emperor Maximilian I and his sister Anne was married to Marys brother Ferdinand, a governor on behalf of his brother Charles V, and Emperor Ferdinand I. As king of Bohemia, Louis II became known as Ludovicus the Child, the first thaler coins were minted during his reign in Bohemia, giving the name to the dollars used in different countries. After his fathers death in 1516, the minor Louis II ascended to the throne of Hungary, Louis was adopted by the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in 1515. When Maximilian I died in 1519, Louis was raised by his guardian, his cousin George. Following the accession to the throne of Suleiman I, the sultan sent an ambassador to Louis II to collect the tribute that Hungary had been subjected to.
Louis refused to pay tribute and had the Ottoman ambassador executed. Louis believed that the Papal States and other Christian States including Charles V and this event hastened the fall of Hungary. Hungary was in a state of anarchy in 1520 under the rule of the magnates. The kings finances were a shambles, he borrowed to meet his household expenses despite the fact that they totaled about one-third of the national income. The countrys defenses weakened as border guards went unpaid, fortresses fell into disrepair, in 1521 Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent was well aware of Hungarys weakness. The Ottoman Empire declared war on the Kingdom of Hungary, Suleiman postponed his plan to besiege Rhodes, Louis failed to coordinate and gather his forces. At the same time, Hungary was unable to get assistance from other European states and many strategic castles in Serbia were captured by the Ottomans. This was disastrous for Louis kingdom, without the important cities of Belgrade and Šabac, Hungary. After the siege of Rhodes, in 1526 Suleiman made an expedition to subdue all of Hungary.
Louis made an error when he tried to stop the Ottoman army in an open field battle with a medieval army, insufficient firearms
Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman I, commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Kanuni in his realm, was the tenth and longest-reigning sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to his death in 1566. Under his administration, the Ottoman state ruled over 15 to 25 million people, Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empires economic and political power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade and he annexed much of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large areas of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea, at the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education and criminal law. His reforms, carried out in conjunction with the chief judicial official Ebussuud Efendi. He was a poet and goldsmith, he became a great patron of culture, overseeing the Golden age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary.
Breaking with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married Hürrem Sultan, a woman from his harem, a Christian of Rusyn origin who converted to Islam, and their son Selim II succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule. Suleimans previous heirs apparent Mehmed and Mustafa had died, the former from smallpox and his other son Bayezid was executed in 1561 on Suleimans orders, along with his four sons, after a rebellion. Although scholars no longer believe that the empire declined after his death, in the decades after Suleiman, the empire began to experience significant political and economic changes, in a period often referred to as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Suleiman the Magnificent, as he was known in the West, was called Suleiman the First and it is unclear when exactly the term Kanunî first came to be used as an epithet for Suleiman. It is entirely absent from sixteenth and seventeenth-century Ottoman sources, Suleiman was born in Trabzon along the east coast of the Black Sea to Şehzade Selim, probably on 6 November 1494, although this date is not known with absolute certainty.
His mother was Hafsa Sultan, a convert to Islam of unknown origins, at the age of seven, Suleiman was sent to study science, literature and military tactics in the schools of the imperial Topkapı Palace in Constantinople. As a young man, he befriended Pargalı Ibrahim, a slave who became one of his most trusted advisers. From the age of seventeen, he was appointed as the governor of first Kaffa, upon the death of his father, Selim I, Suleiman entered Constantinople and ascended to the throne as the tenth Ottoman Sultan. Facial hair is evident but only barely, the sultan appears friendly and in good humor. Rumor has it that Suleiman is aptly named, enjoys reading, is knowledgeable, some historians claim that in his youth Suleiman had an admiration for Alexander the Great. Upon succeeding his father, Suleiman began a series of military conquests, Suleiman encircled Belgrade and began a series of heavy bombardments from an island in the Danube. Belgrade, with a garrison of only 700 men, and receiving no aid from Hungary, the fall of Christendoms major strongholds spread fear across Europe