A death anniversary is the anniversary of the death of a person. It is the opposite of birthday, it is a custom in several Asian cultures, including Cambodia, Georgia, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia and Vietnam, as well as in other places with significant overseas Chinese, Jewish and Vietnamese populations, to observe the anniversary on which a family member or other significant individual died. There are similar memorial services that are held at different intervals, such as every week. Although a manifestation of ancestor worship, the tradition has been associated with Confucianism and Buddhism or Hinduism. In Judaism, such a commemoration is called a yahrtzeit. Celebration of mass in memory of a loved one on or near the anniversary of their death is a part of Roman Catholic tradition. In China, a death anniversary is called 忌辰; this type of ceremony dates back thousands of years in China and involved making sacrifices to the spirits of one's ancestors.
In Nepal and India, a death anniversary is known as shraadh. The first death anniversary is called a barsy, from the word baras, meaning year in the Nepali and Hindi languages. Shraadh means to offer one's respect. Shraadh is a ritual for expressing one's respectful feelings for the ancestors. According to Nepali and Indian texts, a soul has to wander about in the various worlds after death and has to suffer a lot due to past karmas. Shraadh is a means of alleviating this suffering. Shraddhyaa Kriyate Yaa Saa: Shraadh is the ritual accomplished to satiate one's ancestors. Shraadh is a private ceremony performed by the family members of the departed soul. Though not mandated spiritually, it is performed by the eldest son and other siblings join in offering prayers together. In Japan, a death anniversary is called kishin, or kijitsu/kinichi. Monthly observances of a death are known as tsuki meinichi, while annual anniversaries are known as shōtsuki meinichi. Observant Jews commemorate the yahrtzeit of the death of parents, spouses, or children according to the Hebrew calendar.
The main observance involves recitation of kaddish prayer, a practiced custom is to light a special candle that burns for 24 hours, called a yahrtzeit candle. In Korea, ancestor worship ceremonies are referred to by the generic term jerye. Notable examples of jerye include Munmyo jerye and Jongmyo jerye, which are performed periodically each year for venerated Confucian scholars and kings of ancient times, respectively; the ceremony held on the anniversary of a family member's death is called gije, is celebrated by families as a private ceremony. For such occasions, the women of the family traditionally prepare an elaborate set of dishes, including tteok, jeok, so forth. In the Philippines, the funeral is only one part of an elaborate mourning tradition. For nine days after the funeral has taken place, novena prayers are offered in a practice called pasiyam, it is customary for another service to be given on the fortieth day after the death, as it is traditionally believed that the souls of the dead wander the Earth for forty days.
One year after the death, the first year death anniversary is commemorated with the final service. After the babang luksa, the spouse of the deceased can remarry, the family can once again hold birthday celebrations and attend parties; the miscellaneous non-valuable belongings of the deceased will be symbolically burned to represent the mourners being able to move on with their lives. Babang luksa is commemorated with a meal and prayers for the deceased. For one year after a death, mourners dress all in black or wear a black pin as a remembrance during their daily lives. After babang luksa, the mourners may once again return to their normal dress, although depending on circumstances, some may opt to wear their mourning attire for longer periods. Although only the first anniversary of the death is commemorated, Filipinos further commemorate the deaths of all of their ancestors at their grave sites on All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day. In Vietnam, a death anniversary is called giỗ, ngày giỗ, đám giỗ, or bữa giỗ.
It is a festive occasion. Female family members traditionally spend the entire day cooking an elaborate banquet in honor of the deceased individual, which will be enjoyed by all the family members. In addition, sticks of incense are burned in commemoration of the deceased person, it is not unusual for a family to celebrate several giỗ per year, so the ceremony serves as a time for families to reunite, much like the Vietnamese new year, Tết. The rituals are the responsibility of whoever inherits the ancestral estates the deceased's most senior patrilineal descendant. Although a giỗ is a private ceremony attended only by family members, some are commemorated by large segments of the population; the commemoration of the Hung Kings, the legendary founders of the first Vietnamese kingdom in Vietnam's remote past, of the Trung Sisters are participated. In March 2007 Giỗ tổ Hùng Vương became a public holiday in Vietnam; as in all trad
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows: The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. From the 14th century on, Roman numerals began to be replaced in most contexts by the more convenient Arabic numerals; the original pattern for Roman numerals used the symbols I, V, X as simple tally marks. Each marker for 1 added a unit value up to 5, was added to to make the numbers from 6 to 9: I, II, III, IIII, V, VI, VII, VIII, VIIII, X; the numerals for 4 and 9 proved problematic, are replaced with IV and IX. This feature of Roman numerals is called subtractive notation; the numbers from 1 to 10 are expressed in Roman numerals as follows: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X.
The system being decimal and hundreds follow the same underlying pattern. This is the key to understanding Roman numerals: Thus 10 to 100: X, XX, XXX, XL, L, LX, LXX, LXXX, XC, C. Note that 40 and 90 follow the same subtractive pattern as 4 and 9, avoiding the confusing XXXX. 100 to 1000: C, CC, CCC, CD, D, DC, DCC, DCCC, CM, M. Again - 400 and 900 follow the standard subtractive pattern, avoiding CCCC. In the absence of standard symbols for 5,000 and 10,000 the pattern breaks down at this point - in modern usage M is repeated up to three times; the Romans had several ways to indicate larger numbers, but for practical purposes Roman Numerals for numbers larger than 3,999 are if used nowadays, this suffices. M, MM, MMM. Many numbers include hundreds and tens; the Roman numeral system being decimal, each power of ten is added in descending sequence from left to right, as with Arabic numerals. For example: 39 = "Thirty nine" = XXXIX. 246 = "Two hundred and forty six" = CCXLVI. 421 = "Four hundred and twenty one" = CDXXI.
As each power of ten has its own notation there is no need for place keeping zeros, so "missing places" are ignored, as in Latin speech, thus: 160 = "One hundred and sixty" = CLX 207 = "Two hundred and seven" = CCVII 1066 = "A thousand and sixty six" = MLXVI. Roman numerals for large numbers are nowadays seen in the form of year numbers, as in these examples: 1776 = MDCCLXXVI. 1954 = MCMLIV 1990 = MCMXC. 2014 = MMXIV (the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The current year is MMXIX. The "standard" forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than an unchanging and universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied and remained inconsistent in medieval times. There is still no official "binding" standard, which makes the elaborate "rules" used in some sources to distinguish between "correct" and "incorrect" forms problematic. "Classical" inscriptions not infrequently use IIII for "4" instead of IV. Other "non-subtractive" forms, such as VIIII for IX, are sometimes seen, although they are less common.
On the numbered gates to the colosseum, for instance, IV is systematically avoided in favour of IIII, but other "subtractives" apply, so that gate 44 is labelled XLIIII. Isaac Asimov speculates that the use of "IV", as the initial letters of "IVPITER" may have been felt to have been impious in this context. Clock faces that use Roman numerals show IIII for four o'clock but IX for nine o'clock, a practice that goes back to early clocks such as the Wells Cathedral clock of the late 14th century. However, this is far from universal: for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster, Big Ben, uses a "normal" IV. XIIX or IIXX are sometimes used for "18" instead of XVIII; the Latin word for "eighteen" is rendered as the equivalent of "two less than twenty" which may be the source of this usage. The standard forms for 98 and 99 are XCVIII and XCIX, as described in the "decimal pattern" section above, but these numbers are rendered as IIC and IC originally from the Latin duodecentum and undecentum.
Sometimes V and L are not used, with instances such as IIIIII and XXXXXX rather than VI or LX. Most non-standard numerals other than those described above - such as VXL for 45, instead of the standard XLV are modern and may be due to error rather than being genuine variant usage. In the early years of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance, 1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, while on the north entrance to the Saint Louis Art Museum, 1903 is inscribed as MDCDIII rather than MCMIII. Although Roman numerals came to be written with letters
The quadrans or teruncius was a low-value Roman bronze coin worth one quarter of an as. The quadrans was issued from the beginning of cast bronze coins during the Roman Republic with three pellets representing three unciae as a mark of value; the obverse type, after some early variations, featured the bust of Hercules, while the reverse featured the prow of a galley. Coins with the same value were issued from other cities in Central Italy. After ca. 90 BC, when bronze coinage was reduced to the semuncial standard, the quadrans became the lowest-valued coin in production. It was produced sporadically until the time of Antoninus Pius. Unlike other coins during the Roman Empire, the quadrans bore the image of the emperor; the Greek word for the quadrans was κοδράντης, translated in the King James Version of the Bible as "farthing". In the New Testament a coin equal to one half the Attic chalcus was worth about 3/8 of a cent. In Mark's gospel, when a poor widow gave two mites or λεπτα to the Temple Treasury, the gospel writer noted that this amounted to one quadrans.
Roman currency Semis
The sestertius, or sesterce, was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin; the name sestertius means "two and one half", referring to its nominal value of two and a half asses, a value, useful for commerce because it was one quarter of a denarius, a coin worth ten asses. The name is derived from semis, "half" and "tertius", "third", in which "third" refers to the third as: the sestertius was worth two full asses and half of a third. English-language sources use the original Latin form sestertius, plural sestertii. A modern shorthand for values in sestertii is IIS, in which the Roman numeral II is followed by S for semis, the whole struck through; the sestertius was introduced c. 211 BC as a small silver coin valued at one-quarter of a denarius. A silver denarius was supposed to weigh about 4.5 grams, valued at ten grams, with the silver sestertius valued at two and one-half grams. In practice, the coins were underweight.
When the denarius was retariffed to sixteen asses, the sestertius was accordingly revalued to four asses, still equal to one quarter of a denarius. It was produced sporadically, far less than the denarius, through 44 BC. In or about 23 BC, with the coinage reform of Augustus, the sestertius was reintroduced as a large brass denomination. While the as, now made of copper, was worth 1/4 of a sestertius. Augustus tariffed the value of the sestertius as 1/100 gold aureus; the sestertius was produced as the largest brass denomination until the late 3rd century AD. Most were struck in the mint of Rome but from AD 64 during the reign of Nero and Vespasian, the mint of Lyon, supplemented production. Lyon sestertii can be recognised by legend stop, beneath the bust; the brass sestertius weighs in the region of 25 to 28 grammes, is around 32–34 mm in diameter and about 4 mm thick. The distinction between bronze and brass was important to the Romans, their name for brass was orichalcum spelled aurichalcum, meaning'gold-copper', because of its shiny, gold-like appearance when the coins were newly struck.
Orichalcum was considered, by weight. This is why the half-sestertius, the dupondius, was around the same size and weight as the bronze was, but was worth two asses. Sestertii continued to be struck until the late 3rd century, although there was a marked deterioration in the quality of the metal used and the striking though portraiture remained strong. Emperors relied on melting down older sestertii, a process which led to the zinc component being lost as it burned off in the high temperatures needed to melt copper; the shortfall was made up with bronze and lead. Sestertii tend to be darker in appearance as a result and are made from more crudely prepared blanks; the gradual impact of inflation caused by debasement of the silver currency meant that the purchasing power of the sestertius and smaller denominations like the dupondius and as was reduced. In the 1st century AD, everyday small change was dominated by the dupondius and as, but in the 2nd century, as inflation bit, the sestertius became the dominant small change.
In the 3rd century silver coinage contained less and less silver, more and more copper or bronze. By the 260s and 270s the main unit was the double-denarius, the Antoninianus, but by these small coins were all bronze. Although these coins were theoretically worth eight sestertii, the average sestertius was worth far more in plain terms of the metal it contained; some of the last sestertii were struck by Aurelian. During the end of its issue, when sestertii were reduced in size and quality, the double sestertius was issued first by Trajan Decius and in large quantity by the ruler of a breakaway regime in the West, named Postumus, who used worn old sestertii to overstrike his image and legends on; the double sestertius was distinguished from the sestertius by the radiate crown worn by the emperor, a device used to distinguish the dupondius from the as and the Antoninianus from the denarius. The inevitable happened. Many sestertii were withdrawn by the state and by forgers, to melt down to make the debased Antoninianus, which made inflation worse.
In the coinage reforms of the 4th century, the sestertius passed into history. The sestertius was used as a standard unit of account and was represented on inscriptions with the monogram HS. Large values were recorded in terms of sestertium milia, thousands of sestertii, with the milia omitted and implied; the wealthy general and politician of the late Roman Republic, who fought in the war to defeat Spartacus, was said by Pliny the Elder to have had "estates worth 200 million sesterces". A loaf of bread cost half a sestertius, a sextarius of wine anywhere from less than half to more than one sestertius. One modius of wheat in 79 AD Pompeii cost se
A saint is a person, recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God. However, the use of the term "saint" depends on the denomination. In Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Lutheran doctrine, all of their faithful deceased in Heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered worthy of greater honor or emulation. While the English word saint originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the appellation "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people", with the Jewish tzadik, the Islamic walī, the Hindu rishi or Sikh guru, the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva being referred to as saints. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either by official ecclesiastical declaration, as in the Catholic faith, or by popular acclamation; the English word "saint" comes from the Latin "sanctus". The word translated in Greek is "ἅγιος", which means "holy"; the word ἅγιος appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament, its English translation 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version of the Bible.
The word sanctus was a technical one in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity the modern word "saint" in English and its equivalent in Romance languages is now used as a translation of comparable terms for persons "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions. Many religions use similar concepts to venerate persons worthy of some honor. Author John A. Coleman S. J. of the Graduate Theological Union, California wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances: exemplary model extraordinary teacher wonder worker or source of benevolent power intercessor a life refusing material attachments or comforts possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy. The anthropologist Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom a certain moral presence is attributed.
These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields". They exert "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well". According to the Catholic Church, a "saint" is anyone in Heaven, whether recognized on Earth or not, who form the "great cloud of witnesses"; these "may include our own mothers, grandmothers or other loved ones" who may have not always lived perfect lives but "amid their faults and failings they kept moving forward and proved pleasing to the Lord". The title "Saint" denotes a person, formally canonized, authoritatively declared a saint, by the Church as holder of the Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, is therefore believed to be in Heaven by the grace of God. There are many persons that the Church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally canonized and who are otherwise titled "saints" because of the fame of their holiness. Sometimes the word "saint" denotes living Christians. In his book Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM says this: the " surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration.
They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ."The Catholic Church teaches that it does not "make" or "create" saints, but rather recognizes them. Proofs of heroicity required in the process of beatification will serve to illustrate in detail the general principles exposed above upon proof of their "holiness" or likeness to God. According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church Chapter 2, Article 1, 61, "The patriarchs and certain other Old Testament figures have been and always will be honored as saints in all the church's liturgical traditions." On 3 January 993, Pope John XV became the first pope to proclaim a person a "saint" from outside the diocese of Rome: on the petition of the German ruler, he had canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg. Before that time, the popular "cults", or venerations, of saints had been local and spontaneous and were confirmed by the local bishop. Pope John XVIII subsequently permitted a cult of five Polish martyrs.
Pope Benedict VIII declared the Armenian hermit Symeon to be a saint, but it was not until the pontificate of Pope Innocent III that the Popes reserved to themselves the exclusive authority to canonize saints, so that local bishops needed the confirmation of the Pope. Walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope: Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen, canonized him in 1153. Thenceforth a decree of Pope Alexander III in 1170 reserved the prerogative of canonization to the Pope, insofar as the Latin Church was concerned. One source claims that "there are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count". Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints including a total of 1,486 saints; the latest revision of this book, edited by the Jesuit Herbert Thurston and the British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints. Monsign
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
The semis meaning half was a small Roman bronze coin, valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic, the semis was distinguished by 6 dots; some of the coins featured a bust of Saturn on the obverse, the prow of a ship on the reverse. A cast coin, like the rest of Roman Republican bronzes, it began to be struck from dies shortly before the Second Punic War 218-201 BC; the coin was issued infrequently during the Roman Empire, ceased to be issued by the time of Hadrian 117-138 AD. Roman currency