Sacrament of Penance
By this sacrament Christians are freed from sins committed after Baptism. The sacrament of Penance is considered the way to be absolved from mortal sin. The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation is known as Penance, the sacrament has four elements, three on the part of the penitent and one on the part of the minister of the sacrament. Catholics distinguish between two types of sin, mortal sins are a grave violation of Gods law that turns man away from God. Someone who is aware of having committed mortal sins must repent of having done so, every sin involves an unhealthy attachment to creatures, purification from which is called the temporal punishment for sin. The 1983 Code of Canon Law states, A priest alone is the minister of the sacrament of penance, to refer exclusively to priests in the more common English sense, Latin uses the word presbyter. In order to be able to be absolved validly from sin, the history of the sacrament of Penance dates back to the New Testament and the time of Jesus.
Cyrille Vogel collected a list of twelve major sins named in the New Testament and insanity Drunkenness and intemperance. This early way of penitential discipline received in modern times the name of public penance, mistakenly confused with public announcement of the excommunication because of a public and grave sin. Sometimes sinners did publicly speak about their sins, but testimonies of the early Church show that in most cases offences were known to the priest alone. When a penitent did publicly confess his/her sins, decision to do it was always by the initiative of the person. The public character of penance should be understood as prayerful participation and support given by the community to a sinner. Multiple discussions began in the 3rd century, time of persecutions, on how to exercise Church penance regarding grave sinners, e. g. lapsed Catholics. A controversy first resulted over Montanism, whose main supporter was Tertullian, there were arguments between Novatian and Pope Cornelius, and between St.
Cyprian and Pope Stephen I. Hippolytus of Rome criticised the popes, condemning them for being too easy to accept grave sinners back to the communion of the Church, the primary source of information on the canonical penance in this period are sermons of Augustine of Hippo and of Caesarius of Arles. Special canons were issued by regional, local Church councils on how to deal with the public penance, because of that it is called canonical penance. Acts of ancient councils of this show that no one who belonged to the order of penitents had access to Eucharistic communion – until the bishop reconciled him with the community of the Church. Canon 29 of the Council of Epaone in Gaul says, that from among penitents only apostates had to leave Sunday assembly together with catechumens, other penitents were present until the end but were denied communion in the table of the Lord
Hope is an optimistic attitude of mind that is based on an expectation of positive outcomes related to events and circumstances in ones life or the world at large. As a verb, its definitions include, expect with confidence, among its opposites are dejection and despair. Dr. Barbara L. Fredrickson argues that hope comes into its own when crisis looms, Hopeful people are like the little engine that could, they keep telling themselves I think I can, I think I can. Such positive thinking bears fruit when based on a sense of optimism. Object relations theory sees the analytic transference as motivated in part by an unconscious hope that past conflicts. As specialist in positive psychology, Charles Richard Snyder studied how hope and forgiveness can impact several aspects of such as health, education. Snyder postulated that there are three things that make up hopeful thinking, Goals – Approaching life in a goal-oriented way. Pathways – Finding different ways to achieve your goals, agency – Believing that you can instigate change and achieve these goals.
In other words, hope was defined as the capability to derive pathways to desired goals. Snyder proposed a Hope Scale which considered that a determination to achieve their goal is their measured hope. Snyder differentiates between adult-measured hope and child-measured hope, the Adult Hope Scale by Snyder contains 12 questions,4 measuring ‘pathways thinking’,4 measuring ‘agency thinking’, and 4 that are simply fillers. Each subject responds to each question using an 8-point scale and Hale measure hope by combining Snyders Hope Scale with their own Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale to empirically measure hope. Snyder regarded that psychotherapy can help focus attention on ones goals, Hope has the ability to help people heal faster and easier. Individuals who maintain hope, especially when battling illness, significantly enhance their chances of recovery and this is important because numerous people with chronic, physical, or mental illness believe that their condition is stable and that they have little chance of recovery.
Shaping people’s beliefs and expectations to be hopeful and optimistic is an essential component of positive psychology. In general, people who possess hope and think optimistically have a sense of well being in addition to the improved health outcomes outlined above. Positive psychologists teach strategies to help boost people’s hope and optimism, of the countless models that examine the importance of hope in an individual’s life, there are two major theories that have gained a significant amount of recognition in the field of psychology. This model reasons that an ability to be hopeful depends on two types of thinking, agency thinking and pathway thinking
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Pontifical High Mass
The term is used among Anglo-Catholic Anglicans. Although in modern English the word pontifical is almost exclusively associated with the Pope, the celebrant of a Pontifical High Mass may be any bishop, and not just a pope. In the early Church, Mass was normally celebrated by the bishop, most often the specific parts assigned to deacon and subdeacon are performed by priests. The full Pontifical High Mass is carried out when the bishop celebrates the Mass at the throne in his own cathedral church, instead of saying Dominus vobiscum The Lord be with you as the opening liturgical greeting, a bishop says Pax vobis Peace to you. When the bishop sits at the cathedra, a silk cloth, called a gremial. The Popes Pontifical High Mass, when celebrated with solemnity, was even more elaborate. This custom stresses the unity of the universal Catholic Church, formed by both the Eastern and the Western Churches in full communion, at the elevations of host and chalice, the Silveri symphony was played on the trumpets of the no longer existing Noble Guard.
Through a misunderstanding of the name Silveri, English speakers sometimes referred to this as the sounding of silver trumpets, the Pope drank the Precious Blood, the wine having been consecrated, through a golden tube. In the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, the term Pontifical High Mass may refer to a Mass celebrated with the traditional Tridentine ceremonies described above, liturgical manuals such as Ritual Notes provide a framework for incorporating Tridentine ceremonial into the services of the Book of Common Prayer. More generally, the term may refer to any High Mass celebrated by a bishop, usually in the presence of his or her throne
Baptism is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally. The canonical Gospels report that Jesus was baptized—a historical event to which a degree of certainty can be assigned. Baptism has been called a sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ. In some denominations, baptism is called christening, but for others the word christening is reserved for the baptism of infants, Baptism has given its name to the Baptist churches and denominations. The usual form of baptism among the earliest Christians was for the candidate to be immersed, in v.16, Matthew will speak of Jesus coming up out of the water. The traditional depiction in Christian art of John the Baptist pouring water over Jesus head may therefore be based on Christian practice, other common forms of baptism now in use include pouring water three times on the forehead, a method called affusion. Martyrdom was identified early in Church history as baptism by blood, the Catholic Church identified a baptism of desire, by which those preparing for baptism who die before actually receiving the sacrament are considered saved.
Today, some Christians, particularly Christian Scientists, The Salvation Army, and Unitarians, do not see baptism as necessary, among those that do, differences can be found in the manner and mode of baptizing and in the understanding of the significance of the rite. Most Christians baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, much more than half of all Christians baptize infants, many others hold that only believers baptism is true baptism. Some insist on submersion or at least partial immersion of the person who is baptized, others consider that any form of washing by water, as long as the water flows on the head, is sufficient. The term baptism has used to refer to any ceremony, trial, or experience by which a person is initiated, purified. The Greek verb baptō, from which the verb baptizo is derived, is in turn hypothetically traced to a reconstructed Indo-European root *gʷabh-, the Greek words are used in a great variety of meanings. John the Baptist, who is considered a forerunner to Christianity, the apostle Paul distinguished between the baptism of John, and baptism in the name of Jesus, and it is questionable whether Christian baptism was in some way linked with that of John.
Christians consider Jesus to have instituted the sacrament of baptism, though whether Jesus intended to institute a continuing, the earliest Christian baptisms were probably normally by immersion, complete or partial. Though other modes may have been used, at the hour in which the cock crows, they shall first pray over the water. When they come to the water, the water shall be pure and flowing, that is, they shall take off all their clothes. The children shall be baptized first, all of the children who can answer for themselves, let them answer. If there are any children who cannot answer for themselves, let their parents answer for them, after this, the men will be baptized
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Second Vatican Council
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council and informally known as Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. It was the twenty-first and most recent ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. At the same time, the worlds bishops faced challenges driven by political, economic, some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges. The First Vatican Council had been nearly a century before but had been cut short when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959 and this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. In various discussions before the Council actually convened, John XXIII often said that it was time to open the windows and he invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council.
Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIIIs announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as an even to the cardinals present. The Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peters square, after which, he instructed the people to go back home and give their children a kiss of goodnight, from the Pope himself. He had tested the idea only ten days before one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea. They were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had already in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
These groups, composed mostly of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers, more than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, and the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session, what is needed is that this certain and immutable doctrine, to which the faithful owe obedience, be studied afresh and reformulated in contemporary terms. For this deposit of faith, or truths which are contained in our time-honored teaching is one thing, Angelo Giuseppe, Opening address, Rome, IT.13 October 1962 marked the initial working session of the Council.
That days agenda included the election for members of the ten conciliar commissions, each would have sixteen elected and eight appointed members, and were expected to do most of the work of the Council
The last rites, in Christianity, are the last prayers and ministrations given to many Catholics when possible shortly before death. The last rites go by names and include various practices in different Catholic traditions. They may be administered to those awaiting execution, mortally injured, but last rites are known in other religions. The ministration known as the last rites in the Catholic Church does not constitute a distinct sacrament in itself and it is rather a set of sacraments given to people who are perceived to be near death. These are the sacraments of Anointing of the Sick, Penance, if all three are administered immediately one after another, the normal order of administration is, first Penance, Viaticum. The Eucharist in this form is the only sacrament essentially associated with dying, the celebration of the Eucharist as Viaticum is the sacrament proper to the dying Christian. In the Roman Rituals Pastoral Care of the Sick, Rites of Anointing and Viaticum, Viaticum is the only sacrament dealt with in Part II, Pastoral Care of the Dying.
A final chapter provides Rites for Exceptional Circumstances, the Continuous Rite of Penance and Viaticum, Rite for Emergencies, the last of these concerns the administration of Baptism and Confirmation to those who have not received these sacraments. In addition, the priest has authority to bestow a blessing in the name of the Pope on the dying person, in case of an individual awaiting execution, the person would receive Confession and Viaticum. Without having to fear death by illness, the condemned cannot receive the Anointing of the Sick, in the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople, the last rites consist of the Sacred Mysteries of Confession and the reception of Holy Communion. Following these sacraments, when a person dies, there are a series of known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul From the Body. This consists of a blessing by the priest, the usual beginning, a Canon to the Theotokos is chanted, entitled, On behalf of a man whose soul is departing, and who cannot speak.
This is an elongated poem speaking in the person of the one who is dying, asking for forgiveness of sin, the mercy of God, the rite is concluded by three prayers said by the priest, the last one being said at the departure of the soul. There is a rite known as The Office at the Parting of the Soul from the Body When a Man has Suffered for a Long Time. The outline of this rite is the same as above, except that Psalm 70 and Psalm 143 precede Psalm 50, and the words of the canon, as soon as the person has died the priest begins The Office After the Departure of the Soul From the Body. There is a form of Holy Unction to be performed for a person in imminent danger of death. In Islam, specific rites are followed before and after the Islamic funeral, Part of the Islamic funeral ritual is the funeral prayer Salat al-Janazah
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church and is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages, the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum specifies the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may continue to use the form of the Roman Rite in the 1962 Roman Missal. While other rites use more poetic language, the Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression, as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed. Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well, other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, and keeping both hands joined together. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis, so our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all.
The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, in a footnote he added, The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake. Eastern rites have been modified too, some of them quite late. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass, in the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. In the interval, there was what Fortescue called a radical change and he quoted the theory of A. Leo, I began to make these changes, Gregory I finished the process and finally recast the Canon in the form it still has. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon and this infusion Fortescue called the last change since Gregory the Great. The Eucharistic Prayer normally used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari, which is still in use, is certainly much older.
However, by about 1800 the Roman Rite had quite abandoned rood screens, when Western Europe adopted polyphony, the music of the Roman Rite did become very elaborate and lengthy. Latin liturgical rites List of Catholic rites and churches Liturgical books of the Roman rite Pre-Tridentine Mass Mass of Paul VI Mass Tridentine Mass Baldovin, John F. Reforming the Liturgy, A Response to the Critics. The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975, a Short History of the Roman Mass. By Michael Davies, said to be based on Adrian Fortescues The Mass, A Study of the Roman Liturgy Metzger, History of the Liturgy, The Major Stages. Bodies of Worship, Explorations in Theory and Practice, a Challenging Reform, Realizing the Vision of the Liturgical Renewal. Johnson, Lawrence, J. Worship in the Early Church, Edward, Nathan D. and Pierce, Joanne M
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives and it is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is used in cosmetics and soaps, and as a fuel for oil lamps. It is associated with the Mediterranean diet for its health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine, the two are wheat and grapes. Olive trees have grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain is the largest producer of oil, followed by Italy. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain, consumption in North America and northern Europe is far less, but rising steadily. The composition of oil varies with the cultivar, time of harvest. It consists mainly of acid, with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin, wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC, the wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor or in ancient Greece.
It is not clear when and where trees were first domesticated, in Asia Minor, in the Levant. Archeological evidence shows that olives were turned into oil by 6000 BC and 4500 BC in present-day Palestine. Until 1500 BC, eastern areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Evidence suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2,500 BC, the cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the islands economy, as it did across the Mediterranean. Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla, which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and these belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.
A source is the frequent mentions of oil in the Tanakh, dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth
The term High Mass is used in the United States to describe the less elaborate Missa Cantata, which lacks deacon and subdeacon and some of the ceremonies connected with them. This article deals with Solemn Mass as celebrated according to the Tridentine use and these terms distinguish the form in question from that of Low Mass and Missa Cantata. The parts assigned to the deacon and subdeacon are often done by priests in vestments proper to those roles, a Solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop has its own particular ceremonies and is referred to as a Solemn Pontifical Mass. Lutherans sometimes use the term High Mass to describe a more form of their Divine Service. Examples of similarities include vestments and incense, lutheran congregations in North America commonly celebrate High Mass in essence, but rarely use the term Mass. Thus, the rubrics of the Ordinary of the Mass always suppose that the Mass is high, Low Mass, said by a priest alone with one server, is a shortened and simplified form of the same thing.
Its ritual can be explained only by a reference to high Mass, the distinction between High and Low Mass is necessarily observed where the Tridentine form of the Roman Rite continues to be used. The term High Mass is sometimes encountered also, both in Anglican and certain Roman Catholic circles, to describe any Mass celebrated with greater solemnity, in the sacristy, before vesting, all three sacred ministers wash their hands. The sacred ministers recite certain prayers while they place on each vestment, the amice is kissed and placed on top of the head briefly while reciting one of the prayers during vesting. Then it is tied around the shoulders on top of the cassock, the cincture, a long cloth cord called a girdle, is tied around the waist. The subdeacon completes his vesting by placing the maniple on his arm, securing it either with pins or with the ribbons or elastic inside. The deacon places his stole over his shoulder and binds it in place, at his right hip. He puts on the maniple and his dalmatic, the priest celebrant does the same except that he crosses his stole in front of him at the waist, binding it with the girdle or cincture.
After the maniple he puts on a cope if the Mass is preceded by the Asperges, following the Asperges, the celebrant, assisted by the acolytes, removes the cope and puts on the chasuble. The servers of the Mass and the sitting in the liturgical choir stalls are vested in cassock and surplice or cotta, though in some places acolytes wore simple albs. Anyone ordained to the subdiaconate or above wears the biretta while sitting, members of religious orders in habit have on a surplice over the habit. If it is part of their dress, they use the biretta. If not, use their hood in the same fashion as one uses a biretta
Mass often refers to the entire church service in general, but is specifically the sacrament of the Eucharist. The term mass is called in the Catholic Church, Western Rite Orthodox churches and many Old Catholic, Anglican, as well as some Lutheran churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship, the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, and was sometimes glossed as sendnes, the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i. e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Already Du Cange reports various opinions on the origin of the noun missa mass, including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology, medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est.
Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as the source and summit of the Christian life, to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is exactly the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary, after making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence. This concludes with the prayer of absolution, however. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer. On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given, on other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide, the first reading is followed by a psalm, either sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament, typically one of the Pauline epistles.
A Gospel Acclamation is sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, the final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, the Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities, and it is desirable that in Masses celebrated with the people the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful should usually follow. The congregation responds, May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, the priest pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts. The Eucharistic Prayer, the centre and high point of the entire celebration, the priest continues with one of many Eucharistic Prayer thanksgiving prefaces, which lead to the reciting of the Sanctus acclamation