1948 United States presidential election
The 1948 United States presidential election was the 41st quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Truman's victory is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history. Truman had acceded to the presidency in April 1945 after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Defeating attempts to drop him from the ticket, Truman won the presidential nomination at the 1948 Democratic National Convention; the Democratic convention's civil rights plank caused a walk-out by several Southern delegates, who launched a third-party "Dixiecrat" ticket led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. The Dixiecrats hoped to win enough electoral votes to force a contingent election in the House of Representatives, where they could extract concessions from either Dewey or Truman in exchange for their support. Truman faced a challenge from the left in the form of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, who launched the Progressive Party and challenged Truman's confrontational Cold War policies.
Dewey, the leader of his party's moderate eastern wing and had been the 1944 Republican presidential nominee, defeated Senator Robert A. Taft and other challengers at the 1948 Republican National Convention. Truman's feisty campaign style energized his base of traditional Democrats, consisting of most of the white South, as well as Catholic and Jewish voters. Dewey ran a low risk campaign and avoided directly criticizing Truman. With the three-way split in the Democratic Party, with Truman's low approval ratings, Truman was considered to be the underdog in the race; every prediction indicated that Truman would be defeated by Dewey. Defying predictions of his defeat, Truman won the 1948 election, garnering 303 electoral votes to Dewey's 189. Truman won 49.6% of the popular vote compared to Dewey's 45.1%, while the third party candidacies of Thurmond and Wallace each won less than 3% of the popular vote, with Thurmond carrying four southern states. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive presidential win for the Democratic Party, the longest winning streak for either party since the 1880 election.
With simultaneous success in the 1948 congressional elections, the Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress, which they had lost in 1946. Thus, Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party. For both Republicans and Democrats, there was a boom for General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the most popular general of World War II and a favorite in the polls. Unlike the latter movement within the Democratic party, the Republican draft movement came from the grassroots of the party. By January 23, 1948, the grassroots movement had entered Eisenhower's name into every state holding a Republican presidential primary, polls gave him a significant lead against all other contenders. With the first state primary approaching, Eisenhower was forced to make a quick decision. Stating that soldiers should keep out of politics, Eisenhower declined to run and requested that the grassroots draft movement cease its activities. After a number of failed efforts to get Eisenhower to reconsider, the organization disbanded, with the majority of its leadership endorsing the presidential campaign of the former Governor of Minnesota, Harold Stassen.
With Eisenhower refusing to run, the contest for the Republican nomination was between Stassen, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio, California Governor Earl Warren, General Douglas MacArthur, Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg from Michigan, the senior Republican in the Senate. Dewey, the Republican nominee in 1944, was regarded as the frontrunner when the primaries began. Dewey was the acknowledged leader of the Republican Party's Eastern Establishment. In 1946 he had been re-elected governor of New York by the largest margin in state history. Dewey's handicap was. Taft was the leader of the Republican Party's conservative wing, strongest in the Midwest and parts of the South. Taft called for abolishing many New Deal welfare programs, which he felt were harmful to business interests, he was skeptical of American involvement in foreign alliances such as the United Nations. Taft had two major weaknesses: He was a plodding, dull campaigner, he was viewed by most party leaders as being too conservative and controversial to win a presidential election.
Both Vandenberg and Warren were popular in their home states, but each refused to campaign in the primaries, which limited their chances of winning the nomination. Their supporters, hoped that in the event of a Dewey-Taft-Stassen deadlock, the convention would turn to their man as a compromise candidate. General MacArthur, the famous war hero, was popular among conservatives. Since he was serving in Japan as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers occupying that nation, he was unable to campaign for the nomination, he did make it known, that he would accept the GOP nomination if it were offered to him, some conservative Republicans hoped that by winning a primary contest he could prove his popularity with voters. They chose to enter his name in the Wisconsin primary; the "surprise" candidate of 1948 was a liberal from Minnesota. In 1938, Stassen had been elected governor of Minnesota at the age of 31. In 1945 he served on the committee. Stassen was regarded as
1952 United States presidential election
The 1952 United States presidential election was the 42nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1952. Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower won a landslide victory over Democrat Adlai Stevenson, ending a string of Democratic Party wins that stretched back to 1932. Incumbent Democratic President Harry S. Truman had remained silent about whether he would seek another full term, but the unpopular incumbent announced his withdrawal from the race following his defeat in the New Hampshire primary by Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver. After Truman's withdrawal, the president and other party leaders threw their support behind Stevenson, the moderate Governor of Illinois. Stevenson emerged victorious on the third presidential ballot of the 1952 Democratic National Convention, defeating Kefauver, Senator Richard Russell Jr. of Georgia, other candidates. The Republican nomination was contested by conservative Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio and Eisenhower, a general, popular for his leadership in World War II.
With the support of Thomas E. Dewey and other party leaders, Eisenhower narrowly prevailed over Taft at the 1952 Republican National Convention; the Republicans chose Richard Nixon, a young anti-Communist Senator from California, as Eisenhower's running mate. Republicans attacked Truman's handling of the Korean War and the broader Cold War, alleged that Soviet spies had infiltrated the U. S. government. Democrats faulted Eisenhower for failing to condemn Republican Senator Joe McCarthy and other anti-Communist Republicans who they alleged had engaged in reckless and unwarranted attacks. Stevenson tried to separate himself from the unpopular Truman administration, instead campaigning on the popularity of the New Deal and lingering fears of another Great Depression under a Republican administration. Eisenhower retained his enormous popularity from the war, as seen in his campaign slogan, "I Like Ike." Eisenhower's popularity and Truman's unpopularity led to a Republican victory, Eisenhower won 55% of the popular vote.
He carried every state outside of the South and won several Southern states that had always voted for Democrats since the end of Reconstruction. Republicans won control of both houses of Congress; the fight for the Republican nomination was between General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who became the candidate of the party's moderate eastern establishment; the moderate Eastern Republicans were led by New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, the party's presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948; the moderates tended to be interventionists, who felt that America needed to fight the Cold War overseas and confront the Soviet Union in Eurasia. The moderates were concerned with ending the Republicans' losing streak in presidential elections. For this reason, Dewey himself declined the notion of a third run for president though he still had a large amount of support within the party; the GOP had been out of power for 20 years, the sentiment that a proper two-party system needed to be reestablished was strong a Republican Party in control of the White House would have more incentive to reign in unpopular demagogues such as Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy.
The conservative Republicans, led by Taft, were based in the Midwest and parts of the South. The Midwest was a bastion of conservatism and isolationist sentiment, dislike of Europeans, in particular Great Britain, was common, there was a widespread feeling that the British manipulated US foreign policy and were eager to kowtow to the Soviet Union, although attitudes were beginning to change among the younger generation who had fought in World War II. Taft had unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1940 and 1948 presidential elections, losing both times to moderate candidates from New York. Taft, 63, felt that this was his last chance to run for president and so his friends and supporters worked extra hard to ensure that he win the nomination. Warren, although popular in California, refused to campaign in the presidential primaries and thus limited his chances of winning the nomination, he did retain the support of the California delegation, his supporters hoped that, in the event of an Eisenhower-Taft deadlock, Warren might emerge as a compromise candidate.
After being persuaded to run, Eisenhower scored a major victory in the New Hampshire primary, when his supporters wrote his name onto the ballot, giving him an upset victory over Taft. However, from there until the Republican Convention the primaries were divided evenly between the two, by the time the convention opened, the race for the nomination was still too close to call. Taft won the Nebraska, Wisconsin and South Dakota primaries, while Eisenhower won the New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Oregon primaries. Stassen and Warren only won their home states of Minnesota and California which ended their chances of earning the nomination. General Douglas MacArthur got ten delegates from various states, but had made it clear from early in the race that he had no interest in being nominated; when the 1952 Republican National Convention opened in Chicago, most political experts rated Taft and Eisenhower as neck-and-neck in the delegate vote totals. Eisenhower's managers, led by Dewey an
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
1932 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1932 was the thirty-seventh quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1932. The election took place against the backdrop of the Great Depression. Incumbent Republican President Herbert Hoover was defeated in a landslide by Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Governor of New York; the election marked the effective end of the Fourth Party System, dominated by Republicans. Despite poor economic conditions, Hoover faced little opposition at the 1932 Republican National Convention. Roosevelt was considered the front-runner at the start of the 1932 Democratic National Convention, but was not able to clinch the nomination until the fourth ballot of the convention; the Democratic convention chose a leading Southern Democrat, Speaker of the House John Nance Garner of Texas, as the party's vice presidential nominee. Roosevelt united the party around him, he promised recovery with a "New Deal" for the American people. Roosevelt won by a landslide in both the electoral and popular vote, carrying every state outside of the Northeast and receiving the highest percentage of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee up to that time.
Hoover had won over 57% of the popular vote in the 1928 presidential election, but saw his share of the popular vote decline to 39.7%. Socialist Party nominee Norman Thomas won 2.2% of the popular vote. Subsequent landslides in the 1934 mid-term elections and the 1936 presidential election confirmed the commencement of the Fifth Party System, which would be dominated by Roosevelt's New Deal Coalition. Republican candidates: Herbert Hoover, President of the United States John J. Blaine, Senator from Wisconsin Joseph I. France, former Senator from Maryland James Wolcott Wadsworth, Jr. former Senator from New York As the year 1932 began, the Republican Party believed Hoover's protectionism and aggressive fiscal policies would solve the depression. Whether they were successful or not, President Herbert Hoover controlled the party and had little trouble securing a re-nomination. Little-known former United States Senator Joseph I. France ran against Hoover in the primaries, but Hoover was unopposed.
France's primary wins were tempered by his defeat to Hoover in his home state of Maryland and the fact that few delegates to the national convention were chosen in the primaries. Hoover's managers at the Republican National Convention, which met in Chicago between June 14 and 16, ran a tight ship, not allowing expressions of concern for the direction of the nation, he was nominated on the first ballot with 98% of the delegate vote. The tally was spectacularly lopsided: Both rural Republicans and hard-money Republicans balked at the floor managers and voted against the renomination of Vice-President Charles Curtis, who won with just 55% of the delegate votes. Democratic candidates: Franklin D. Roosevelt, governor of New York Al Smith, former governor of New York and 1928 Democratic presidential nominee John Nance Garner, U. S. Speaker of the House, of Texas The leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1932 was New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Speaker of the House John Nance Garner and former New York Governor Al Smith were trailing him.
Before the 1932 Democratic National Convention met in Chicago between June 27 and July 2, Roosevelt was believed to have more delegate votes than all of his opponents combined. However, due to the "two-thirds" nominating rule used by the Democrats, his opponents hoped that he would be unable to obtain the two-thirds majority necessary to win, that they could gain votes on ballots or coalesce behind a dark horse candidate. On the first three ballots Roosevelt had well over a majority of the delegate vote, but still lacked the two-thirds majority. Before the fourth ballot, his managers James Farley and Louis McHenry Howe struck a deal with House Speaker John Nance Garner: Garner would drop out of the race and support Roosevelt, in return Roosevelt would agree to name Garner as his running mate. With this agreement, Roosevelt with it the presidential nomination. After making an airplane trip to the Democratic convention, Roosevelt accepted the nomination in person. In his speech, he stated, "ours must be a party of liberal thought, of planned action, of enlightened international outlook, of the greatest good to the greatest number of our citizens."
Roosevelt's trip to Chicago was the first of several successful, precedent-making moves designed to make him appear to be the candidate of change in the election. Large crowds greeted Roosevelt; the Democrats were united as they had not been in 1928, the most united the party had been in the entire Fourth Party System. Roosevelt's Protestant background nullified the anti-Catholic attacks Smith faced in 1928, The Depression seemed to be of greater concern among the American public than previous cultural battles. Prohibition was a favorite Democratic target, with few Republicans trying to defend it given mounting demand to end prohibition and bring back beer and the resulting tax revenues. In contrast, Hoover was not supported by many of the more prominent Republicans and violently opposed by others, in particular by a number of senators who had fought him throughout his administration and whose national reputation made their opposition of considerable importance. Many prominent Republicans went so far as to espouse the cause of the Democratic candidate openly.
Making matters worse
The Admiralty known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy first in the Kingdom of England in the Kingdom of Great Britain, from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire. Exercised by a single person, the Lord High Admiral, the Admiralty was, from the early 18th century onwards invariably put "in commission" and exercised by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who sat on the Board of Admiralty. In 1964, the functions of the Admiralty were transferred to a new Admiralty Board, a committee of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom and part of the Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence; the new Admiralty Board meets only twice a year, the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is controlled by a Navy Board. It is common for the various authorities now in charge of the Royal Navy to be referred to as simply'The Admiralty'; the title of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom was vested in the monarch from 1964 to 2011.
The title was awarded to Duke of Edinburgh by Queen Elizabeth II on his 90th birthday. There continues to be a Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom and a Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, both of which are honorary offices; the office of Admiral of England was created around 1400. King Henry VIII established the Council of the Marine—later to become the Navy Board—in 1546, to oversee administrative affairs of the naval service. Operational control of the Royal Navy remained the responsibility of the Lord High Admiral, one of the nine Great Officers of State; this management approach would continue in force in the Royal Navy until to 1832. King Charles I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission in 1628, control of the Royal Navy passed to a committee in the form of the Board of Admiralty; the office of Lord High Admiral passed a number of times in and out of commission until 1709, after which the office was permanently in commission. In this organization a dual system operated the Lord High Admiral Commissioners of the Admiralty exercised the function of general control of the Navy and they were responsible for the conduct of any war, while the actual supply lines and services were managed by four principal officers, the Treasurer, Comptroller and Clerk of the Acts, responsible individually for finance, supervision of accounts and maintenance of ships, record of business.
These principal officers came to be known as the Navy Board responsible for'civil administration' of the navy, from 1546 to 1832. This structure of administering the navy lasted for 285 years, the supply system was inefficient and corrupt its deficiencies were due as much to its limitations of the times they operated in; the various functions within the Admiralty were not coordinated and lacked inter-dependency with each other, with the result that in 1832, Sir James Graham abolished the Navy Board and merged its functions within those of the Board of Admiralty. At the time this had distinct advantages. In 1860 saw big growth in the development of technical crafts, the expansion of more admiralty branches that began with age of steam that would have an enormous influence on the navy and naval thought. Between 1860 and 1908, there was no real study of strategy and of staff work conducted within the naval service. All the Navy's talent flowed to the great technical universities; this school of thought for the next 50 years was technically based.
The first serious attempt to introduce a sole management body to administer the naval service manifested itself in the creation of the Admiralty Navy War Council in 1909. It was believed by officials within the Admiralty at this time that the running of war was quite a simple matter for any flag officer who required no formal training. However, this mentality would be questioned with the advent of the Agadir crisis, when the Admiralty's war plans were criticized. Following this, a new advisory body called the Admiralty War Staff was instituted in 1912, headed by the Chief of the War Staff, responsible for administering three new sub-divisions responsible for operations and mobilisation; the new War Staff had hardly found its feet and it continually struggled with the opposition to its existence by senior officers they were categorically opposed to a staff. The deficiencies of the system within this department of state could be seen in the conduct of the Dardanelles campaign. There were no mechanisms in place to answer the big strategic questions.
A Trade Division was created in 1914. Sir John Jellicoe came to the Admiralty in 1916, he re-organized the war staff as following: Chief of War Staff, Intelligence, Signal Section, Trade. It was not until 1917 that the admiralty department was again properly reorganized and began to function as a professional military staff. In May 1917, the term "Admiralty War Staff" was renamed and that department and its functional role were superseded by a new "Admiralty Naval Staff". Appointed was a new post, that of
1984 United States presidential election in North Carolina
The 1984 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 6, 1984, was part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Voters chose 13 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. North Carolina voted for the Republican nominee, President Ronald Reagan, over the Democratic nominee, Vice President Walter Mondale in a landslide; the final margin was 61.90% to 37.89%, which compared to the other southern states, was close to the southern average. This margin was a huge swing from 1980. No Democrat would win in North Carolina again until 2008; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Vance County, Chatham County, Scotland County voted for the Republican candidate
1924 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1924 was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924. In a three-way contest, incumbent Republican President Calvin Coolidge won election to a full term. Coolidge had been vice president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 upon Harding's death. Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad, he faced little opposition at the 1924 Republican National Convention; the Democratic Party nominated former Congressman John W. Davis of West Virginia, making Davis the first major party nominee who had held public office in a former slave state since the end of the Civil War. Davis, a compromise candidate, triumphed on the 103rd ballot of the 1924 Democratic National Convention after a deadlock between supporters of William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith. Dissatisfied by the conservatism of both major party candidates, the Progressive Party nominated Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin.
Garland S. Tucker, in a 2010 book, argues that the election marked the "high tide of American conservatism," as both major candidates campaigned for limited government, reduced taxes, less regulation. By contrast, La Follette called for the gradual nationalization of the railroads and increased taxes on the wealthy. Coolidge won a decisive victory, taking majorities in both the popular vote and the Electoral College and winning every state outside of the Solid South. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, a strong showing for a third party candidate, while Davis won the lowest share of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee in history. Republican candidates When Coolidge became president, he was fortunate to have had a stable cabinet that remained untarnished by the scandals of the Harding administration, he won public confidence by taking a hand in settling a serious Pennsylvania coal strike though much of the negotiation's success was due to the state's governor, Gifford Pinchot. However, the more conservative factions within the Republican Party remained unconvinced in the new president's own conservatism, given his rather liberal record while governor of Massachusetts, he had not been their first choice for the vice presidency back in 1920.
However it should be noted that Coolidge was not popular with the liberal or progressive factions within the party either. Heartened by their victories in the 1922 midterms, the party's progressives vigorously opposed a continuation of the late Harding's policies. In the fall of 1923, Senator Hiram Johnson of California announced his intention of fighting Coolidge in the presidential primaries, friends of Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin were planning a third party. Coolidge decided to head off the immediate threat of Johnson's candidacy by gaining the endorsement of some of the liberals, he first approached Senator William Borah from Idaho and cultivated his circle by making a conciliatory reference to the Soviet Union in a speech in December. No sooner had the Soviet Union reacted favorably than Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes persuaded the President to reject it; this left Borah on the verge of deserting Coolidge, but the subsequent disclosure of corruption among the Establishment persuaded him to stay and to try to convince Coolidge to align his policies more to his own.
Coolidge for his part seemed unsure of. His State of the Union address in January was neither reactionary, he played Borah by promising to fire Attorney General Harry Daugherty and putting it off. In a speech on Lincoln Day Coolidge promised unstinting prosecution that would not mingle the innocent and the guilty—and managed to keep Borah within his ranks until he no longer feared the senator's influence. By Coolidge had made himself sufficiently strong to replace not only corrupt officeholders but many Republican stalwarts on the national committee and throughout the party hierarchy, elevating in their stead business friends loyal to him. In an effort to try to get at least some of the liberals back into the party ranks, he offered the vice presidency to the popular Senator Borah; the senator declined refusing to nominate Coolidge at that year's Republican convention which he decided against attending. Another task for Coolidge, only easier than tightening his hold over the party's divergent factions, was to rebuild the party organization.
A few years before, Will Hays had brought disciplined energy to the office of Republican national chairman. Hays's replacement, William Butler, lacked his predecessor's experience, it fell to Coolidge himself to whip the party into shape, his prime task was to establish control over the party. Through the power of patronage Coolidge consolidated his hold over Republican officeholders and office-seekers in the South, where the party was made up of little more than those whose positions were awarded through such a system; this allowed him to gain control of southern delegates to the coming Republican convention. He let it be known that his secretary Campbell Slemp, who favored the policy, would remove African-American Republican leaders in the South in order to attract more white voters to the party. Only California Senator Hiram Johnson challenged Coolidge in the South; when the early Alabama primary resulted in a slate contes