Thomas Jefferson Rusk
Thomas Jefferson Rusk was an early political and military leader of the Republic of Texas, serving as its first Secretary of War as well as a general at the Battle of San Jacinto. He was a US politician and served as a Senator from Texas from 1846 until his suicide, he served as the President pro tempore of the United States Senate in 1857. Rusk was born in Pendleton, South Carolina, to John Rusk, a stonemason, Mary Sterritt Rusk. After being admitted to the bar in 1825, Rusk began his law practice in Georgia. In 1827, he married the daughter of General John Cleveland. Rusk became a business partner of his father-in-law after the marriage, he made sizable mining investments. In 1834, the managers of the company in which he had invested embezzled all the funds and fled to Mexican Texas. Rusk never recovered the money. Rusk decided to stay in Texas and became a citizen of Mexico in 1835, applied for a headright in David G. Burnet's colony, sent for his family. After hearing Nacogdoches citizens denounce the despotism of Mexico, Rusk became involved in the independence movement.
He organized volunteers from Nacogdoches and hastened to Gonzales, where his men joined Stephen F. Austin's army in preventing the Mexicans from seizing their cannon, they proceeded to San Antonio. The provisional government named him inspector general of the army in the Nacogdoches District; as a delegate from Nacogdoches to the Convention of 1836, Rusk not only signed the Texas Declaration of Independence but chaired the committee to revise the constitution of the Republic of Texas. The ad interim government, installed on March 17, 1836, appointed Rusk as Secretary of War; when informed that the Alamo had fallen and the Mexican army was moving eastward, Rusk helped President David Burnet to move the government to Harrisburg. After the Mexicans killed all James W. Fannin's Texan army at Goliad, Burnet sent Rusk with orders for General Sam Houston to make a stand against the enemy. Rusk participated with bravery in the defeat of Santa Anna on April 21, 1836, in the Battle of San Jacinto. From May to October 1836, he served as commander-in-chief of the Army of the Republic of Texas, with the rank of brigadier general.
He followed the Mexican troops westward as they retired from Texas to be certain of their retreat beyond the Rio Grande. He conducted a military funeral for the troops killed at Goliad. In the first elected administration, President Houston appointed Rusk secretary of war, but after a few weeks, Rusk resigned to take care of pressing domestic problems. At the insistence of friends, however, he represented Nacogdoches in the Second Congress of the Republic. Rusk was a Mason, he joined Milam Lodge No. 40 in Nacogdoches in 1837 and was a founding member of the Grand Lodge of Texas, organized in Houston on December 20, 1837. As chairman of the House Military Committee in 1837, he sponsored a militia bill that passed over Houston's veto, Congress elected Rusk major general of the militia. In the summer of 1838, he commanded the Nacogdoches militia. In October, when Mexican agents were discovered among the Kickapoo Indians, Rusk defeated those Indians and their Indian allies, he captured marauding Caddo Indians in November 1838 and risked an international incident when he invaded United States territory to return them to the Indian agent in Shreveport, Louisiana.
On December 12, 1838, the Texas Congress elected Rusk Chief Justice of the Republic's Supreme Court. He served until June 1840, when he resigned to resume his law practice, he headed the bar of the Republic of Texas. He and J. Pinckney Henderson the first governor of the state of Texas, formed a law partnership in 1841. Early in 1843, Rusk was called upon once again to serve as a military commander. Concern over the lack of protection on the frontier caused Congress, in a joint ballot on January 16, 1843, to elect Rusk major general of the militia of the Republic of Texas, but he resigned in June. Rusk turned his energies to establishing Nacogdoches University, he served as vice president of the university when the charter was granted in 1845 and president in 1846. Rusk supported the growing movement to annex Texas to the United States, he was president of the Republic's Convention of 1845. The first Texas state legislature elected him and Houston to the United States Senate in February 1846. Rusk received the longer term of office.
Rusk and Houston forgot past differences as they worked to settle the southwest boundary question in favor of Texas' claim to the Rio Grande. Rusk supported the position of US President James K. Polk on the necessity of the Mexican War and the acquisition of California. In the debate over the Compromise of 1850, Rusk refused to endorse secession, proposed by some in the caucus of Southern congressmen, he vigorously defended Texas' claims to the land used to create the New Mexico Territory in 1850, arguing for financial compensation for Texas. As an early advocate of a transcontinental railroad through Texas, Senator Rusk made speeches in the Senate and throughout Texas in support of a southern route; the Gadsden Purchase received his support. Rusk was in favor of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. President James Buchanan offered him the position of United States Postmaster General in 1857, but he turned it down. While Rusk attended to duties in Washington, D. C. his wife died o
Holland Lodge No. 1 AF&AM is the oldest Masonic lodge in Texas and a founding subordinate member of the Grand Lodge of Texas. The lodge was chartered by the Grand Lodge of Louisiana on 27 January 1836, making it older than the Republic of Texas, it is in the Museum District of Texas at 4911 Montrose Boulevard. The building was erected in 1954, designed by architect Milton McGinty; the sandstone mural facade depicting the origins of Freemasonry was carved by William M. McVey. In March 1835, Anson Jones, John Wharton, Asa Brigham, James Phelps, Alexander Russell, wishing to formally meet as an organized masonic lodge, met under the Masonic Oak near the burial ground of General John Austin and petitioned the Grand Lodge of Louisiana for dispensation to organize a lodge in the Texas territory. On December 27, 1835, the dispensation was granted by Grand Master of Louisiana. Holland Lodge No. 36 of Louisiana was instituted and opened on the second floor of the old courthouse in Brazoria, Texas. Meetings continued here until March 1836, when Brazoria was abandoned due to events related to the Texas Revolution.
During this time, the official charter issued to Holland Lodge #36 was delivered to Texas and presented to Anson Jones just before the Battle of San Jacinto. This document arrived safely in Brazoria after the battle, but the brethren had dwindled in number post-revolution. In November 1837, Anson Jones assembled Masons living near Houston in the Senate Chamber of the original Capitol building and opened Holland Lodge at this location until October 27, 1838. On November 13, 1837, the lodge appointed a committee to meet with members of Nacogdoches and San Augustine to organize the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas; this convention occurred on December 20, 1837 in the Senate Chamber meeting place, presided over by Sam Houston, included representatives of Milam No. 40 and McFarland No. 41. The Grand Lodge's first session was opened on April 24, 1838 at which time Texas lodges were renumbered according to the dates of dispensation, thus was established Holland Lodge No. 1, Milam Lodge No. 2, McFarland Lodge No. 3.
By November 1838, other lodges formed under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the Republic of Texas, including Temple No. 4, St. Johns No. 5, Harmony No. 6, Matagorda No. 7, Phoenix No. 8. On November 8, 1838, Holland Lodge, Temple Lodge, the Grand Lodge of Texas secured lodge rooms in the upstairs apartments of Kesler's Arcade at 910 Congress Avenue. After a dispute over the rent, the bodies were barred from the building in September 1839 and could not resume labor until February 1840, when they met once again in the Senate Chamber. On June 10, 1840, Holland Lodge agreed to a six-month contract for rooms in the CC Dibble Building at 201 Main Street. During this time, officers of the lodge made a new contract with the heirs of Mr. Kesler and returned to the arcade apartments between February 1841 and January 1847. After the turbulent first decade of masonry in Texas, members of Holland Lodge sought to establish a permanent building. Brothers William Marsh Rice and Nichols offered the second story of their new building at 1011 Congress Avenue for five years for the interest on a payment of $1100, returned to the lodge.
This facility was dedicated on January 16, 1847 and served as the home of Holland Lodge, Houston Chapter #8, Houston Council #10 until November 23, 1852. In May 1851, a committee was formed of members from Holland Lodge, Washington Chapter #2, Ruthven Commandery #2 and submitted a plan for a new three-story building for lodge rooms and a school. By March 1852, a lot had been purchased at the corner of Capitol and Main streets for $600; the erection of the three-story building was contracted for $2500 and completed in October 1852. As planned, the first floor was rented as a school for $20 per month, the associated bodies met in this new hall until it was destroyed by fire in October 1862. Sam Houston - Hero of San Jacinto, President of the Republic of Texas, Governor of Texas and Tennessee, US Senator Anson Jones - Last President of the Republic of Texas, First Grand Master of Texas David G. Burnet - 1st President of the Republic of Texas, Vice President of the Republic of Texas, Secretary of State of Texas James Fannin - Commander of the Texas Army at Goliad Juan Seguín - Tejano Patriot Benjamin Franklin Terry - Founder and Commander of Terry's Texas Rangers Thomas S. Lubbock - Commander of Terry's Texas Rangers James Pinckney Henderson - Army General, Attorney General of The Republic of Texas, 1st Governor of Texas, US Senator Francis Lubbock - 6th Lieutenant Governor of Texas, 9th Governor of Texas William Marsh Rice - Founder of Rice University Peter W. Gray - Founder of Gray and Botts, Grand Master of Texas Ben Taub - Philanthropist essential for the University of Houston and Baylor College of Medicine Ross S.
Sterling - Founder of Humble Oil and 31st Governor of Texas Holland Lodge No. 1 official website
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Washington-on-the-Brazos is an unincorporated area along the Brazos River in Washington County, United States. Founded when Texas was still a part of Mexico, the settlement was the site of the Convention of 1836 and the signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the name "Washington-on-the-Brazos" was used to distinguish the settlement from "Washington-on-the-Potomac"—i.e. Washington, D. C. Founded by immigrants from the southern United States, Washington-on-the-Brazos is known as "the birthplace of Texas" because here, on March 1, 1836, Texas delegates met to formally announce Texas' intention to separate from Mexico and to draft the constitution of the new Republic of Texas, they organized an interim government to serve until a government could be inaugurated. The delegates declared independence on March 2, 1836, they adopted their constitution on March 16. The delegates worked until March 17, when they had to flee with the residents of Washington, to escape the advancing Mexican Army.
The townspeople returned after the Mexican Army was defeated at San Jacinto on April 21. Town leaders lobbied for Washington’s designation as the permanent capital of the Republic of Texas, but leaders of the Republic favored Waterloo, renamed Austin. Washington County was established by the legislature of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and organized in 1837, when Washington-on-the-Brazos was designated as the county seat. Although the county seat moved to Brenham in 1844, the town continued to thrive as a center for the cotton trade until the mid-1850s, as it was located on the Brazos River to use for shipping out the crop; the construction of railroads pulled off its business. The strife of the Civil War took another toll on the town, by the turn of the 20th century, it was abandoned; the State of Texas purchased 50 acres of the old townsite in 1916 and built a replica of the building where the delegates met. The state acquired more of the site in 1976 and 1996. Located between Brenham and Navasota off State Highway 105, the site is now known as Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historic Site.
It covers 293 acres, features three main attractions: Independence Hall, Barrington Living History Farm, the Star of the Republic Museum, administered by Blinn College. The site's visitor center is free and includes interactive exhibits about the Texas Revolution and the park's attractions, a gift shop, a conference center and an education center; the Barrington Living History Farm is a living museum homestead that represents the mid-19th-century farm founded by Dr. Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas. Costumed interpreters raise cotton, corn and hogs using period techniques; the 1844 Anson Jones Home was moved to the site in 1936 as part of the Texas Centennial Celebration. The reconstructed outbuildings include two slave cabins, a kitchen building, a smokehouse, a cotton house and a barn; the farmstead opened in 2000, is operated by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. In Houston, Washington Avenue was named after Washington-on-the-Brazos, it was the western route to Washington County.
Following the present-day road: Washington Avenue. Any students residing in the area are within the Brenham Independent School District. List of museums in East Texas Open-air museum Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Apr. 12, 2005. Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historical Park from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Apr. 12, 2005. Washington-on-the-Brazos web site Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historic Site Star of the Republic Museum Barrington Living History Farm - Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Visitor information for Washington County, Texas
President of the Republic of Texas
The President of the Republic of Texas was the head of state and head of government while Texas was an independent republic between 1836 and 1845. The Republic of Texas was formed in 1836. In the midst of the Texas Revolution, Texan settlers elected delegates to the Convention of 1836, which issued the Texas Declaration of Independence and elected David G. Burnet as interim president of the new country. In May 1836 Burnet and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna, at the time a Texan prisoner-of-war, signed the Treaties of Velasco recognizing Texas's break from Mexico; the authority and responsibilities of the president was similar to that of the President of the United States: to serve the people of Texas, to serve as the head of the military and the state. These were detailed in the Constitution of the Republic of Texas of 1836; the Constitution specified a term of two years for the first elected president and terms of three years thereafter. The president was elected separately from the vice president, by popular vote, there was no requirement to be native-born.
A strict reading of the Constitution provided for women's suffrage, but women and preachers or priests were not allowed to serve as president or in Congress. Indians and Africans and those of African descent could not be citizens; the president lived in different towns during the life of the Republic, as the capital was relocated during and after the Texas Revolution. Washington-on-the-Brazos was Texas' first capital in 1836, followed by Harrisburg 1836, Galveston 1836, Velasco 1836, Columbia 1836–37, Houston, 1837–39, Austin, the modern capital, 1839–46; the position was abolished with the annexation of Texas due to President Anson Jones, who received the nickname "The architect of Annexation" and served only one year and three months. The amount of power wielded by occupants of the office varied tremendously during the nine years of Texas' independence. In the beginning, there was a larger military need than in the 1840s, the president therefore had more power and influence than during years of relative peace.
However, there is no record of any president changing the Texas Constitution. As the United States and other countries such as France recognized Texan independence, presidential power functioned without interference from the outside world, though the Republic allied itself informally with the United States. Several presidents supported annexation of the Republic by the United States, with direct admission as a state. Under the Constitution the vice president was to succeed the president in the event of the latter's death, resignation or removal by impeachment; the vice president was the President of the Senate, had a casting vote in the event of a tie. The oath or affirmation of office for the president was established in the Constitution of the Republic of Texas and was mandatory for a president'before entering upon the duties' of the office; the wording similar to that of the United States' version, was prescribed by Article VI of the Constitution, as follows:"I, A. B. President of the Republic of Texas, do solemnly and sincerely swear that I will faithfully execute the duties of my office, to the best of my ability preserve and defend the Constitution of the Republic."
Constitution of the Republic, 1836 from Gammel's Laws of Texas, Vol. I. hosted by the Portal to Texas History
Mary Smith Jones
Mary Smith Jones was the last First Lady of the Republic of Texas, as wife of Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic. She was the first president of the newly founded Daughters of the Republic of Texas in 1891. Mary Smith was born on July 24, 1819 to John McCutcheon Smith and his wife Sarah Pevehouse Smith, in Lawrence County, Arkansas, her father died in 1833, the family relocated to the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Mary became part of a large family of step-siblings. Due to growing political tensions and subsequent military operations leading up to the Texas Revolution, the Woodruffs moved a number of times settling in Houston. Mary's first husband at age 19 was a soldier named Hugh McCrory; the marriage was cut short by McCrory's untimely death in 1837. He was buried at Founders Memorial Cemetery, a cenotaph remains at this site for Mary Smith Jones as well. On May 17, 1840, Mary wed Austin physician Anson Jones, whom she had met when he rented a room at her mother's boarding house.
The couple had three sons and one daughter: Samuel, Charles and Sallie. Jones at one point had lived in Venezuela. Prior to his marriage to Mary, he had held positions in both the private sector, in the government of the Republic of Texas. In 1844, Jones became the last President of the Republic of Texas, with Mary as the last First Lady, his opposition to annexation created a volatile climate, some had pushed for his impeachment. When Texas was annexed in 1845, Jones retired to private life, he suffered a debilitating accident a few years later. Although he held false hopes that he would be elected to the United States Senate, he had become bitter. Jones killed himself in 1858. Mary Smith Jones moved with her children first to Galveston and onto a farm in Harris County. Mary Smith Jones became the first president of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas in 1891, a member of the Texas State Historical Association; the suicide of Anson Jones left Mary and the children strapped for money, forced to sell their land and home at Washington-on-the-Brazos.
Ashbel Smith assisted the family with purchase of land near Galveston. Mary relied on Smith in 1860 to take a manuscript of her husband's Memoranda to New York for publication. All the copies of the published manuscript remained stored away and undistributed until 1929, she spent her remaining years living with her children, dealing with the financial issues of her husband's estate. Mary Smith Jones never remarried, she is buried next to Anson Jones at Glenwood Cemetery in Houston, Texas. Brooks, Elizabeth. Prominent Women of Texas. Akron, Ohio: The Werner Company. OCLC 15601412
New Orleans is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U. S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras; the historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II.
The city's location and flat elevation have made it vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans was affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in closely knit communities, displacement of longtime residents have been expressed; the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish; the city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, Jefferson Parish to the south and west.
The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States; the city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. It has many illustrative nicknames: Crescent City alludes to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city; the Big Easy was a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there. It may have originated in the Prohibition era, when the city was considered one big speakeasy due to the government's inability to control alcohol sales, in open violation of the 18th Amendment; the City that Care Forgot has been used since at least 1938, refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents. La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded in the Spring of 1718 by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha.
It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. His title came from the French city of Orléans; the French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle around New Orleans. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez launched a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. Nueva Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted to French rule. Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Thereafter, the city grew with influxes of Americans, French and Africans.
Immigrants were Irish, Germans and Italians. Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color, arrived in New Orleans. While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population; as more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba arrived. Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans; the 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color, 3,226 slaves of African descent, doubling the city's population. The city became a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in a