Achille-Claude Debussy was a French composer. He is sometimes seen as the first Impressionist composer, he was among the most influential composers of the late early 20th centuries. Born to a family of modest means and little cultural involvement, Debussy showed enough musical talent to be admitted at the age of ten to France's leading music college, the Conservatoire de Paris, he studied the piano, but found his vocation in innovative composition, despite the disapproval of the Conservatoire's conservative professors. He took many years to develop his mature style, was nearly 40 when he achieved international fame in 1902 with the only opera he completed, Pelléas et Mélisande. Debussy's orchestral works include Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune and Images, his music was to a considerable extent a reaction against the German musical tradition. He regarded the classical symphony as obsolete and sought an alternative in his "symphonic sketches", La mer, his piano works include two of Études. Throughout his career he wrote mélodies including his own.
He was influenced by the Symbolist poetic movement of the 19th century. A small number of works, including the early La Damoiselle élue and the late Le Martyre de saint Sébastien have important parts for chorus. In his final years, he focused on chamber music, completing three of six planned sonatas for different combinations of instruments. With early influences including Russian and far-eastern music, Debussy developed his own style of harmony and orchestral colouring, derided – and unsuccessfully resisted – by much of the musical establishment of the day, his works have influenced a wide range of composers including Béla Bartók, Olivier Messiaen, George Benjamin, the jazz pianist and composer Bill Evans. Debussy died from cancer at his home in Paris at the age of 55 after a composing career of a little more than 30 years. Debussy was born on 22 August 1862 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Seine-et-Oise, on the north-west fringes of Paris, he was the eldest of the five children of Manuel-Achille Debussy and his wife, Victorine, née Manoury.
Debussy senior ran his wife was a seamstress. The shop was unsuccessful, closed in 1864. Manuel worked in a printing factory. In 1870, to escape the Siege of Paris during the Franco-Prussian War, Debussy's pregnant mother took him and his sister Adéle to their paternal aunt's home in Cannes, where they remained until the following year. During his stay in Cannes, the seven-year-old Debussy had his first piano lessons. Manuel Debussy joined the forces of the Commune. Among his fellow Communard prisoners was a musician. Sivry's mother, Antoinette Mauté de Fleurville, gave piano lessons, at his instigation the young Debussy became one of her pupils. Debussy's talents soon became evident, in 1872, aged ten, he was admitted to the Conservatoire de Paris, where he remained a student for the next eleven years, he first joined the piano class of Antoine François Marmontel, studied solfège with Albert Lavignac and composition with Ernest Guiraud, harmony with Émile Durand, organ with César Franck. The course included music history and theory studies with Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray, but it is not certain that Debussy, apt to skip classes attended these.
At the Conservatoire, Debussy made good progress. Marmontel said of him "A charming child, a artistic temperament. Another teacher was less impressed: Emile Durand wrote in a report "Debussy would be an excellent pupil if he were less sketchy and less cavalier." A year he described Debussy as "desperately careless". In July 1874 Debussy received the award of deuxième accessit for his performance as soloist in the first movement of Chopin's Second Piano Concerto at the Conservatoire's annual competition, he was a fine pianist and an outstanding sight reader, who could have had a professional career had he wished, but he was only intermittently diligent in his studies. He advanced to premier accessit in 1875 and second prize in 1877, but failed at the competitions in 1878 and 1879; these failures made him ineligible to continue in the Conservatoire's piano classes, but he remained a student for harmony, solfège and composition. With Marmontel's help Debussy secured a summer vacation job in 1879 as resident pianist at the Château de Chenonceau, where he acquired a taste for luxury, to remain with him all his life.
His first compositions date from this period, two settings of poems by Alfred de Musset: "Ballade à la lune" and "Madrid, princesse des Espagnes". The following year he secured a job as pianist in the household of Nadezhda von Meck, the patroness of Tchaikovsky, he travelled with her family for the summers of 1880 to 1882, staying at various places in France and Italy, as well as at her home in Moscow. He composed his Piano Trio in G major for von Meck's ensemble, made a transcription for piano duet of three dances from Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake. At the end of 1880 Debussy, while continuing in his studies at the Conservatoire, was engaged as accompanist for Marie Moreau-Sainti's singing class. Among the members of th
Brazilian National Archives
The National Archives of Brazil were created in 1838 as the Imperial Public Archives. The Archives were renamed in 1911, are located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the National Archives of Brazil is the Brazilian institution responsible for the management and dissemination of federal government documents. Since 2011 it is subordinated to the Ministry of Public Security; the AN has the following competence, accordind to the Decree No. 9,360 of May 7, 2018, which grants it as the main body of Archival Documents Management System of the federal government: "to guide the main organizations and entities of the federal Executive Power in the implementation of document management programs. The National Archives of Brazil thus fulfills a double and essential function for the Brazilian State and society – both in the management of archival documents that are produced in all federal institutions and in safeguarding and giving access to fundamental fonds for history; the National Archives of Brazil fulfills part of its institutional mission by offering guidance, technical assistance and training to the servants of other federal public administration bodies throughout Brazil in the area of management, technical processing and dissemination of documents under the Archival Documents Management System.
Through its conservation area, the National Archives of Brazil guarantees the protection of the fundamental documentary heritage for the country. These actions are complemented by the technical treatment of its fonds, to make it available to the public through search systems and research instruments. Thus, the National Archives offers thousands of documents in its custody accessible anywhere in the world through the Internet; the National Archives has 10 electronic sites, 7 databases and 42 research tools that allow its users access to information on the document, as well as information about its activities and events. The Information System of the National Archives – SIAN is its main system; the access to information and documents of the National Archives of Brazil is enhanced by various dissemination actions, such as electronic research sites and publications. Among them, the Arquivo em Cartaz – International Archives Film Festival, Revista Acervo, National Archives Week; the Archives holds pre-1959 diplomatic records between Brazil and the United States of America.
It may be necessary to contact Brazil's Ministry of Foreign Affairs to access some of the records. The regulation No. 2, of January 2, 1838, created the Public Archives of the Brazilian Empire, as provided for in the Constitution of 1824, provisionally established in the Secretariat of State for the Business of the Empire. The creation of the National Archives, together with the Brazilian Historic and Geographic Institute, which added to the Imperial Academy of the Arts, joined the regency effort of Pedro de Araújo Lima, future Viscount and Marqués de Olinda, for the construction of an imperial State; the Public Archives of the Empire was intended to safeguard public documents and was organized into three sections: Administrative, responsible for the documents of the Executive and Moderator powers. Its first headquarters was located in the building of the Ministry of the Empire, in the street of the Guarda Velha Street, current Treze de Maio Avenue. In 1844, the Public Archives of the Empire came to stay in Praça do Comércio, on Direita Street, today Primeiro de Março Avenue, Rio de Janeiro.
The organ functioned as a distribution attached to the Secretariat of State for the Business of the Empire, becoming autonomous in 1840. However, it occupied the secretarial building until 1854, when it was transferred to the upper floor of the Convent of Santo Antônio. In 1860, decree n. 2,541 reformed the institution, maintaining the same division of the sections, detailing a little more the attributions of each one. From the decade of 1870, a greater structuring of the organ is observed. In the year 1870, the archive came to occupy the old building of the Recolhimento do Parto dos Terceiros da Ordem do Carmo. In 1873, Joaquim Pires Machado Portella became director of the institution, in the following year the archive was opened for public consultation. A new regulation was approved by Decree n. 6.164, of March 24, 1876, determining various transformations and establishing more detailed work procedures. With the Republic, in 1911, the organ had its name altered for National Public Archives, like many other institutions that
Stan Getz was an American jazz saxophonist. Playing the tenor saxophone, Getz was known as "The Sound" because of his warm, lyrical tone, his prime influence being the wispy, mellow timbre of his idol, Lester Young. Coming to prominence in the late 1940s with Woody Herman's big band, Getz is described by critic Scott Yanow as "one of the all-time great tenor saxophonists". Getz performed in bebop and cool jazz groups. Influenced by João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim, he popularized bossa nova in America with the hit single "The Girl from Ipanema". Getz was born Stanley Gayetski on February 1927, at St. Vincent's Hospital in Philadelphia, his grandparents Harris and Beckie Gayetski were from the Kiev area of Ukraine but migrated to Whitechapel, in the East End of London, owned the Harris Tailor Shop at 52 Oxford Street for more than 13 years. In 1913, Harris and Beckie emigrated to the United States with their three sons Al, Ben after their son Louis Gayetski in 1912. Getz's father Al was born in Mile End, England in 1904 and his mother Goldie Yampolsky in Philadelphia in 1907.
The Getz family first settled in Philadelphia, but during the Depression the family moved to New York City, seeking better employment opportunities. Getz worked hard in school, receiving straight As, finished sixth grade close to the top of his class. Getz's major interest was in musical instruments and he played a number of them before his father bought him his first saxophone at the age of 13. Though his father got him a clarinet, Getz fell in love with the saxophone and began practicing eight hours a day, he attended James Monroe High School in the Bronx. In 1941, he was accepted into the All City High School Orchestra of New York City; this gave him a chance to receive private, free tutoring from the New York Philharmonic's Simon Kovar, a bassoon player. He continued playing the saxophone, he dropped out of school in order to pursue his musical career, but was sent back to the classroom by the school system's truancy officers. In 1943, at the age of 16, he was accepted into Jack Teagarden's band, because of his youth he became Teagarden's ward.
Getz played along with Nat King Cole and Lionel Hampton. After playing for Stan Kenton, Jimmy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Getz was a soloist with Woody Herman from 1947 to 1949 in "The Second Herd", he first gained wide attention as one of the band's saxophonists, who were known collectively as "The Four Brothers", the others being Serge Chaloff, Zoot Sims and Herbie Steward. With Herman, he had a hit with "Early Autumn" and after Getz left "The Second Herd" he was able to launch his solo career, he was the leader on all of his recording sessions after 1950. Getz's reputation was enhanced by his featured performance on Johnny Smith's 1952 album Moonlight in Vermont, that year's top jazz album; the single of the title tune became a hit. In the mid to late 1950s working from Scandinavia, Getz became popular playing cool jazz with Horace Silver, Johnny Smith, Oscar Peterson, many others, his first two quintets were notable for their personnel, including Charlie Parker's rhythm section of drummer Roy Haynes, pianist Al Haig and bassist Tommy Potter.
A 1953 line-up of the Dizzy Gillespie/Stan Getz Sextet featured Gillespie, Peterson, Herb Ellis, Ray Brown and Max Roach. Returning to the U. S. from Europe in 1961, Getz became a central figure in introducing bossa nova music to the American audience. Teaming with guitarist Charlie Byrd, who had just returned from a U. S. State Department tour of Brazil, Getz recorded Jazz Samba in 1962 and it became a hit. Getz won the Grammy for Best Jazz Performance of 1963 from the same album, it sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc. His second bossa nova album recorded in 1962, was Big Band Bossa Nova with composer and arranger Gary McFarland; as a follow-up, Getz recorded the album, Jazz Samba Encore!, with one of the originators of bossa nova, Brazilian guitarist Luiz Bonfá. It sold more than a million copies by 1964, giving Getz his second gold disc, he recorded the album Getz/Gilberto, in 1963, with Antônio Carlos Jobim, João Gilberto and his wife, Astrud Gilberto. Their "The Girl from Ipanema" won a Grammy Award.
The piece became one of the most well-known Latin jazz tracks. Getz/Gilberto won two Grammys. A live album, Getz/Gilberto Vol. 2, followed, as did Getz Au Go Go, a live recording at the Cafe au Go Go. Getz's love affair with Astrud Gilberto brought an end to his musical partnership with her and her husband, he began to move away from bossa nova and back to cool jazz. While still working with the Gilbertos, he recorded the jazz album Nobody Else but Me, with a new quartet including vibraphonist Gary Burton, but Verve Records, wishing to continue building the Getz brand with bossa nova, refused to release it, it came out 30 years after Getz had died. In 1972, Getz recorded in the fusion idiom with Chick Corea, Tony Williams and Stanley Clarke, in this period experimented with an Echoplex on his saxophone, he had a cameo in the film The Exterminator. In the mid-1980s Getz worked in the San Francisco Bay area and taught at Stanford University as an artist-in-residence at the Stanford Jazz Workshop until 1988.
In 1986, he was inducted into the Down Beat Jazz Hall of Fame. During 1988, Getz worked with the News on their Small World album, he played the extended solo on part 2 of the title track. His tenor saxophone of choice was the Selmer Mark VI. Getz married Beverly Byrne, a vocalist with the Gene Krupa band, on November 7, 1946 in Lo
Música popular brasileira
Música popular brasileira or MPB is a trend in post-bossa nova urban popular music in Brazil that revisits typical Brazilian styles such as samba, samba-canção and baião and other Brazilian regional music, combining them with foreign influences, such as jazz and rock. This movement has produced and is represented by many renowned Brazilian artists, such as Jorge Ben Jor, Novos Baianos, Chico Buarque and Dominguinhos, whose individual styles generated their own trends within the genre; the term is also used to describe any kind of music with Brazilian origins and "voice and guitar style" that arose in the late 1960s. Variations within MPB were the short-lived but influential artistic movement known as tropicália, the music of samba rock. MPB, loosely understood as a "style", debuted in the mid-1960s, with the acronym being applied to types of non-electric music that emerged following the beginning and evolution of bossa nova. MPB artists and audiences were connected to the intellectual and student population, causing MPB to be known as "university music."Like bossa nova, MPB was an attempt to produce a "national" Brazilian music that drew from traditional styles.
MPB made a considerable impact in the 1960s, thanks to several televised music festivals. The beginning of MPB is associated with Elis Regina's interpretation of Vinícius de Moraes and Edu Lobo's "Arrastão." In 1965, one month after celebrating her 20th birthday, Elis appeared on the nationally broadcast Festival de Música Popular Brasileira and performed the song. Elis recorded Arrastão and released the song as a single, which became the biggest selling single in Brazilian music history at that time and catapulted her to stardom; this brought MPB to a national Brazilian audience and many artists have since performed in the style over the years. The earliest MPB borrowed elements of the bossa nova and relied on thinly veiled criticism of social injustice and governmental repression based on progressive opposition to the political scene characterized by military dictatorship, concentration of land ownership, imperialism. Many of the albums on Rolling Stone Brazil's list of the 100 greatest Brazilian albums fall under this style.
Latin Grammy Award for Best MPB Album Analysis: Charles A. Perrone, _Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song: MPB 1965-1985_. Brazilian music at CliqueMusic MPB at AllMusic.com What Is Brazilian MPB Music? at Sounds and Colours Brazilian music - beyond the clichés
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
João Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira, known as João Gilberto, is a Brazilian singer and guitarist. He created the musical genre of bossa nova in the late 1950s. João Gilberto was born in Juazeiro, Brazil. From early on, music became an essential part of his life; when he was 14, his grandfather bought him his first guitar. During high school, João teamed up with some of his classmates to form a small band; as the bandleader, Gilberto was influenced by Brazilian popular songs, American jazz, some opera, among other genres. After trying his luck as a radio singer in Salvador, the young Gilberto was recruited in 1950 as lead voice of the vocal quintet Garotos da Lua and moved to Rio de Janeiro. A year and a half the group dismissed him for his lack of discipline, as he would show up late to rehearsals, or not at all. Gilberto's first recordings were released in Brazil as two-song 78-rpm singles between 1951 and 1959. In the 1960s, Brazilian singles evolved to the "double compact" format, João would release some EPs in this new format, which carried four songs on a 45-rpm record.
For seven years, Gilberto's career was at a low ebb. He had any work, depended on his friends for living quarters, lapsed into chronic depression. In 1955, Luiz Telles, leader of the vocal group Quitandinha Serenaders, pulled Gilberto from that rut, taking him to the provincial town of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil, where he blossomed musically, he spent eight months with his sister in Diamantina, Minas Gerais, where he sequestered himself, playing day and night in a little bathroom and forging a personal style for voice and guitar that would become known as bossa nova. Gilberto wrote the first bossa nova song, titled "Bim-Bom," as he watched passing laundresses on the banks of the São Francisco River balance loads of clothing on their heads. Soon after, Gilberto's father, upset by his son's bizarre singing style and refusal to take "normal" work, had him committed to a mental hospital. In a psychological interview there, Gilberto stared out the window and remarked, “Look at the wind depilating the trees.”
The psychologist replied, “but trees have no hair, João,” to which Gilberto responded, “and there are people who have no poetry.” He was released after a week. The next year, he returned to Rio and struck up old acquaintances, most with Antônio Carlos Jobim, by working as a composer and arranger with Odeon Records. Jobim was impressed with Gilberto's new style of guitar playing and set about finding a suitable song to pitch the style to Odeon management. Bossa nova is a refined version of samba, de-emphasizing the rhythmic percussion and enriching the melodic and harmonic content. Instead of traditional Afro-Brazilian percussion instruments, Gilberto eschews all accompaniment except guitar, which he uses in a percussive as well as a harmonic role, incorporating the different samba parts — such as the tamborim and surdo — from a full batucada band; the singing style he developed is economical whispering, without vibrato. He creates tempo tension by singing behind the beat; this style, which Gilberto introduced in 1957, created a sensation in the musical circles of Rio's Zona Sul, many young guitarists sought to imitate it.
It was first recorded in 1958 in "Chega de Saudade," a song by Vinicius de Moraes. Gilberto had accompanied singer Elizeth Cardoso on guitar in a recording of this same song — and though he explained to her his vision for the new style, Cardoso would have none of it and sung it the traditional way. Shortly afterwards, he made his own debut single of the song, in the new style, followed by the 1959 LP, Chega de Saudade; the Chega de Saudade turned into a hit, launching the bossa nova craze. Besides a number of Jobim compositions, the album featured older sambas and popular songs from the 1940s and 1950s, all performed in Gilberto's distinctive style; this album was followed by two more, in 1960 and 1961, by which time the singer featured new songs by a younger generation of performer/composers such as Carlos Lyra and Roberto Menescal. By 1962, bossa nova had been embraced by North American jazz musicians, such as Herbie Mann, Charlie Byrd, Stan Getz, who invited Gilberto and Jobim to collaborate on what became one of the best-selling jazz albums of all time, Getz/Gilberto.
Through this album, Gilberto's wife Astrud — who had never sung professionally prior to this recording session—became an international star, the Jobim/de Moraes composition "The Girl from Ipanema" — produced a performance that became a worldwide pop music standard. Gilberto lived in the United States from 1962 until 1969. There, he recorded João Gilberto en México. João Gilberto, aka the "White Album", with a hypnotic minimalist execution, limited to the singer, his guitar, Sonny Carr on drums. In 1976 came the release of The Best of Two Worlds, a reunion with Stan Getz, featuring singer Miúcha, who had become Gilberto's second wife in April 1965. Amoroso backed Gilberto with the lush string orchestration of Claus Ogerman, who had provided a similar sound to Jobim's instrumental recordings in the late 1960s and early 1970s; as with all of Gilberto's previous albums, this one consisted of Jobim compositions, mixed with older sambas and an occasional North American standard from the 1940s. Gilberto returned to Brazil in 1980.
And the following year, released Brasil, with guests Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, who in the late 1960s had founded the Tropicalia movement, a fusion of Brazilian popular music with foreign p