Formic acid, systematically named methanoic acid, is the simplest carboxylic acid. The chemical formula is HCOOH or HCO2H, it is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs most notably in some ants. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies. Esters and the anion derived from formic acid are called formates. Industrially formic acid is produced from methanol. Formic acid is a colorless liquid having a pungent, penetrating odor at room temperature, not unlike the related acetic acid, it is miscible with water and most polar organic solvents, is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbons. In hydrocarbons and in the vapor phase, it consists of hydrogen-bonded dimers rather than individual molecules. Owing to its tendency to hydrogen-bond, gaseous formic acid does not obey the ideal gas law. Solid formic acid consists of an endless network of hydrogen-bonded formic acid molecules; this complicated compound forms a low-boiling azeotrope with water and liquid formic acid tends to supercool.
In nature, formic acid is found in stingless bees of the Oxytrigona genus. The wood ants from the genus Formica can spray formic acid on their prey, it is found in the trichomes of stinging nettle. Formic acid is a occurring component of the atmosphere due to forest emissions. In 2009, the worldwide capacity for producing formic acid was 720,000 tonnes/annum equally divided between Europe and Asia while production was below 1000 tonnes/annum in all other continents, it is commercially available in solutions of various concentrations between 85 and 99 w/w %. As of 2009, the largest producers are BASF, Eastman Chemical Company, LC Industrial, Feicheng Acid Chemicals, with the largest production facilities in Ludwigshafen, Nakhon Pathom and Feicheng. 2010 prices ranged from around €650/tonne in Western Europe to $1250/tonne in the United States. When methanol and carbon monoxide are combined in the presence of a strong base, the result is methyl formate, according to the chemical equation: CH3OH + CO → HCO2CH3In industry, this reaction is performed in the liquid phase at elevated pressure.
Typical reaction conditions are 40 atm. The most used base is sodium methoxide. Hydrolysis of the methyl formate produces formic acid: HCO2CH3 + H2O → HCO2H + CH3OHEfficient hydrolysis of methyl formate requires a large excess of water; some routes proceed indirectly by first treating the methyl formate with ammonia to give formamide, hydrolyzed with sulfuric acid: HCO2CH3 + NH3 → HCNH2 + CH3OH 2 HCNH2 + 2H2O + H2SO4 → 2HCO2H + 2SO4A disadvantage of this approach is the need to dispose of the ammonium sulfate byproduct. This problem has led some manufacturers to develop energy-efficient methods of separating formic acid from the excess water used in direct hydrolysis. In one of these processes the formic acid is removed from the water by liquid-liquid extraction with an organic base. A significant amount of formic acid is produced as a byproduct in the manufacture of other chemicals. At one time, acetic acid was produced on a large scale by oxidation of alkanes, by a process that cogenerates significant formic acid.
This oxidative route to acetic acid is declining in importance, so that the aforementioned dedicated routes to formic acid have become more important. The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid has long been studied; this reaction can be conducted homogeneously. Formic acid can be obtained by aqueous catalytic partial oxidation of wet biomass. A Keggin-type polyoxometalate is used as the homogeneous catalyst to convert sugars, waste paper or cyanobacteria to formic acid and CO2 as the sole byproduct. Yields of up to 53% formic acid can be achieved. In the laboratory, formic acid can be obtained by heating oxalic acid in glycerol and extraction by steam distillation. Glycerol acts as a catalyst. If the reaction mixture is heated to higher temperatures, allyl alcohol results; the net reaction is thus: C2O4H2 → CO2H2 + CO2Another illustrative method involves the reaction between lead formate and hydrogen sulfide, driven by the formation of lead sulfide. Pb2 + H2S → 2HCOOH + PbS Formic acid is named after ants which have high concentrations of the compound in their venom.
In ants formic acid is derived from serine through a 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate intermediate. The conjugate base of formic acid, formate occurs in nature. An assay for formic acid in body fluids, designed for determination of formate after methanol poisoning, is based on the reaction of formate with bacterial formate dehydrogenase. A major use of formic acid is as a antibacterial agent in livestock feed. In Europe, it is applied on silage to promote the fermentation of lactic acid and to suppress the formation of butyric acid. Formic acid arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer, so it is used to preserve winter feed for cattle. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to feed to kill E. coli bacteria. Use as preservative for silage and animal feed constituted 30% of the global consumption in 2009. Formic acid is significantly used in the production of leather
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is water, contains proteins, mineral ions, carbon dioxide, blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood; the blood cells are red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells; these contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and increasing its solubility in blood. In contrast, carbon dioxide is transported extracellularly as bicarbonate ion transported in plasma. Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated.
Some animals, such as crustaceans and mollusks, use hemocyanin to carry oxygen, instead of hemoglobin. Insects and some mollusks use a fluid called hemolymph instead of blood, the difference being that hemolymph is not contained in a closed circulatory system. In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. Jawed vertebrates have an adaptive immune system, based on white blood cells. White blood cells help to resist parasites. Platelets are important in the clotting of blood. Arthropods, using hemolymph, have hemocytes as part of their immune system. Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled.
Medical terms related to blood begin with hemo- or hemato- from the Greek word αἷμα for "blood". In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. Blood performs many important functions within the body, including: Supply of oxygen to tissues Supply of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids Removal of waste such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid Immunological functions, including circulation of white blood cells, detection of foreign material by antibodies Coagulation, the response to a broken blood vessel, the conversion of blood from a liquid to a semisolid gel to stop bleeding Messenger functions, including the transport of hormones and the signaling of tissue damage Regulation of core body temperature Hydraulic functions Blood accounts for 7% of the human body weight, with an average density around 1060 kg/m3 close to pure water's density of 1000 kg/m3.
The average adult has a blood volume of 5 litres, composed of plasma and several kinds of cells. These blood cells consist of erythrocytes and thrombocytes. By volume, the red blood cells constitute about 45% of whole blood, the plasma about 54.3%, white cells about 0.7%. Whole blood exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. If all human hemoglobin were free in the plasma rather than being contained in RBCs, the circulatory fluid would be too viscous for the cardiovascular system to function effectively. One microliter of blood contains: 4.7 to 6.1 million, 4.2 to 5.4 million erythrocytes: Red blood cells contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles in mammals; the red blood cells are marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. The proportion of blood occupied by red blood cells is referred to as the hematocrit, is about 45%; the combined surface area of all red blood cells of the human body would be 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface.
4,000–11,000 leukocytes: White blood cells are part of the body's immune system. The cancer of leukocytes is called leukemia. 200,000 -- 500,000 thrombocytes: Also called platelets. Fibrin from the coagulation cascade creates a mesh over the platelet plug. About 55% of blood is blood plasma, a fluid, the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color; the blood plasma volume totals of 2.7–3.0 liters in an average human. It is an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, trace amounts of other materials. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide and lactic acid. Other important components include: Serum albumin Blood-clotting factors Immunoglobulins lipoprotein particles Various
Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction. In much of a digestive tract such as the human gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle tissue contracts in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave, which propels a ball of food along the tract. Peristaltic movement comprises relaxation of circular smooth muscles their contraction behind the chewed material to keep it from moving backward longitudinal contraction to push it forward. Earthworms use a similar mechanism to drive their locomotion, some modern machinery imitates this design; the word comes from New Latin and is derived from the Greek peristellein, "to wrap around," from peri-, "around" + stellein, "draw in, bring together. After food is chewed into a bolus, it is moved through the esophagus. Smooth muscles contract behind the bolus to prevent it from being squeezed back into the mouth. Rhythmic, unidirectional waves of contractions work to force the food into the stomach.
The migrating motor complex helps trigger peristaltic waves. This process works in one direction only and its sole esophageal function is to move food from the mouth into the stomach. In the esophagus, two types of peristalsis occur: First, there is a primary peristaltic wave, which occurs when the bolus enters the esophagus during swallowing; the primary peristaltic wave forces the bolus down the esophagus and into the stomach in a wave lasting about 8–9 seconds. The wave travels down to the stomach if the bolus of food descends at a greater rate than the wave itself, continues if for some reason the bolus gets stuck further up the esophagus. In the event that the bolus gets stuck or moves slower than the primary peristaltic wave, stretch receptors in the esophageal lining are stimulated and a local reflex response causes a secondary peristaltic wave around the bolus, forcing it further down the esophagus, these secondary waves continue indefinitely until the bolus enters the stomach; the process of peristalsis is controlled by the medulla oblongata.
Esophageal peristalsis is assessed by performing an esophageal motility study. During vomiting, the propulsion of food up the esophagus and out the mouth comes from contraction of the abdominal muscles. Once processed and digested by the stomach, the milky chyme is squeezed through the pyloric sphincter into the small intestine. Once past the stomach, a typical peristaltic wave only lasts for a few seconds, travelling at only a few centimeters per second, its primary purpose is to mix the chyme in the intestine rather than to move it forward in the intestine. Through this process of mixing and continued digestion and absorption of nutrients, the chyme works its way through the small intestine to the large intestine. In contrast to peristalsis, segmentation contractions result in that churning and mixing without pushing materials further down the digestive tract. Although the large intestine has peristalsis of the type that the small intestine uses, it is not the primary propulsion. Instead, general contractions called mass movements occur one to three times per day in the large intestine, propelling the chyme toward the rectum.
Mass movements tend to be triggered by meals, as the presence of chyme in the stomach and duodenum prompts them. The human lymphatic system has no central pump. Instead, lymph circulates through peristalsis in the lymph capillaries, as well as valves in the capillaries, compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle, arterial pulsation. During ejaculation, the smooth muscle in the walls of the vas deferens contracts reflexively in peristalsis, propelling sperm from the testicles to the urethra; the earthworm is a limbless annelid worm with a hydrostatic skeleton. Its hydrostatic skeleton consists of a fluid-filled body cavity surrounded by an extensible body wall; the worm moves by radially constricting the anterior portion of its body, resulting in an increase in length via hydrostatic pressure. This constricted region propagates posteriorly along the worm's body; as a result, each segment is extended forward relaxes and re-contacts the substrate, with hair-like setae preventing backwards slipping.
A peristaltic pump is a positive-displacement pump in which a motor pinches advancing portions of a flexible tube to propel a fluid within the tube. The pump isolates the fluid from the machinery, important if the fluid is abrasive or must remain sterile. Robots have been designed. Catastalsis is a related intestinal muscle process. Aperistalsis refers to a lack of propulsion, it can result from achalasia of the smooth muscle involved. Basal electrical rhythm is a slow wave of electrical activity. Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the failure of peristalsis. Retroperistalsis, the reverse of peristalsis Interactive 3D display of swallow waves at menne-biomed.de Peristalsis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Essentials of Human Physiology by Thomas M. Nosek. Section 6/6ch3/s6ch3_9. Overview at colostate.edu
In chemistry, neutralization or neutralisation is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other. In a reaction in water, neutralization results in there being no excess of hydrogen or hydroxide ions present in the solution; the pH of the neutralized solution depends on the acid strength of the reactants. Neutralization is used in many applications. In the context of a chemical reaction the term neutralization is used for a reaction between an acid and a base or alkali; this reaction was represented as acid + base → salt + waterFor example: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2OThe statement is still valid as long as it is understood that in an aqueous solution the substances involved are subject to dissociation, which changes the substances ionization state. The arrow sign, →, is used because the reaction is complete, that is, neutralization is a quantitative reaction. A more general definition is based on Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory. AH + B → A + BHElectrical charges are omitted from generic expressions such as this, as each species A, AH, B, or BH may or may not carry an electrical charge.
Neutralization of sulphuric acid provides a specific example. Two partial neutralization reactions are possible in this instance. H2SO4 + OH− → HSO4−+ H2O HSO4− + OH− → SO42−+ H2O Overall: H2SO4 + 2OH− → SO42−+ 2H2OAfter an acid AH has been neutralized there are no molecules of the acid left in solution; when an acid is neutralized the amount of base added to it must be equal the amount of acid present initially. This amount of base is said to be the equivalent amount. In a titration of an acid with a base, the point of neutralization can be called the equivalence point; the quantitative nature of the neutralization reaction is most conveniently expressed in terms of the concentrations of acid and alkali. At the equivalence point: volume × concentration = volume × concentration In general, for an acid AHn at concentration c1 reacting with a base Bm at concentration c2 the volumes are related by: n v1 c1 = m v2 c2An example of a base being neutralized by an acid is as follows. Ba2 + 2H + → Ba2 + + 2H2OThe same equation relating the concentrations of base applies.
The concept of neutralization is not limited to reactions in solution. For example, the reaction of limestone with acid such as sulfuric acid is a neutralization reaction. CO3 + H2SO4 → + SO42− + CO2 + H2OSuch reactions are important in soil chemistry. A strong acid is one, dissociated in aqueous solution. For example, hydrochloric acid, HCl, is a strong acid. HCl → H+ + Cl−A strong base is one, dissociated in aqueous solution. For example, sodium hydroxide, NaOH, is a strong base. NaOH → Na+ + OH−Therefore, when a strong acid reacts with a strong base the neutralization reaction can be written as H+ + OH− → H2OFor example, in the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide the sodium and chloride ions, Na+ and Cl− take no part in the reaction; the reaction is consistent with the Brønsted–Lowry definition because in reality the hydrogen ion exists as the hydronium ion, so that the neutralization reaction may be written as H3O+ + OH− → H2O + H2O → 2 H2OWhen a strong acid is neutralized by a strong base there are no excess hydrogen ions left in the solution.
The solution is said to be neutral as it is neither alkaline. The pH of such a solution is close to a value of 7. Neutralization is an exothermic reaction; the standard enthalpy change for the reaction H+ + OH− → H2O is −57.30 kJ/mol. A weak acid is one that does not dissociate when it is dissolved in water. Instead an equilibrium mixture is formed. AH + H2O ⇌ H3O + +; the pH of the neutralized solution is not close to 7, as with a strong acid, but depends on the acid dissociation constant of the acid. The pH at the end-point or equivalence point in a titration may be calculated. At the end-point the acid is neutralized so the analytical hydrogen ion concentration, TH, is zero and the concentration of the conjugate base, A−, is equal to the analytical concentration of the acid. Defining the acid dissociation constant, pKa, as = Ka. TH = + Ka − Kw/The term Kw/ is equal to the concentration of hydroxide ions. At neutralization, TH is zero. + Ka − Kw/ = 0 2 + KaTA2 − Kw = 0 2 = Kw/1 + KaTA log = 1/2 log Kw − 1/2 log pH = 1/2 pKw − 1/2 log In most circumstances the term 1 + TA/Ka is much larger than 1, is equal to TA/Ka to a good approximation.
PH ≈ 1/2 This equation explains the following facts: The pH at the end-point depends on the strength of the acid, pKa. The pH at the end-point depends on the concentration of the acid, TA; the pH rises more steeply at the end-point as the acid concentration increases. When a weak acid is titrated with a strong base the end-point occurs at pH greater than 7. Therefore, the most suitable indicator to use is one, like phenolphthalein, that changes color at high pH; the situation is analogous to that of strong bases. H3O+ + B ⇌ H2O + BH+The pH of the neutralized solution depends on the acid dissociation constant of the base, pKa, or, equivalently, on the base association constant, pKb; the most suitable indicator to use for this type of titr
Alka-Seltzer is an effervescent antacid and pain reliever first marketed by the Dr. Miles Medicine Company of Elkhart, United States. Alka-Seltzer contains three active ingredients: aspirin, sodium bicarbonate, anhydrous citric acid; the aspirin is a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory, the sodium bicarbonate is an antacid, the citric acid reacts with the sodium bicarbonate and water to form effervescence. It was developed by head chemist Maurice Treneer. Alka-Seltzer is marketed for relief of minor aches, inflammation, headache, stomachache, acid reflux and hangovers, while neutralizing excess stomach acid, it was launched in 1931. Its sister product, Alka-Seltzer Plus, treats cold and flu symptoms; the product has been extensively advertised since its launch in the United States. It was marketed by Mikey Wiseman, a company scientist of Dr. Miles Medicine Company, who helped direct its development. Print advertising was used and in 1932 the radio show Alka-Seltzer Comedy Star of Hollywood began, with National Barn Dance following in 1933, along with many more.
The radio sponsorships continued into the 1950s. Alka-Seltzer TV ads from the 1960s and 1970s in the US were among the most popular of the 20th century, ranking number 13, according to Advertising Age. To increase sales in a flat business, Bayer has revived several of the vintage spots. Paul Margulies—father of actress Julianna Margulies—created the famous "Plop, fizz, fizz" ad campaign when he worked as a Madison Avenue ad executive; the ubiquitous jingle was composed by Tom Dawes—a former member of The Cyrkle. During the race for space in the early 1960s before the moon landing there was a commercial with Speedy in a space suit and a jingle with the lyrics "On Man's first trip through space, I only hope that I'm aboard, securely strapped in place. They'll track our ship with radar and telescopes and soon, imagine seeing Speedy Alka-Seltzer on the moon!" George Raft starred in the 1969 Alka-Seltzer commercial "The Unfinished Lunch". It consisted in the prison lunchroom, he recoils. He bangs his cup on the steel table.
It ripples throughout the room. He starts intoning "Alka-Seltzer, Alka-Seltzer..." Soon, the other hundreds of inmates do the same. (The commercial was so popular that several weeks Raft appeared as a guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Raft told Carson. Raft was enraged by the end of the day, thus making his inmate portrayal that much more convincing for the final editing; the film crew gave Raft his crumpled tin cup, which he showed to the audience. An animated mid-1960s commercial, animated by R. O. Blechman, shows a man and his own stomach sitting opposite each other in chairs, having an argument moderated by their therapist in a voiceover; the stomach accuses the man of purposely trying to irritate it. The man accuses his stomach of complaining too much about the foods he likes; the therapist suggests Alka-Seltzer, further suggests that the two must take care of each other. The closing words are of the stomach saying to the man: "Well, I'll try — if you will." Alka-Seltzer had a series of commercials during the mid-1960s that used a song called "No Matter What Shape".
A different version was recorded by The T-Bones and was released as a single, which became a hit in 1966. The ads were unique in that they featured only the midsections of people of all sizes. A version of this ad can be seen in the 1988 motion picture The In Crowd before the movie's first live broadcast of the fictitious "Perry Parker's Dance Party." In an Alka-Seltzer commercial from 1969, an actor in a commercial for the fictional product "Magdalini's Meatballs" has to eat a meatball and say "Mamma mia, that's-a spicy meat-a ball-a!" in an ersatz Italian accent. Take after take is ruined by some comedic trial or another. By the commercial's end, Jack has eaten so many meatballs that it's "Alka-Seltzer to the rescue." With his stomach settled, Jack does a perfect take. The director sighs and says, "OK, let's break for lunch."A 1970 commercial shows a newlywed couple in the bedroom after the woman has finished serving her husband a giant dumpling. She lies on the bed in delusional triumph, she offers her beleaguered husband a heart-shaped meatloaf.
When she hears the fizzy noise coming from the bathroom, he covers the glass of dissolving Alka-Seltzer as she wonders aloud if it is raining. Just when he has recovered his well-being, he hears her misreading recipes for dinner the next night: "Marshmallowed meatballs," "medium salad snails," and "pouched oysters", he returns to the bathroom for more Alka-Seltzer. The catchphrase, Howie Cohen told The Los Angeles Times, was inspired when he ate too much of the food at a London commercial shoot because "I am a nice Jewish kid from the Bronx, so I ate everything," and when he told his wife "I can't believe I ate the whole thing", she said, "There's your next Alka-Seltzer commercial."A 1971 commercial featured another catch-phrase from Cohen, "Try it, you'll like it!" It was remade with Kathy Griffin in 2006. In 1972, an actor spent the com