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Antananarivo

Antananarivo known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar. The larger urban area surrounding the city, known as Antananarivo-Renivohitra, is the capital of Analamanga region; the city sits at 1,280 m above sea level in the center of the island, the highest national capital by elevation among the island countries. It has been the country's largest population center since at least the 18th century; the presidency, National Assembly and Supreme Court are located there, as are 21 diplomatic missions and the headquarters of many national and international businesses and NGOs. It has more universities, art venues, medical services than any city on the island. Several national and local sports teams, including the championship-winning national rugby team, the Makis are based here. Antananarivo was the capital of the Merina people, who continue to form the majority of the city's estimated 1,300,000 inhabitants; the surrounding urban areas have a total metropolitan population approaching three million.

All 18 Malagasy ethnic groups, as well as residents of Chinese, Indian and other origins, are represented in the city. It was founded circa 1610, when the Merina King Andrianjaka expelled the Vazimba inhabitants of the village of Analamanga. Declaring it the site of his capital, Andrianjaka built a rova that expanded to become the royal palaces of the Kingdom of Imerina; the city retained the name Analamanga until the reign of King Andriamasinavalona, who renamed it Antananarivo in honor of Andrianjaka's soldiers. The city served as the capital of the Kingdom of Imerina until 1710, when Imerina split into four warring quadrants. Antananarivo became the capital of the southern quadrant until 1794, when King Andrianampoinimerina of Ambohimanga captured the province and restored it as capital of a united Kingdom of Imerina bringing neighboring ethnic groups under Merina control; these conquests continued under his son, Radama I, who controlled over two-thirds of the island, leading him to be considered the King of Madagascar by European diplomats.

Antananarivo remained the island's capital after Madagascar was colonized by the French in 1897, after independence in 1960. The city is now managed by the Commune Urbaine d'Antananarivo under the direction of its President of the Special Delegation, Ny Havana Andriamanjato, appointed in March 2014. Limited funds and mismanagement have hampered consecutive CUA efforts to manage overcrowding and traffic, waste management, security, public water and electricity, other challenges linked to explosive population growth. Major historic landmarks and attractions in the city include the reconstructed royal palaces and the Andafiavaratra Palace, the tomb of Rainiharo, Tsimbazaza Zoo, Mahamasina Stadium, Lake Anosy, four 19th-century martyr cathedrals, the Museum of Art and Archaeology. Madagascar known as "mayakshethra" in ancient notes The English pronunciation of Antananarivo is or; the Malagasy pronunciation is, the pronunciation of the old French name Tananarive is or in English and in French. Antananarivo was the site of a town called Analamanga, meaning "Blue Forest" in the Central Highlands dialect of the Malagasy language.

Analamanga was established by a community of the island's first occupants. Merina King Andrianjaka, who migrated to the region from the southeast coast, seized the location as the site of his capital city. According to oral history, he deployed a garrison of 1,000 soldiers to capture and guard the site; the hill and its city retained the name Analamanga until the reign of King Andriamasinavalona, who renamed it Antananarivo in honor of Andrianjaka's soldiers. Unlike most capital cities in southern Africa, Antananarivo was a major city before the colonial era. After expelling the Vazimba who inhabited the town at the peak of Analamanga hill, Andrianjaka chose the site for his rova, which expanded over time to enclose the royal palaces and the tombs of Merina royalty; the city was established in around 1625 according to varying accounts. Early Merina kings used fanampoana to construct a massive system of irrigated paddy fields and dikes around the city to provide adequate rice for the growing population.

These paddy fields, of which the largest is called the Betsimitatatra, continue to produce rice. Successive Merina sovereigns ruled over the Kingdom of Imerina from Analamanga through King Andriamasinavalona's reign; this sovereign gave the growing city its current name. Andriamasinavalona designated specific territories for the hova and each andriana subcaste, both within the neighborhoods of Antananarivo and in the countryside surrounding the capital; these territorial divisions were enforced. Numerous fady, including injunctions against the construction of wooden houses by non-nobles and the presence of swine within the city limits, were imposed. Upon Andriamasinavalona's death in 1710, Imerina split into four warring quadrants, Antananarivo was made

Richard Travis

Richard Charles Travis, was a New Zealand soldier who fought during the First World War and was posthumously decorated with the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to Commonwealth forces. Born in Opotiki, Travis worked as a farm hand and horse breaker and, as a young man, led a transient existence after leaving home at the age of 21, he volunteered for the New Zealand Expeditionary Force following the outbreak of the First World War and served at Gallipoli. He was sent to France where he fought in the trenches along the Western Front, earning a reputation as scout and sniper and receiving awards for his gallantry. On 24 July 1918, he carried out a reconnaissance into "no man's land" prior to an attack by his battalion, destroying a wire obstacle that may have slowed progress for the advancing troops. During the attack itself, he made a solo foray to deal with two weapons pits that were delaying the advance, he was killed by shellfire the next day but his exploits of 24 July led to him being awarded the VC posthumously.

Dickson Cornelius Savage, as he was called was born on 6 April 1884 in Opotiki, New Zealand. His father, James Savage, a former member of the New Zealand Armed Constabulary, had migrated to New Zealand from Ireland and farmed a block of land at Otara, a short distance from Opotiki, his mother, had come from Sydney, Australia. The oldest boy out of seven children, Dickson Savage attended schools at Opotiki but only completed the first four years of his education before his family took him out of school to work on the farm, he acquired various farming skills, but showed a particular talent for horse breaking, for which he earned a degree of local fame. The impetuous Savage left home at age 21, after an argument with his father, moved to Gisborne, he further enhanced his reputation for horse breaking. Amid claims of impropriety with a local woman he moved on and, seeking a clean break, he changed his name to Richard Charles Travis. In 1910, he settled in Winton where he found work as a farmhand for Tom Murray, a local farmer, at his property around Ryal Bush.

Sometime he and Murray's daughter, became engaged although the pair were not married before the war in Europe separated them. Less than a month after the outbreak of the First World War, Richard Travis sought to join the 7th Mounted Rifles, a squadron of the Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment. Giving his occupation as "horsebreaker", he enlisted in Invercargill, his stature of 5 feet 6 inches and weight 133 pounds, with "a fresh complexion, blue eyes and fair hair", belied his military potential. He was attested on 20 August 1914 and after a short period of basic training Travis departed New Zealand along with the first contingent—known as the "Main Body"—of the New Zealand Expeditionary Force bound for Egypt. Upon arrival in the Middle East in December 1914, the New Zealanders undertook further training at camps in Egypt, before taking part in the landing at Anzac Cove as part of the Gallipoli campaign on 25 April 1915; the Otago Mounted Rifles Regiment did not take part in the initial landing. Travis, part of the transport section and had responsibility for breaking in new horses, was not scheduled to proceed with the rest of the Southland Mounted Rifles Squadron.

Instead he was to remain with the horses in Egypt. Exhibiting the same disregard for discipline that had gotten him in trouble earlier in his life, he stowed away upon the squadron's transport and joined them on the Gallipoli Peninsula. Travis' unauthorised presence was soon discovered and disciplinary proceedings followed: he was returned to Egypt and received 14 days' confinement. In October he was able join up with the Southland Squadron as it rested on Lemnos after the August fighting before returning to Gallipoli to take part in the final month of the campaign before the Allied forces were evacuated in December 1915. While at Anzac Cove he established a reputation as a fine soldier who possessed the ability to move through "no man's land" unscathed. Following their evacuation from Gallipoli, the New Zealanders returned to Egypt while the War Office considered their future deployment. After sustaining a knee injury while breaking in a horse, in March 1916, Travis was transferred to the infantry and was posted to the 8th Company of the 2nd Battalion, Otago Infantry Regiment, New Zealand Division.

When the division transferred to the European theatre, he sailed with it to France, arriving there in April, to serve in the trenches along the Western Front. After the 2nd Battalion entered the line near Armentières, Travis began conducting scouting missions at night into "no man's land" to gather intelligence on German positions and help in mapping the front. By the end of July 1916, he had been twice commended in brigade orders for his work in carrying out night patrols and recovering wounded soldiers, he had been wounded, which saw him spend most of August in hospital receiving treatment. In September 1916 he singlehandedly dealt with two German snipers that were firing upon a work party during the fighting on the Somme, he received the Distinguished Conduct Medal, the British Empire's second highest gallantry award, for this action, the published citation for his award referring to him having "...on many occasions done fine work." After this the 2nd Battalion moved to Flanders to hold the line during winter.

Throughout the remainder of 1916 he progressed through the ranks, soon reaching the rank of sergeant

The Ten Commandments (1923 film)

The Ten Commandments is a 1923 American silent religious epic film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille. Written by Jeanie MacPherson, the film is divided into two parts: a prologue recreating the biblical story of the Exodus and a modern story concerning two brothers and their respective views of the Ten Commandments. Lauded for its "immense and stupendous" scenes, use of Technicolor process 2, parting of the Red Sea sequence, the expensive film proved to be a box-office hit upon release, it is the first in DeMille's biblical trilogy, followed by The King of Kings and The Sign of the Cross. The Ten Commandments is one of many works from 1923 that entered the public domain in the United States in 2019; the film is divided into two parts: the Prologue, which consists of the epic tale of Moses, the Story, set in a modern setting and involving living by the lessons of the commandments. The opening statement explains that modern society mocked and laughed at Judeo-Christian morality until it witnessed the horrors of the World War.

They are not laws—they are the LAW." From there, the Book of Exodus is recounted. At the point of the Ten Commandments, Moses is seen on Mount Sinai, having witnessed the commandments given as writing in the sky, which he manually carves into stone tablets; when he returns, he finds that the Israelites have fallen into debauchery, having built the golden calf to worship. An Israelite man and woman seducing each other find, to the horror of both, that the woman has hideous sores covering her hands and is now unclean, prompting her to beg Moses to be cleansed. A furious Moses commands the power of God to destroy the calf with lightning and smashes the commandments, deeming the Israelites unworthy. Two brothers and Dan McTavish, are under the influence of their mother, a strict believer in the Biblical law; the two sons make opposite decisions. As Dan's mother evicts him from her house, he and John stop for a bite to eat at a lunch wagon. There, Mary, an impoverished but beautiful young woman, steals a bite of Dan's sandwich and triggers a madcap chase after her.

She takes refuge in the McTavish house, where John convinces his mother to take Mary in for the night. John convinces Dan to set aside his grievance and stay. Dan wins Mary over with his freewheeling ways. Martha's strict observance of the Sabbath causes friction when Dan and Mary begin dancing on a Sunday, though John tries to convince his mother to show grace and Mary decide it is time to run off together. Three years Dan has become a corrupt contractor, he earns a contract to build a massive cathedral and decides to cut the amount of cement in the concrete to dangerously low levels, pocketing the money saved and becoming rich. He puts John, still a bachelor, in charge of construction, hoping to use him as a conduit to provide the gifts to their mother that she refuses to accept from Dan. Dan cheats on Mary with Sally, a Eurasian adulteress. One day, his mother comes to visit him at his work site, but the wall collapses on top of the mother, killing her. In her dying breath, she tells Danny that it is her fault for teaching him to fear God, when she should have taught him love, confessing her strict lawful morality to be flawed in comparison to her son's version.

Now out of money, Dan learns. His business partner recommends a $25,000 bribe to stop publication, but lacking the funds, Dan instead attempts suicide—his partner stops the attempt because he refuses to take the fall alone, demands the money, he goes to Sally's brothel to take back the expensive pearls he gave her, but Sally, who refuses, instead reveals herself to have smuggled herself into the country from Molokai through a contraband jute shipment and is thus infected with leprosy, thus infecting Dan as well. In rage, he kills Sally and attempts to flee to Mexico on a motorboat, but rough weather sends him off course and he crashes into a rocky island, his dead body is seen among the wreckage. Mary, fearing herself to be infected, stops by John's office to say goodbye, but John insists on taking her in; as he reads Mary the New Testament story of Jesus healing the lepers, a light shows Mary's hands not to be scarred at all, that her perceived scars had disappeared in the light—a metaphor for the healing salvation of Christ.

Throughout the film, the visual motif of the tablets of the commandments appears in the sets, with a particular commandment appearing on them when it is relevant to the story. The idea for the film was based upon the winning submission to a contest in which the public suggested ideas for DeMille's next film; the winner was F. C. Nelson of Lansing, Michigan. Production on the film started on May 21, 1923 and ended on August 16, 1923. Jeanie MacPherson, the film's screenwriter, first thought to "interpret the Commandments in episodic form". Both she and DeMille decided on an unusual two-part screenplay: a biblical prologue and a modern story demonstrating the consequences of breaking the Ten Commandments. In a treatment for the film, MacPherson described the four main characters of the modern story: There are four people in the modern story of The Ten Commandments, an