Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal
The Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal was established on 20 May 1976 by Commandant of the Coast Guard Admiral Owen W. Siler; the medal is awarded to any member of the United States Coast Guard who performs twenty one days of consecutive duty afloat or ashore north of the Arctic Circle. Air crews flying in and out of areas north of the Arctic Circle may be awarded the medal for 21 days of non-consecutive service; the medal depicts a polar bear under the North Star, while the reverse side carries the Coast Guard Shield. The Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal may be awarded to any person who meets the qualifications related to service in defined geographic areas or at specific duty stations. Only one medal may be awarded per year in the case of qualifying air crews. Qualifying service is as follows: Members of the Coast Guard who, during summer operations, who serve in any Coast Guard mission north of the Arctic Circle for 21 consecutive days under competent orders. Member of the Coast Guard who, during winter operations, serve or have served aboard a Coast Guard vessel operating in polar waters north of latitude 60 degrees North in the Bering Sea, Davis Strait, or Denmark Strait for 21 consecutive days under competent orders.
Members of the Coast Guard who serve on the remote LORAN Stations at Cape Atholl, Greenland. Members of the Coast Guard who participate in flights as a member of the crew of an aircraft flying to or from stations listed above, or any shore locations north of the Arctic Circle in support of Coast Guard missions; the minimum time requirement is 21 non-consecutive days under competent orders, no more than one day of service is credited for flights in and out during any 24-hour period. Civilians may be recommended for the award of the Coast Guard Arctic Service Medal for their service with the Coast Guard. Recommendations for civilians must be sent directly to the Commandant for an award decision. Awards and decorations of the United States military Navy Arctic Service Ribbon
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is a military award of the United States Armed Forces, first created in 1961 by Executive Order of President John Kennedy. The medal is awarded to members of the U. S. Armed Forces who, after July 1, 1958, participated in U. S. military operations, U. S. operations in direct support of the United Nations, or U. S. operations of assistance for friendly foreign nations. The Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is issued as 1-1/4 inches in diameter; the obverse side of the medal consists of an eagle, with wings addorsed and inverted, standing on a sword loosened in its scabbard, super- imposed on a radiant compass rose of eight points, all within the circumscription "ARMED FORCES" above and "EXPEDITIONARY SERVICE" below with a sprig of laurel on each side. On the reverse side of the medal is the shield from the United States Coat of Arms above two laurel branches separated by a bullet, all within the circumscription "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA"; the ribbon is 1 3/8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 3/32 inch Green.
Ribbon devicesA bronze service star is authorized for participation in subsequent U. S. Military operations authorized for award of the AFEM. A silver service star is worn in lieu of five bronze service stars; the Arrowhead device is authorized for United States Army and United States Air Force personnel who are awarded the medal through participation in an airborne or amphibious assault. The Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is authorized for U. S. Navy service members assigned to Marine Corps units that participate in combat during the assignment; the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal may be authorized for three categories of operations: U. S. military operations. S. military operations in direct support of the United Nations. S. operations of assistance for friendly foreign nations. The medal shall be awarded only for operations for which no other U. S. campaign medal is approved, where a foreign armed opposition or imminent threat of hostile action was encountered. Since its original conception in 1961, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal has been awarded for United States participation in over forty five designated military campaigns.
The first campaign of the AFEM was the Cuban Missile Crisis and the award was issued for military service between October 1962 and June 1963. Following this original issuance, the AFEM was made retroactive to 1958 and issued for actions in Lebanon, Republic of the Congo and Matsu, for duty in Berlin between 1961 and 1963. During the early years of the Vietnam War, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was issued for initial operations in South Vietnam and Cambodia; the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was intended to replace the Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal and Navy Expeditionary Medal, but this never occurred and both services continue to award their service expeditionary medals and the AFEM, though not concurrently for the same action. In 1965, with the creation of the Vietnam Service Medal, the AFEM was discontinued for Vietnam War service; as the Vietnam Service Medal was retroactively authorized, those personnel who had received the AFEM were granted the option to exchange the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for the Vietnam Service Medal.
In 1968, the AFEM was awarded for Naval operations in defense of the USS Pueblo, seized by North Korea, as well as for Korean Service, awarded for Thailand and Cambodia operations in 1973. Because of these awards during the Vietnam War period, some military personnel have been awarded both the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal & the Vietnam Service Medal; some military advisers involved in the 1973 Arab–Israeli War were awarded the medal for their involvement in the supply and training of the IDF on the use and deployment of anti-tank weapons. In 2003, with the creation of the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal, the AFEM was discontinued for Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. After 18 March 2003, some personnel became eligible for the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, as well as the Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal. Only one medal may be awarded and individuals or units that deployed to the Gulf for Operation Southern Watch, immediately transitioned to Operation Iraqi Freedom, are not eligible for both medals.
Beginning in 1992 an effort was begun to phase out the AFEM in favor of campaign specific medals and the newly created Armed Forces Service Medal. The Armed Forces Service Medal was originally intended to be a replacement for the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, however the two awards are considered separate awards with different award criteria; the primary difference between the two is that the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal is awarded for combat operations and combat support missions. After the close of the Vietnam War, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal was issued for various military operations in Panama and Libya Operation El Dorado Canyon; the medal is authorized for several United Nations actions, such as peacekeeping efforts in Somalia. The medal is authorized for NATO peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Croatia; the AFEM has been issued for numerous operations in the Persian Gulf, most notably Operation Earnest Will, which began in 1987 and lasted until the eve of Operation Desert Shield.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
Kelly Jemison is an American academic geologist specializing in Antarctic diatoms. She studied at Florida State University, she has participated in the ANDRILL project. In 2011, she was awarded the Antarctica Service Medal. Bohaty, Steven M.. Anderson, John B.. Tectonic and Cryospheric Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula. American Geophysical Union. Pp. 63–113. Doi:10.1029/2010sp001049. ISBN 9781118667668. "Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of the Calvert Formation, Eastern Maryland". 2012. Kelly Jemison took part in the ANDRILL project as one of two undergraduate student from Florida State University. A project to find stratigraphic records using Cape Roberts Project. ANDRILL is a collaboration with Germany, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States to understand the frequency and pace of interglacial and glacial changes in Antarctica; as a graduate student she studied microfossils at florida state university. Geologist at Bureau of Ocean Energy Management since May 2011 - New Orleans, Louisiana Education: Florida State University: Graduate Teaching Assistant August 2009-May 2011 Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility-Florida State University 2005-2007 Florida State University MS Geology and Earth Science 2003-2012 The Antarctica Service Medal.
Aside from Kelly Jemison, only 11 others were awarded this honour since the award’s conception in 1960 by the United States Congress. This distinction recognizes both military service personnel and civilians that served in Antarctica either for research or defence purposes benefitting the United States of America. Kelly Jemison on LinkedIn
A medal bar or medal clasp is a thin metal bar attached to the ribbon of a military decoration, civil decoration, or other medal. It most indicates the campaign or operation the recipient received the award for, multiple bars on the same medal are used to indicate that the recipient has met the criteria for receiving the medal in multiple theatres; when used in conjunction with decorations for exceptional service, such as gallantry medals, the term "and bar" means that the award has been bestowed multiple times. In the example, "Group Captain Leonard Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO and two bars, DFC", "DSO and two bars" means that the Distinguished Service Order was awarded on three separate occasions. A British convention is to indicate bars by the use of asterisks. Bars are used on long service medals to indicate the length of service rendered; the two terms are used because terms. Prior to the early 19th century and decorations were only awarded to ranking officers. One exception was the Army Gold Medal issued to higher ranking participants in the Peninsular War.
A medal was given with a clasp for each battle fought. After four clasps were earned the medal was turned in for a cross with the battle names on the arms, additional clasps were added; the maximum was achieved with a cross and nine clasps. Over the next 40 years, it became customary for governments to present a medal to all soldiers and officers involved in a campaign; these medals were engraved with the names of the major battles the recipient had fought in during the campaign. The main disadvantages of this system were that new medals had to be created for each campaign or war, that it was impossible to tell at a glance if the recipient was only a participant in the campaign overall, or if he had been involved in one or several major actions; the Sutlej Medal was the earliest medal. It was awarded to British Army and Honourable East India Company soldiers who fought in the First Anglo-Sikh War between 1845 and 1846; the first battle the recipient participated in would be engraved on the medal itself.
If the recipient had participated in multiple engagements, silver bars bearing the name of each additional battle were attached to the medal's ribbon. This method of notation evolved again on the Punjab Campaign medal, where the standard medal was awarded to all that had served during the campaign, with bars produced for the three major battles; the creation of bars led to the development of'General Service' medals, which would be presented to any soldier serving in a general region or time frame. Bars would be awarded to denote the particular war the recipient fought in; the 1854 India General Service Medal was awarded to soldiers over a 41-year period. Twenty-three clasps were created for this award, becoming one of the more extreme uses of this system; the British Naval General Service Medal, was authorised in 1847 with some 231 clasps for actions ranging from minor skirmishes to certain campaigns and all full-fledged battles between 1793 and 1840. The Crimea Medal was issued with ornate battle bars.
Since the general trend has been to have simple horizontal devices. Campaign bars or battle bars are used to denote the particular campaign, battle, or region the recipient operated in to receive the award; this is the most common use of medal bars on military decorations. In the United Kingdom, campaign bars are known as clasps and when the ribbon alone is worn they are sometimes indicated by rosettes, although this is not authorised. Examples of ones that were issued are the "under enemy fire" clasp on the 1914 Star and the Battle of Britain clasp on the 1939-45 Star. In the United States Military, Service stars are used to indicate participation in multiple battles or campaigns, although the World War I Victory Medal had an extensive system of bars. Starting with World War II the Arrowhead device was authorized for assault landings. In this conflict a unique variation of the Service star was the Wake Island Device, a "W" placed on the ribbons of the Navy and Marine Corps Expeditionary Medals.
This was issued to represent the medal bar for fighting in the Battle of Wake Island. Achievement bars are used to indicate a additional feat associated with the medal; as an example, the Wintered Over Device attached to the United States Antarctica Service Medal indicates that the recipient performed a tour of duty during the Antarctic winter. Service bars indicate the length of service a person has provided to the organisation presenting the award; this type of bar is most found on long service medals for the military and emergency services. Multiple award bars display the number of times a decoration for merit or distinguished service has been awarded. In the United States, Oak Leaf Clusters and Stars, rather than bars, are issued for receiving the same award multiple times. In the United Kingdom, each bar is indicated by a rosette. Dorling, Henry Taprell. Ribb
Christina Hammock Koch is an engineer and NASA astronaut of the class of 2013. She graduated from North Carolina State University with a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering and Physics and a Master of Science in Electrical Engineering, she was the NOAA Station Chief for American Samoa. Her call sign is "Nana/Nanna." On March 14, 2019, she launched to the International Space Station, as a Flight Engineer on Expedition 59, 60 and 61. Christina was born in Grand Rapids and raised in Jacksonville, North Carolina by parents Barbara Johnsen of Frederick, Dr. Ronald Hammock of Jacksonville, North Carolina. Koch's childhood dream was to become an astronaut. Koch graduated from the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics in Durham in 1997, enrolled at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, from which she earned two Bachelor of Science degrees, in Electrical Engineering and Physics, a Master of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. In 2001, she became a graduate of the NASA Academy program at Goddard Space Flight Center.
Koch has worked in the space science instrument development and remote scientific field engineering fields. During her time working as an Electrical Engineer at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center’s Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, she contributed to scientific instruments on several NASA missions that studied astrophysics and cosmology. During this time, she served as Adjunct Faculty at Montgomery College in Maryland and led a Physics Laboratory course. Koch worked as a Research Associate in the United States Antarctic Program from 2004 to 2007, spending three-and-a-half years traveling the Arctic and Antarctic regions, she completed a winter-over season at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station where she experienced minus-111 degree temperatures. She completed an additional season at Palmer Station. While in Antarctica, Koch served as a member of the Firefighting Teams and Ocean/Glacier Search and Rescue Teams, she has described her time in the South Pole as challenging mentally and physically: " means going months without seeing the sun, with the same crew, without shipments of mail or fresh food.
The isolation, absence of family and friends, lack of new sensory inputs are all conditions that you must find a strategy to thrive within."From 2007 to 2009, Koch worked as an Electrical Engineer in the Space Department of the Applied Physics Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University focusing on space science instrument development. She contributed to instruments studying radiation particles for NASA missions, including the Juno and Van Allen Probes; the following year, Koch completed tours of Palmer Station in Antarctica and multiple winter seasons at Summit Station in Greenland. In 2012, worked at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in two capacities: first as a Field Engineer at NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division Baseline Observatory in Barrow Alaska, as Station Chief of the American Samoa Observatory. Koch graduated from the NASA Academy program at Goddard Space Flight Center in 2001, she worked as an Electrical Engineer in the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at GSFC from 2002 to 2004.
In June 2013, Koch was selected by NASA as part of Astronaut Group 21. She completed training in July 2015, her Astronaut Candidate Training included scientific and technical briefings, intensive instruction in International Space Station systems, robotics, physiological training, T‐38 flight training, water and wilderness survival training. On March 14, 2019, Koch launched to the International Space Station on Soyuz MS-12, alongside Aleksey Ovchinin and Nick Hague, to join the Expedition 59/60/61 crew. Koch is scheduled to perform her first EVA on March 29. Koch resides in Texas with Robert Koch. Koch enjoys backpacking, rock climbing, sailing, yoga, community service and travel. Koch has won a number of awards during her tenure at NASA and Johns Hopkins, including the NASA Group Achievement Award, NASA Juno Mission Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument, 2012. NASA Astronaut Bio Christina H Koch on Twitter Christina Koch on Instagram 5 Things You Didn't Know About Astronaut Christina Koch NASA Johnson Space Center, March 13, 2019