Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeast portion of Kern County and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert. It is situated between the San Gabriel Mountains; the valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s by hunting, or resettled in other areas. The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Lancaster; the Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains and southeast of the Tehachapis, this desert ecosystem spans 2,200 square miles. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge; the Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers.
Poppy season depends on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months. The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope half of the species for which it was named. Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death; the remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley. Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct.
Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, causing land subsidence. While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta: "Over decades, competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta’s ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem." The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey: "A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."
The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk and Tataviam. Europeans first entered during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776; the Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out into missions. Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. A better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933. In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area. Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall; the Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites make up 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by Asian Americans.
Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building, used as a filming location for Kill Bill; the code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats. Edwards Air Force Base lie
Antelope Valley Mall
The Antelope Valley Mall is an enclosed shopping mall in Palmdale, California. Opened in September 1990, its buildings take up around 1 million square feet, its physical main building, parking lots, ring road businesses encompass an area a bit less than 0.5 by 0.5 miles. The main indoor mall has about 140 stores, it presently has 5 anchor stores. Three other anchors, Bullock's, The Broadway, J. W. Robinson's were planned, but did not surface for unknown reasons; the other anchor stores are JCPenney, Forever 21, Macy's, Dick's Sporting Goods, developed in 2013 in a suite occupied by Gottschalks. It has the first Dillard's location in Southern California. In 2007, the mall went through an extensive renovation that moved the old 10-screen theater to a replacement Cinemark 16-screen "stadium style seating" theater in the north ring road area. Antelope Valley Mall ratings. State Board of Equalization Analysis Life at Edwards AFB/Shopping Antelope Valley Mall official website
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority
The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is an agency that operates public transportation in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was formed in 1993 out of a merger of the Southern California Rapid Transit District and the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, it is chartered under state law as a regional transportation planning agency. Metro directly operates light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit services, it directs planning for rail and freeway projects within Los Angeles County. It funds 27 local transit agencies as well as access paratransit services; the agency develops and oversees transportation plans, funding programs, both short-term and long-range solutions to mobility and environmental needs in the county. The agency is the primary transit provider for the City of Los Angeles, providing the bulk of such services, while the City of Los Angeles Department of Transportation operates a much smaller system of its own: Commuter Express bus service to outlying suburbs in the city of Los Angeles and the popular DASH mini-bus service in downtown and other neighborhoods.
Metro's headquarters are in a high-rise building adjacent to Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority operates the third-largest public transportation system in the United States by ridership with a 1,433 mi² operating area and 2,000 peak hour buses on the street any given business day. Metro operates 105 miles of urban rail service; the authority has 9,892 employees, making it one of the region's largest employers. The authority partially funds sixteen municipal bus operators and an array of transportation projects including bikeways and pedestrian facilities, local roads and highway improvements, goods movement, Metrolink regional commuter rail, Freeway Service Patrol and freeway call boxes within the greater metropolitan Los Angeles region. Security and law enforcement services on Metro property are provided by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department's Transit Services Bureau via contract, in conjunction with Metro Transit Enforcement Department, Los Angeles Police Department and Long Beach Police Department.
In 2006, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was named Outstanding Transportation System for 2006 by the American Public Transportation Association. Most buses and trains have "America's Best" decals affixed. Metro Rail is a rail mass transit system with four light rail lines; as of November 2016, the system runs a total of 105 miles, with 93 stations and over 316,000 daily weekday boardings. Starting in 2019, lines will be renamed with lettered designations, citing a lack of distinct colors available for future services; the Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Long Beach. The Red Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los North Hollywood; the Green Line is a light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the 105 Freeway. It provides indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus; the Purple Line is a subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and the Mid-Wilshire district of Los Angeles.
Most of its route is shared with the Red Line. The Gold Line is a light rail line running between East Los Angeles and Azusa via Downtown Los Angeles; the Expo Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Santa Monica. Metro Busway is an express bus system with characteristics of bus rapid transit with two lines operating on dedicated or shared-use busways; the system runs a total of 60 miles, with 28 stations and over 42,000 daily weekday boardings as of May 2016. The Metro Busway system is meant to mimic the Metro Rail system, both in the vehicle's design and in the operation of the line. Vehicles stop at dedicated stations, vehicles receive priority at intersections and are painted in a silver livery similar to Metro Rail vehicles; the Metro Orange Line is a bus rapid transit line running between North Chatsworth. The Metro Silver Line is a limited-stop bus line running between El Monte, Downtown Los Angeles, Harbor Gateway, with some buses serving San Pedro. Metro is the primary bus operator in the Los Angeles Basin, the San Fernando Valley, the western San Gabriel Valley.
Other transit providers operate more frequent service in the rest of the county. Regions in Los Angeles County that Metro Bus does not serve at all include rural regions, the Pomona Valley, the Santa Clarita Valley, the Antelope Valley. Metro operates two types of bus services. However, when mechanical problems or availability equipment occurs, a bus of any color may be substituted to continue service on the route. Metro Local buses are painted in an off-orange color which the agency has dubbed “California Poppy”; this type of service makes frequent stops along major thoroughfares. There are 18,500 stops on 189 bus lines; some Metro Local routes make limited stops along part of their trip but do not participate in the Rapid program. Some Metro Local bus lines are operated by contractors MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Rapid buses are distinguished by their bright red color which the agency has dubbed “Rapid Red”; this bus rapid transit service offers limited stops on many of the county's more heavi
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center
Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center is an air traffic control center located in Palmdale, United States. It is located at the northeast corner of 25th Street East and Avenue P adjacent to USAF Plant 42 and the LA/Palmdale Regional Airport; the Los Angeles ARTCC is one of 22 Air Route Traffic Control Centers operated by the United States Federal Aviation Administration. ARTCC controls en route air traffic over southern and central California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, western Arizona and portions of the Pacific Ocean Air Defense Identification Zone, with the exception of military airspace and lower-level airspace controlled by local airport towers and TRACONs. Los Angeles Center is the 10th busiest ARTCC in the United States. Between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017, Los Angeles Center handled 2,255,026 aircraft operations. Las Vegas Los Angeles San Diego Apple Valley Avalon / Catalina Island Bakersfield Banning Barstow / Daggett Blythe Bullhead City / Laughlin Burbank Calexico Camarillo Carlsbad / Oceanside China Lake / Ridgecrest Chino Compton Corona Delano Edwards / Rosamond El Cajon El Centro / Imperial El Centro El Monte Fullerton Hawthorne Hemet Henderson Lancaster La Verne / Pomona Lompoc Long Beach Los Alamitos Mojave Murietta / Temecula North Las Vegas Oceanside Oceanside Ontario Oxnard Pacoima / Los Angeles Palmdale Palm Desert Palm Springs / Indio Point Mugu / Oxnard Ramona Redlands Ridgecrest / Inyokern Riverside Riverside Salton City San Bernardino San Clemente Island San Diego San Diego San Diego / Coronado San Luis Obispo San Nicolas Island Santa Ana Santa Barbara Santa Maria Santa Monica Santa Paula St. George Shafter Tehachapi Thermal / Indio Torrance Twentynine Palms Twentynine Palms Upland Van Nuys / Los Angeles Victorville / Adelanto Visalia / Porterville Yuma List of airports in the Los Angeles area Los Angeles Center Weather Service Unit
Palmdale Regional Airport
See: United States Air Force Plant 42 for the United States Government use of the facilityPalmdale Regional Airport is an airport in Palmdale, California. The city of Palmdale took over the airport at the end of 2013, managing it via the Palmdale Airport Authority. Palmdale Regional Airport has a hangar; the airport terminal is at the southwest corner of the airport and began civilian operations in 1971. The FAA's Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center is next to the facility; the airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a primary commercial service facility based on enplanements in 2008. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 10,392 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 82% more than the 5,712 in 2007. PMD has two main runways, runways: 4/22, 7/25, both are over 2 miles long. 7/25 was built to withstand an 8.3 Richter Scale earthquake, making it one of the world's strongest runways. Another smaller runway, 72/252, is used as an assault strip.
PMD and Plant 42 are separate facilities. The facility is located in the Antelope Valley 60 miles from downtown Los Angeles; the airport covers 5,832 acres at an elevation of 2,543 feet above mean sea level. It has three runways with concrete surfaces: 4/22 is 12,001 by 150 feet. During the 1990s, airlines operated out of the Palmdale Regional Airport, which consisted of the terminal and parking lot on leased land; the last airline pulled out in 1998. Los Angeles World Airports owns 17,000 acres east of Plant 42, acquired for an airport; the city of Los Angeles bought the land in the 1960s when it planned to build an airport in Palmdale, but the airport was never built. In March 2001 Los Angeles County hired Tri-Star Marketing to prepare the presentations needed to bring air-passenger service back to Palmdale Regional Airport. However, the regional transportation plans formulated by the Southern California Association of Governments focus on having airports in Burbank, Irvine and El Toro to handle the excess air-passenger service for the Southern California region.
After several airlines were unable to sustain operations at Palmdale, the terminal was remodeled and reopened in May 2007. Convincing airlines of the marketability of the airport without subsidies has been difficult. Although Palmdale Airport offers airline passengers a quicker ground travel time northbound from Sherman Oaks than the LAX airport car trip southbound down the 405 freeway, it has not provided the range of destinations that would make passengers choose it over LAX and Bob Hope Airport; the communities around LAX and Burbank do not want the noise of additional flights, but most Antelope Valley residents support expanding service at Palmdale. In January 2007 subsidies valued at $4.6 million, with $2 million slated to underwrite losses incurred from providing airline service, were raised to restore commercial service to the airport. The incentive package included a $900,000 grant from the federal government to the city of Palmdale to develop regional airport service. In February 2007 the city of Palmdale and LAWA selected United Airlines to provide service between Palmdale and San Francisco International Airport..
The United Express flights operated by SkyWest Airlines offered twice-daily, Canadair CRJ-200 regional jet service beginning on June 7, 2007. Between June 7 and December 31, 2007, the airport served 12,022 passengers, about 58 passengers per day. On September 3, 2008, the San Francisco United Express service operated by SkyWest Airlines was increased from two 50-seat regional jets a day to four 30-seat Embraer EMB-120 Brasilia turboprop flights per day. On its September 18 schedule update, United canceled all flights beginning December 7, 2008, the day after the expiration of the federal grant and 18 months after the beginning of the SFO-PMD services; the airport does not have any scheduled passenger airline service. The Blackbird Airpark Museum and the adjacent Palmdale Plant 42 Heritage Airpark have been opened on Plant 42 property along Avenue P with displays of the SR-71, U-2, Century Series fighters and other aircraft designed, engineered and flight tested at its facilities; the Blackbird Airpark Museum is an extension of the AFFTC Museum at Edwards AFB, while the Heritage Airpark is operated by the city of Palmdale.
Both are manned by retirees who had worked in the aerospace industry, some having worked on the aircraft displayed at the two parks. All of the aircraft have been restored for public display; the two airparks are located at Avenue P and 25th Street East near Site 9. The Federal Aviation Administration operates the Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center at its site near Plant 42 at Avenue P and 25th Street East; this center controls and tracks aircraft over much of the western United States, including parts of California, Nevada and the Pacific Ocean. The origins of Palmdale Regional Airport go to the early 1930s, when a small airstrip was built in the desert, it was listed in 1935 documentation as CAA Intermediate #5. It was established by the Bureau of Air Commerce who maintained a network of emergency landing fields, it provided a pilot in distress with a better alternative than landing on a public road or a farmer's field. In 1940, Palmdale Army Airfiel
Palmdale is a city in northern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. The city lies in the Antelope Valley region of Southern California; the San Gabriel Mountains separate Palmdale from the city of Los Angeles to the south. On August 24, 1962, Palmdale became the first community in the Antelope Valley to incorporate. Forty seven years in November 2009, voters approved making it a charter city. Palmdale's population was 152,750 at the 2010 census, up from 116,670 at the 2000 census. Palmdale is the 33rd most populous city in California. Together with its immediate northern neighbor of the city of Lancaster, the Palmdale/Lancaster urban area had an estimated population of 513,547 as of 2013. Populated by different cultures for an estimated 11,000 years, the Antelope Valley was a trade route for Native Americans traveling from Arizona and New Mexico to California’s coast. "Palmenthal", the first European settlement within the limits of Palmdale, was established as a village on April 20, 1886, by westward Lutheran travelers from the American Midwest of German and Swiss descent.
According to area folklore, the travelers had been told they would know they were close to the ocean when they saw palm trees. Never having seen palm trees before, they mistook the local Joshua trees for palms and so named their settlement after them. According to David L. Durham Joshua trees were sometimes called yucca palms at the time, the reason for the name; the village was established upon the arrival of a post office on June 17, 1888. By the 1890s farming families continued to migrate to Palmenthal and nearby Harold to grow grain and fruit. However, most of these settlers were unfamiliar with farming in a desert climate, so when the drought years occurred, most abandoned their settlement. By 1899, only one family was left in the original village; the rest of the settlers, including the post office, moved closer to the Southern Pacific railroad tracks. This new community was located where the present day civic center is. A railroad station was built along the tracks there; this railroad was traveled between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The Wells Fargo stagecoach line that ran between San Francisco and New Orleans stopped there as well. The only remaining pieces of evidence of the original settlements of Palmenthal and Harold are the old Palmdale Pioneer cemetery located on the northeast corner of Avenue S and 20th Street East acquired and restored by the city as part of a future historical park, the old schoolhouse now relocated to McAdam Park. Palmdale was first inhabited by Native Americans. Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages explored the Antelope Valley in 1772; the opening of California to overland travel through the forbearing desert was due to Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garces, a most remarkable Spanish padre. They led a colonizing expedition including 136 settlers across the Mojave Desert from Mexico to Monterey in 1773. In 1776 while exploring the Valley, Garces with several Indian guides from the San Gabriel Mission recorded viewing the vast expanse of what was the El Tejon Rancheria of the Cuabajoy Indians.
After the Shoshone Indians left the valley, immigrants from Spain and Mexico established large cattle ranches there. In the late 1880s, the ranches were broken up into smaller homesteads by farmers from Germany and the state of Nebraska; as the population of Palmdale began to increase after relocation, water became scarce, until November 5, 1913 when the California – Los Angeles Aqueduct system was completed by William Mulholland, bringing water from the Owens Valley into Los Angeles County. During this period, crops of apples and alfalfa became plentiful. In 1915, Palmdale's first newspaper, the Palmdale Post, was published. Today it is called the Antelope Valley Press. In 1921, the first major link between Palmdale and Los Angeles was completed, Mint Canyon/Lancaster Road designated U. S. Route 6. Completion of this road caused the local agricultural industry to flourish and was the first major step towards defining the metropolis that exists today. Presently this road is known as Sierra Highway.
In 1924, the Little Rock Dam and the Harold Reservoir, present day Lake Palmdale, were constructed to assist the agricultural industry and have enough water to serve the growing communities. Agriculture continued to be the foremost industry for Palmdale and its northern neighbor Lancaster until the outbreak of World War II. In 1933, the United States government established Muroc Air Base six miles north of Lancaster in Kern County, now known as Edwards Air Force Base, they bought Palmdale Airport in 1952 and established an aerospace development and testing facility called United States Air Force Plant 42. One year in 1953, Lockheed established a facility at the airport. After this point in time, the aerospace industry took over as the primary local source of employment, where it has remained since. Today the city is referred to as the "Aerospace Capital of America" because of its rich heritage in being the home of many of the aircraft used in the United States military. In August 1956 an unpiloted out of control Navy drone flew over Palmdale while Air Force Interceptor aircraft tried to shoot it down with unguided rockets.
Many rockets landed around the city starting fires and damaging property. In 1957, Palmdale's first high school, Palmdale High School, was established, making it easier for youths to not have to travel to Antelope Valley High School in nearb