Arcuate line of ilium
The arcuate line of the ilium is a smooth rounded border on the internal surface of the ilium. It is inferior to the iliac fossa and Iliacus muscle, it forms part of the border of the pelvic inlet. In combination with the pectineal line, it comprises the iliopectineal line; the arcuate line marks the border between the body and the wing of the ilium, running inferior and medial from the auricular surface to the area corresponding to the acetabulum, it indicates where weight is transferred from the sacroiliac joint to the hip joint. Anatomy photo:44:st-0704 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center
McBurney's point is the name given to the point over the right side of the abdomen, one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus. This point corresponds to the most common location of the base of the appendix where it is attached to the cecum. Deep tenderness at McBurney's point, known as McBurney's sign, is a sign of acute appendicitis; the clinical sign of referred pain in the epigastrium when pressure is applied is known as Aaron's sign. Specific localization of tenderness to McBurney's point indicates that inflammation is no longer limited to the lumen of the bowel, is irritating the lining of the peritoneum at the place where the peritoneum comes into contact with the appendix. Tenderness at McBurney's point suggests the evolution of acute appendicitis to a stage, thus, the increased likelihood of rupture. Other abdominal processes can sometimes cause tenderness at McBurney's point. Thus, this sign is useful but neither necessary nor sufficient to make a diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
The anatomical position of the appendix is variable, which limits the use of this sign as many cases of appendicitis do not cause point tenderness at McBurney's point. For most open appendectomies, the incision is made at McBurney's point; the sign is named for American surgeon Charles McBurney. In fact, McBurney himself did not locate "his" point in such a precise way in his original article; the seat of greatest pain, determined by the pressure of one finger, has been exactly between an inch and a half and two inches from the anterior spinous process of the ilium on a straight line drawn from that process to the umbilicus The 2014 Cinemax TV series The Knick attributes the discovery of McBurney's point to the chief surgeon Dr John Thackery, referring to it as'Thackery's point' in an announcement to the audience of an appendectomy. Naraynsingh V, Ramdass MJ, Singh J, Singh-Rampaul R, Maharaj D. "McBurney's point: are we missing it?". Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA. 24: 363–5. Doi:10.1007/s00276-002-0069-7.
The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is a long, superficial muscle that runs down the length of the thigh in the anterior compartment; the sartorius muscle originates from the anterior superior iliac spine and part of the notch between the anterior superior iliac spine and anterior inferior iliac spine. It runs obliquely across the anterior part of the thigh in an inferomedial direction, it passes behind the medial condyle of the femur to end in a tendon. This tendon curves anteriorly to join the tendons of the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles in the pes anserinus, where it inserts into the superomedial surface of the tibia, its upper portion forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle, the point where it crosses adductor longus marks the apex of the triangle. Deep to sartorius and its fascia is the adductor canal, through which the saphenous nerve, femoral artery and vein, nerve to vastus medialis pass. Like the other muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, sartorius is innervated by the femoral nerve.
It may originate from the outer end of the inguinal ligament, the notch of the ilium, the ilio-pectineal line or the pubis. The muscle may be split into two parts, one part may be inserted into the fascia lata, the femur, the ligament of the patella or the tendon of the semitendinosus; the tendon of insertion may end in the fascia lata, the capsule of the knee-joint, or the fascia of the leg. The muscle may be absent in some people; the sartorius muscle can move the hip joint and the knee joint, but all of its actions are weak, making it a synergist muscle. At the hip, it can flex, weakly abduct, laterally rotate the thigh. At the knee, it can flex the leg. Turning the foot to look at the sole or sitting cross-legged demonstrates all four actions of the sartorius. One of the many conditions that can disrupt the use of the sartorius is pes anserine bursitis, an inflammatory condition of the medial portion of the knee; this condition occurs in athletes from overuse and is characterized by pain and tenderness.
The pes anserinus is made up from the tendons of the gracilis and sartorius muscles. When inflammation of the bursa underlying the tendons occurs they separate from the head of the tibia. Sartorius comes from the Latin word sartor, meaning tailor, it is sometimes called the tailor's muscle; this name was chosen in reference to the cross-legged position. In French, the muscle name itself "couturier" comes from this specific position, referred to as "sitting as a tailor". There are other hypotheses as to the genesis of the name. One is that it refers to the location of the inferior portion of the muscle being the "inseam" or area of the inner thigh that tailors measure when fitting trousers. Another is that the muscle resembles a tailor's ribbon. Additionally, antique sewing machines required continuous cross body pedaling; this combination of lateral rotation and flexion of the hip and flexion of the knee gave tailors enlarged sartorius muscles. The sartorius is called the honeymoon muscle; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 470 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:14:st-0407 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Cross section image: pembody/body15a—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna Cross section image: pelvis/pelvis-e12-15—Plastination Laboratory at the Medical University of Vienna
Anatomical terms of bone
Many anatomical terms descriptive of bone are defined in anatomical terminology, are derived from Greek and Latin. A long bone is one, cylindrical in shape, being longer than it is wide. However, the term describes the shape of a bone, not its size, relative. Long bones are found in the legs, as well as in the fingers and toes. Long bones function as levers, they are responsible for the body's height. A short bone is one, cube-like in shape, being equal in length and thickness; the only short bones in the human skeleton are in the carpals of the wrists and the tarsals of the ankles. Short bones provide support as well as some limited motion; the term “flat bone” is something of a misnomer because, although a flat bone is thin, it is often curved. Examples include the cranial bones, the scapulae, the sternum, the ribs. Flat bones serve as points of attachment for muscles and protect internal organs. Flat bones do not have a medullary cavity. An irregular bone is one that does not have an classified shape and defies description.
These bones tend to have more complex shapes, like the vertebrae that support the spinal cord and protect it from compressive forces. Many facial bones the ones containing sinuses, are classified as irregular bones. A sesamoid bone is a round bone that, as the name suggests, is shaped like a sesame seed; these bones form in tendons. The sesamoid bones protect tendons by helping them overcome compressive forces. Sesamoid bones vary in number and placement from person to person but are found in tendons associated with the feet and knees; the only type of sesamoid bone, common to everybody is the kneecap, the largest of the sesamoid bones. A condyle is the round prominence at the end of a bone, most part of a joint – an articulation with another bone; the epicondyle refers to a projection near a condyle the medial epicondyle of the humerus. These terms derive from Greek. An eminence refers to a small projection or bump of bone, such as the medial eminence. A process refers to a large projection or prominent bump, as does a promontory such as the sacral promontory.
Both tubercle and tuberosity refer to a projection or bump with a roughened surface, with a "tubercle" smaller than a "tuberosity". These terms are derived from Tuber. A ramus refers to an extension of bone, such as the ramus of the mandible in the jaw or Superior pubic ramus. Ramus may be used to refer to nerves, such as the ramus communicans. A facet refers to a flattened articular surface. A line refers to a long, thin projection with a rough surface. Ridge and crest refer to a narrow line. Unlike many words used to describe anatomical terms, the word ridge is derived from Old English. A spine, as well as referring to the spinal cord, may be used to describe a long, thin projection or bump; these terms are used to describe bony protuberances in specific parts of the body. The Malleolus is the bony prominence on each side of the ankle; these are known as the lateral malleolus. Each leg is supported by two bones, the tibia on the inner side of the leg and the fibula on the outer side of the leg; the medial malleolus is the prominence on the inner side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the tibia.
The lateral malleolus is the prominence on the outer side of the ankle, formed by the lower end of the fibula. The trochanters are parts of the femur, it may refer to the greater, lesser, or third trochanter The following terms are used to describe cavities that connect to other areas: A foramen is any opening referring to those in bone. Foramina inside the body of humans and other animals allow muscles, arteries, veins, or other structures to connect one part of the body with another. A canal is a long, tunnel-like foramen a passage for notable nerves or blood vessels; the following terms are used to describe cavities that do not connect to other areas: A fossa is a depression or hollow in a bone, such as the hypophyseal fossa, the depression in the sphenoid bone. A meatus is a short canal. A fovea is a small pit on the head of a bone. An example of a fovea is the fovea capitis of the head of the femur; the following terms are used to describe the walls of a cavity: A labyrinth refers to the bony labyrinth and membranous labyrinth, components of the inner ear, due to their fine and complex structure.
A sinus refers to a bony cavity within the skull. A joint, or articulation is the region where adjacent bones contact each other, for example the elbow, shoulder, or costovertebral joint. Terms that refer to joints include: articular process, referring to a projection that contacts an adjacent bone. Suture, referring to an articulation between cranial bones. Bones are described with the terms head, shaft and base The head of a bone refers to the proximal end of the bone; the shaft refers to the elongated sections of long bone, the neck the segment between the head and shaft. The end of the long bone opposite to the head is known as the base; the cortex of a bone is used to refer to its outer layers, medulla used to
In anatomy, the Nelaton's Line is a theoretical line, in the moderately flexed hip, drawn from the anterior superior iliac spine to the tuberosity of the ischium. It was named for German surgeon and ophthalmologist Wilhelm Roser and French surgeon Auguste Nélaton; the greater trochanter of the femur lies below this line, but in cases of iliac joint dislocation of the hip or fracture of the neck of the femur the trochanter is felt above or in the line. Though the line can be of help for diagnosis of fractures, its practical value is disputed. Hip fracture "eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary". EMedicine. Archived from the original on February 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-18. Platzer, Werner. Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol 1: Locomotor system. Thieme. ISBN 3-13-533305-1. Simon, Robert R. Emergency Orthopedics: The Extremities. McGraw-Hill Professional. P. 417. ISBN 0-8385-2210-6
The inguinal ligament is a band running from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine. It forms the base of the inguinal canal; the inguinal ligament runs from the anterior superior iliac crest of the ilium to the pubic tubercle of the pubic bone. It is formed by the external abdominal oblique aponeurosis and is continuous with the fascia lata of the thigh. There is some dispute over the attachments. Structures that pass deep to the inguinal ligament include: Psoas major, pectineus Femoral nerve and vein Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh Lymphatics The ligament serves to contain soft tissues as they course anteriorly from the trunk to the lower extremity; this structure demarcates the superior border of the femoral triangle. It demarcates the inferior border of the inguinal triangle; the midpoint of the inguinal ligament, halfway between the anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle, is the landmark for the femoral nerve. The mid-inguinal point, halfway between the anterior superior iliac spine and the pubic symphysis, is the landmark for the femoral artery.
It is referred to as Poupart's ligament, because François Poupart gave it relevance in relation to hernial repair, calling it "the suspender of the abdomen". It is sometimes termed the Fallopian ligament. Colles' ligament is reflex ligament not inguinal ligament. Pelvis Anatomy figure: 12:03-02 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Deep muscles of the anterior thigh." Anatomy photo:35:os-0107 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: Osteology and Surface Anatomy " Anatomy photo:35:08-0100 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Anterior Abdominal Wall: The Inguinal Ligament" Anatomy image:7179 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Anatomy image:7431 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center Diagram at gensurg.co.uk
From the posterior border of the body of the Ischium there extends backward a thin and pointed triangular eminence, the ischial spine, more or less elongated in different subjects. It can serve as a landmark in pudendal anesthesia; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 235 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:41:os-0105 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Female Perineum: Osteology" Anatomy photo:44:st-0724 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "The Male Pelvis"