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Anthaeum, Hove

The Anthaeum was an iron and glass conservatory planned by English botanist and landscape gardener Henry Phillips and designed by architect Amon Henry Wilds on land owned by Sir Isaac Goldsmid in Hove, a Sussex seaside town, now part of the city of Brighton and Hove. Conceived on a grand scale and consisting of a gigantic cupola-topped dome covering more than 1.5 acres, the structure was intended to enclose a landscaped tropical garden, with exotic trees and shrubs, lakes and other attractions. The scheme was a larger and more ambitious version of a project Phillips and Wilds had worked on in 1825 in Hove's larger neighbour Brighton, for which money had run out before work could commence. Unlike its predecessor, the Anthaeum was built: work began in 1832 and an opening ceremony was planned for 31 August 1833. Disagreements between the architect, the project engineer and the building contractor led to structural problems being overlooked or ignored and the day before it opened the Anthaeum collapsed spectacularly.

Its wreckage stayed for nearly 20 years overlooking Adelaide Crescent, a seafront residential set-piece whose northern side it adjoined, Phillips went blind from the shock of watching the largest of his many projects end in disaster. Palmeira Square, another residential development, has occupied the site since the late 19th century. Amon Henry Wilds and Henry Phillips were Sussex-born men whose professional paths crossed in the 1820s, when they had both moved to the growing seaside resort of Brighton. Wilds, baptised at Lewes in 1790, trained as an architect, town planner and engineer alongside his father Amon Wilds, they worked on various building projects. Phillips, born in Henfield in 1779, abandoned banking and teaching careers to become a botanist and horticultural writer—interests which led him towards landscape gardening and the design of building schemes based around parks and gardens. In 1822, the two men collaborated on the laying out and landscaping of The Level, a large area of open ground at the north end of Brighton.

In 1825, they proposed an ambitious scheme for an open-ended residential square on Brighton seafront, the northern end of which would be occupied by "an oriental garden and a huge conservatory known as the Athenaeum". Money ran out before the gardens and conservatory could be built, although the residential terraces were completed. In 1832, Phillips was able to resurrect his idea for a large-scale conservatory, this time in Brighton's smaller but growing residential neighbour Hove. In 1830, Decimus Burton had begun work on Adelaide Crescent, a residential set-piece on the seafront, on land owned by Sir Isaac Goldsmid, 1st Baronet, he owned much of the land in the area, including the open ground between the north end of the crescent and the main east–west road through Hove. Phillips described his plans to Goldsmid and managed to secure land and a substantial financial investment, his scheme, whose name "Anthaeum" meant "flower-house", consisted of a giant dome, 165 feet in diameter, 65 feet tall and topped with a 16-foot cupola.

It was to be built of 5-foot wide ribs of iron sunk 10 feet into the soil and anchored on brick plinths. This was to be supported on an internal pillar and covered with glass; the internal space would be more than 1.5 acres, in which would grow tropical trees and shrubs, hundreds of varieties of flowers and other plants. There would be artificial lakes and hills, birds and fish would be introduced. Walkways and arbours would be provided for visitors, along with seating for 800 people; the interior would be temperature-controlled, held at a constant 32 °C by burning coke taken from the local gasworks: this was brought in through stoke-holes in the exterior. The overall concept has been described as "not unlike the modern Eden Project in Cornwall"; the Anthaeum was to have been a subscription garden: one-off admission was one shilling, or a year's subscription was available for one guinea or two guineas. The cast iron girders were imported into nearby Shoreham Harbour and taken to Hove by teams of horses.

About 40,000 square feet of glass were used, although sources differ as to how much had been fitted at the time the building collapsed. Work began in autumn 1832 with the construction of a circular foundation trench to a depth of 12 feet. Phillips had commissioned Amon Henry Wilds to supervise the early work. Hollis as the chief engineer and a Mr English as the building contractor; the main cause of the "series of unfortunate accidents" which the project turned into was the fact that no single person was in overall charge: Phillips, Wilds and English were not working as a team and concentrated only on their areas of responsibility. Wilds' design included a central pillar of iron; these would be further supported by purlins. The 16-foot cupola would sit on top of the pillar, around the top of the dome there would be a terrace with a diameter of 27 feet enclosing an observatory. Building work progressed on this basis, but English and his building team decided not to build the central pillar and to reduce the size of the supporting structures on the roof.

The reason for this decision was not recorded, but it alarmed Wilds so much that he resigned from the project. Hollis and English nominally took charge of the work.

Technological innovation

Technological innovation is an extended concept of innovation. While innovation is a rather well-defined concept, it has a broad meaning to many people, numerous understanding in the academic and business world. Innovation, refers to adding extra steps of developing new services and products in the marketplace or in the public that fulfill unaddressed needs or solve problems that were not in the past. Technological Innovation, however focuses on the technological aspects of a product or service rather than covering the entire organization business model, it is important to clarify. Technological innovation is the process where an organization embarks in a journey where the importance of technology as a source of innovation has been identified as a critical success factor for increased market competitiveness; the wording "technological innovation" is preferred to "technology innovation". "Technology innovation" gives a sense of working on technology for the sake of technology. "Technological innovation" better reflects the business consideration of improving business value by working on technological aspects of the product or services.

Moreover, in a vast majority of products and services, there is not one unique technology at the heart of the system. It is the combination, the integration and interaction of different technologies that make the product or service successful. If the process of technological innovation is formalized it can be referred as Technological Innovation Management; the "management" aspect refers to the inputs and constraints a "Manager" or team of "Managers" are responsible to govern the process of technological innovation in a way that aligns with the company strategy. In a context where Technological Innovation is not to be guided along known paths within the organization, the wording and concept of Technological Innovation Leadership is preferred. In many occasion in start-ups and new ventures, the Technological Innovation is performed in an unknown context; the boundaries and constraints of the Technology at work are not know. Hence it requires leaders and not managers to give the vision and coach the team to explore the unknown part of the technology.

Technological Innovation: is a continuous process, within an internal or external venture, build-out to create value with innovation.

Mostowski collapse lemma

In mathematical logic, the Mostowski collapse lemma known as the Shepherdson–Mostowski collapse, is a theorem of set theory introduced by Andrzej Mostowski and John Shepherdson. Suppose that R is a binary relation on a class X such that R is set-like: R−1 = is a set for every x, R is well-founded: every nonempty subset S of X contains an R-minimal element, R is extensional: R−1 ≠ R−1 for every distinct elements x and y of XThe Mostowski collapse lemma states that for any such R there exists a unique transitive class whose structure under the membership relation is isomorphic to, the isomorphism is unique; the isomorphism maps each element x of X to the set of images of elements y of X such that y R x. Every well-founded set-like relation can be embedded into a well-founded set-like extensional relation; this implies the following variant of the Mostowski collapse lemma: every well-founded set-like relation is isomorphic to set-membership on a class. A mapping F such that F = for all x in X can be defined for any well-founded set-like relation R on X by well-founded recursion.

It provides a homomorphism of R onto a transitive class. The homomorphism F is only if R is extensional; the well-foundedness assumption of the Mostowski lemma can be alleviated or dropped in non-well-founded set theories. In Boffa's set theory, every set-like extensional relation is isomorphic to set-membership on a transitive class. In set theory with Aczel's anti-foundation axiom, every set-like relation is bisimilar to set-membership on a unique transitive class, hence every bisimulation-minimal set-like relation is isomorphic to a unique transitive class; every set model of ZF is extensional. If the model is well-founded by the Mostowski collapse lemma it is isomorphic to a transitive model of ZF and such a transitive model is unique. Saying that the membership relation of some model of ZF is well-founded is stronger than saying that the axiom of regularity is true in the model. There exists a model M whose domain has a subset A with no R-minimal element, but this set A is not a "set in the model".

More for no such set A there exists x in M such that A = R−1. So M satisfies the axiom of regularity but it is not well-founded and the collapse lemma does not apply to it. Jech, Set Theory, Springer Monographs in Mathematics, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-44085-7 Mostowski, Andrzej, "An undecidable arithmetical statement", Fundamenta Mathematicae, Institute of Mathematics Polish Academy of Sciences, 36: 143–164, doi:10.4064/fm-36-1-143-164 Shepherdson, John, "Inner models for set theory, Part III", Journal of Symbolic Logic, Association for Symbolic Logic, 18: 145–167, doi:10.2307/2268947

Governor of New Hampshire

The Governor of New Hampshire is the head of the executive branch of New Hampshire's state government. The governor is elected at the biennial state general election in November of even-numbered years. New Hampshire is one of only two states, along with bordering Vermont, to hold gubernatorial elections every two years as opposed to every four; the state's 82nd governor is Republican Chris Sununu, who has served since January 5, 2017. In New Hampshire, the governor has no term limit of any kind. No governor has served more than three terms since the 18th century with the exception of John Lynch, who won an unprecedented fourth two-year term on November 2, 2010. John Taylor Gilman had been the last governor before Lynch to serve longer than six years, serving 14 one-year terms as governor between 1794 and 1816. Unlike in many other states in which Executive Councils are advisory, the Executive Council of New Hampshire has a strong check on the governor's power; the five-member council has a veto over many actions of the governor.

Together, the Governor and Executive Council approve contracts with a value of $5,000 or more, approve pardons, appoint the directors and commissioners, the Attorney General and officers in the National Guard. The governor has the sole power to veto bills and to command the National Guard while it is not in federal service. To be qualified to be governor, one must be 30 years of age, a registered voter, domiciled in New Hampshire for at least seven years. Traditionally, the governors of the Province of New Hampshire had been titled as "President of New Hampshire", beginning with the appointment of the province's first president, John Cutt, in 1679. From 1786 to 1791, "President of the State of New Hampshire" was the official style of the position; the New Hampshire Constitution was amended in 1791 to replace "President" with "Governor". OfficialOfficial websiteGeneral informationGovernor of New Hampshire at Ballotpedia Governors of New Hampshire at The Political Graveyard Works by or about Office of the Governor of New Hampshire in libraries

Scoundrel Days: A Memoir

Scoundrel Days is a memoir by Australian contemporary poet Brentley Frazer. Described as "a gritty, Gen X memoir, recounting wild escapades into an under-culture of drugs and violence and sex by ABC Radio National and by the publisher as "Tom Sawyer on acid, a 21st-century On the Road, a Holden Caulfield for punks", literary critic Rohan Wilson compared Frazer's ability to shock and unsettle with that of Marcel Duchamp, concluding: "Frazer is writing here in the tradition of Helen Garner, Andrew McGahan and Nick Earls; this is dirty realism at its dirtiest ". Scoundrel Days was first published in Australia in March 2017 by University of Queensland Press in trade paperback format. Frazer wrote Scoundrel Days as the creative component of a Doctoral thesis in experimental creative non-fiction while a post-graduate student at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. In an academic paper published by TEXT Journal describing the writing process of Scoundrel Days, Frazer refers to the work as a'novelised memoir, written in first person present perfect...

There is no Wonder Years voiceover telling you what to think.'During an interview on Radio National ABC Nightlife Frazer recounted that he first began to write Scoundrel Days in 1993 while living between share-houses in Fortitude Valley:'The first draft was disorder manifest typed up transcriptions from journals written while itinerant, hitch-hiking or on long distance trains and buses between Townsville and Brisbane from the mid 80s. I abandoned several drafts, lost several in floods and evictions, working on it sometimes for a year and sometimes not wanting to look at it at all for months, all the while I kept doing stupid things to get more material to write about; the final draft came together when I decided to get serious about learning how to write a novel and pitched the work in progress to undertake a PhD in creative writing... I wrote the final sentence and felt comfortable thinking of it as finished and ready to submit to publishers in 2015, so, yeah, it took more than twenty years to write.'

The underlying narrative arc is of rejection and redemption, of anarchy and order and love. The story follows a recalcitrant boy who finds the sacred bond of familial trust broken by parents who, since their own birth, are members of a secretive fundamentalist evangelical Christian cult. Exacerbating this Amish like environment is his father's job as a police officer and his dad has an ever-watchful eye on those who transcend both God and Man's rules and regulations; the first part of the book deals with the hyperbolic bravado the author adopts to counter his social standing as weirdo and cop's son in an outback mining town in far north Queensland. He starts a gang and adopts an outlook that one critic has described as'anti coming of age' in this type of story the protagonist is far less mutable than they have any right to be. Instead, he is resistant to change. Rather than stumble with trepidation through his teenage years he bypasses puberty and charges into adult situations with an unwarranted confidence.

After the family relocate to Townsville in 1984 he encounters extreme bullying at high school and soon befriends a dangerous and violent punk named Reuben new to town, who grew up on the streets of Sydney. After Reuben murders a bully in the schoolyard during one of numerous fights and our protagonist narrowly escapes a predatory pederast preacher visiting the family home, the two boys flee and go on a series of breath-taking adventures, soaked in smut and crime, walking on the edge of life and death, up and down the east coast of Australia; the exploits and the break-neck pace of the narrative do not let up until the late 1990s when redemption comes and the protagonist finds love with a young woman who checkmates his immorality and self-destructive tendencies. Written in a transgressive minimalist style and leaning on techniques developed by Tom Spanbauer's theories of Dangerous Writing, Scoundrel Days has been described as reading with: a visceral and urgent internal perspective, both direct and poetic charming, sometimes bleakly funny, gritty with a lyrical cadence, a nervy present-perfect tense reminiscent of the hyperbolic, ugly-beautiful prose of Kathy Acker, a terse telegraphic prose that brings the reader close to the details laid down thick and terrible, as an immersive, vital prose that drags the reader along.

Scoundrel Days is marketed as a memoir, but does not use the reflective voice common to the genre, therefore reads like a novel. It is Bildungsroman in that it examines the author's formative years and explicitly his spiritual education, it is Künstlerroman in the tradition of Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Look Homeward and Ham on Rye, as from the outset the reader witnesses the emergence of the poet from the psychosocial chrysalis of childhood, it is an autobiographical Roman à clef novel like those of Henry Miller and Jack Kerouac. All the fictitious names of the characters portray real people, all the events represent real events in the author's life but the ever-present drugs and alcohol lend an hallucinatory quality, which challenges the readers ability to trust the author's recall, it is this effective use of the unreliable narrator that has led both the publisher and the critics to compare the protagonist of Scoundrel Days with Tom Sawyer, Sal Paradise and Holden Caulfield.

Frazer composed Scoundrel Days using an obscure literary constraint. According to Frazer's Doctoral thesis, is the first long-form creative work in history composed in English Prime, a language discipline in which there are no tenses of the verb “to be”. By using this technique and abandoning the copula, it's misuse whic

Shanidar Cave

Shanidar Cave is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in the Erbil Governorate of Kurdistan Region. Anthropologist Ralph Solecki led a crew from Columbia University to explore the site. With the accompaniment of Kurdish workers, the group excavated the Shanidar Cave and found the remains of eight adult and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago; these individuals were uncovered amongst a Mousterian layer accompanied by various stone tools and animal remains. The cave contains two "proto-Neolithic" cemeteries, one of which dates back about 10,600 years and contains 35 individuals; the best known of the Neanderthals at the site are Shanidar 1, who survived several injuries during his life due to care from others in his group, Shanidar 4, the famed'flower burial'. Until this discovery, Cro-Magnons, the earliest known H. sapiens in Europe, were the only individuals known for purposeful, ritualistic burials. The site is located within the Zagros Mountains.

The ten Neanderthals at the site were found within a Mousterian layer which contained hundreds of stone tools including points, side-scrapers, flakes and bones from animals including wild goats and spur-thighed tortoises. The first nine were unearthed between 1957 and 1961 by Ralph Solecki and a team from Columbia University; the skeleton of Shanidar 3 is held at the Smithsonian Institution. The others were kept in Iraq and may have been lost during the 2003 invasion, although casts remain at the Smithsonian. In 2006, while sorting a collection of faunal bones from the site at the Smithsonian, Melinda Zeder discovered leg and foot bones from a tenth Neanderthal, now known as Shanidar 10. Shanidar 1 was an elderly Neanderthal male known as ‘Nandy’ to his excavators, he was aged between 45 years, remarkably old for a Neanderthal. Shanidar 1 had a cranial capacity of 1,600 cm3, was around the height of 5 feet 7 inches, displayed severe signs of deformity, he was one of four reasonably complete skeletons from the cave which displayed trauma-related abnormalities, which in his case would have been debilitating to the point of making day-to-day life painful.

During the course of the individual’s life, he had suffered a violent blow to the left side of his face, creating a crushing fracture to his left orbit which would have left him or blind in one eye. Research by Ján Lietava shows that the individual exhibits “atypically worn teeth”. Severe changes to the individuals incisors and a flattened capitulum show additional evidence towards Shanidar 1 suffering from a degenerative disease. Additionally, analysis shows that Shanidar 1 suffered from profound hearing loss, as his left ear canal was blocked and his right ear canal was blocked by exostoses, he suffered from a withered right arm, fractured in several places. A fracture of the individual’s C5 vertebrae is thought to have caused damage to his muscle function of the right arm. Shanidar 1 healed; this is thought to be either congenital, a result of childhood disease and trauma, or due to an amputation in his life. The sharp point caused by a distal fracture of the individual's right humerus points towards this theory of amputation.

If the arm was amputated, this demonstrates one of the earliest signs of surgery on a living individual. The arm had healed, but the injury may have caused some paralysis down his right side, leading to deformities in his lower legs and feet. Studies show; this would have resulted in him walking with a painful limp. These findings in Shanidar 1’s skeleton propose that he was unlikely to be able to provide for himself in a Neandertal society. More recent analysis of Shanidar 1 by Washington University Professor Erik Trinkaus and Dr. Sébastien Villotte of the French National Centre for Scientific Research confirm that bony growths in his ear canals would have resulted in extensive hearing loss; these bony growths support a diagnosis of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis known as Forestier's disease. This diagnosis would make Shanidar 1 the oldest hominin specimen presenting this systemic condition; the researchers found these bone growths in multiple places all over the partial skeleton. As a result of the healing of his injuries, Shanidar 1 lived a substantial amount of time before his death.

If the Neandertals did perform surgery on Shanidar 1, this proves that their methods were successful in sustaining life. Considering that all the injuries were healed during this time period may lead to the reasoning that this individual was kept alive for a reason. According to paleoanthropologist Erik Trinkaus, Shanidar must have been aided by others in order to survive his injuries. Due to all of the injuries and side effects of trauma, it was unlikely that this individual could provide for his family or contribute to society in a meaningful way. With that being said, this individual may have been kept alive due to a high status within society or a repository of cultural knowledge; this leads us to believe that the Neandertals had some sort of altruistic characteristics with the possibility of the presence of ethos within the Neandertal community. The discovery of stone tools found in proximity to these individuals allows us to deduce that the Neandertals exhibited enough intelligence to make everyday life easier themselves.

Maybe this knowledge surpasses basic comprehension to include characteristics such as humility and compassion which have the most known presence in Homo sapiens. These individuals may have had the capac