click links in text for more info

Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, styled Lord Ashley from 1811 to 1851 and Lord Shaftesbury following the death of his father, was a British politician and social reformer. He was the eldest son of Cropley Ashley-Cooper, 6th Earl of Shaftesbury and his wife Lady Anne Spencer, daughter of George Spencer, 4th Duke of Marlborough, older brother of Henry Ashley, MP. Lord Ashley, as he was styled until his father's death in 1851, was educated at Manor House school in Chiswick, Harrow School and Christ Church, where he gained first class honours in classics in 1822, took his MA in 1832 and was appointed DCL in 1841. Ashley's early family life was loveless, a circumstance common among the British upper classes, resembled in that respect the fictional childhood of Esther Summerson vividly narrated in the early chapters of Charles Dickens's novel Bleak House. G. F. A Best in his biography Shaftesbury writes that: "Ashley grew up without any experience of parental love, he saw little of his parents, when duty or necessity compelled them to take notice of him they were formal and frightening."

As an adult, he disliked his father and was known to refer to his mother as "a devil". This difficult childhood was softened by the affection he received from his housekeeper Maria Millis, his sisters. Millis provided for Ashley a model of Christian love that would form the basis for much of his social activism and philanthropic work, as Best explains: "What did touch him was the reality, the homely practicality, of the love which her Christianity made her feel towards the unhappy child, she told him bible stories, she taught him a prayer." Despite this powerful reprieve, school became another source of misery for the young Ashley, whose education at Manor House from 1808 to 1813 introduced a "more disgusting range of horrors". Shaftesbury himself shuddered to recall those years, "The place was bad, filthy. "Once, at the foot of Harrow Hill, he was the horrified witness of a pauper’s funeral. The drunken pall-bearers, stumbling along with a crudely-made coffin and shouting snatches of bawdy songs, brought home to him the existence of a whole empire of callousness which put his own childhood miseries in their context.

The second incident was his unusual choice of a subject for a Latin poem. In the school grounds, there was an unsavoury mosquito-breeding pond called the Duck Puddle, he chose it as his subject because he was urgently concerned that the school authorities should do something about it, this appeared to be the simplest way of bringing it to their attention. Soon afterwards the Duck Puddle was inspected and filled in; this little triumph was a useful fillip to his self-confidence. It was a foretaste of his skill in getting people to act decisively in face of sloth or immediate self-interest; this was to prove one of his greatest assets in Parliament." Ashley was elected as the Tory Member of Parliament for Woodstock in June 1826 and was a strong supporter of the Duke of Wellington. After George Canning replaced Lord Liverpool as Prime Minister, he offered Ashley a place in the new government, despite Ashley having been in the Commons for only five months. Ashley politely declined, writing in his diary that he believed that serving under Canning would be a betrayal of his allegiance to the Duke of Wellington and that he was not qualified for office.

Before he had completed one year in the Commons, he had been appointed to three parliamentary committees and he received his fourth such appointment in June 1827, when he was appointed to the Select Committee On Pauper Lunatics in the County of Middlesex and on Lunatic Asylums. In 1827, when Ashley-Cooper was appointed to the Select Committee On Pauper Lunatics in the County of Middlesex and on Lunatic Asylums, the majority of lunatics in London were kept in madhouses owned by Dr Warburton; the Committee examined many witnesses concerning one of his madhouses in Bethnal Green, called the White House. Ashley visited this on the Committee's behalf; the patients were chained up, slept naked on straw, went to toilet in their beds. They were left chained from Saturday afternoon until Monday morning when they were cleared of the accumulated excrement, they were washed down in freezing cold water and one towel was allotted to 160 people, with no soap. It was overcrowded and the meat provided was "that nasty thick hard muscle a dog could not eat".

The White House had been described as "a mere place for dying" rather than curing the insane and when the Committee asked Dr MacMichael whether he believed that "in the lunatic asylums in the neighbourhood of London any curative process is going on with regard to pauper patients", he replied: "None at all". The Committee recommended that "legislative measures of a remedial character should be introduced at the earliest period at the next session", the establishment of a Board of Commissioners appointed by the Home Secretary possessing extensive powers of licensing and control; when in February 1828 Robert Gordon, Liberal MP for Cricklade, introduced a bill to put these recommendations into law, Ashley seconded this and delivered his maiden speech in support of the Bill. He wrote in his diary: "So, by God's blessing, my first effort has been for the advance of human happiness. May I improve hourly! Fright deprived me of recollection but again thank Heaven, I did not sit down quite a presumptuous idiot".

Ashley was involved in framing the County Lunatic Asylums (Engl


The SM-liiga, colloquially called the Finnish Elite League in English, is the top professional ice hockey league in Finland. It is one of the six founding leagues of the Champions Hockey League and allocated five spots - the maximum number - based on success in previous editions, it was created in 1975 to replace the SM-sarja, fundamentally an amateur league. The SM-liiga is not directly overseen by the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, but the league and association have an agreement of cooperation. SM is a common abbreviation for Suomen mestaruus, "Finnish championship"; the SM-liiga had a system of automatic promotion and relegation in place between itself and the Mestis, the second highest level of competition in Finland, but the automatic system was ended in 2000. The league was allowed KalPa to get a promotion. In 2009, a new system was introduced and it includes the last placed SM-liiga team facing the Mestis champion in a best of seven playout series. In 2013, the relegation system was abandoned again and replaced by a procedure in which successful clubs of Mestis may apply for a promotion if they fulfill definite financial criteria.

Since 2013, Jokerit joined the KHL and Espoo Blues went bankrupt, but Sport, KooKoo and Jukurit were promoted. Therefore Liiga is a competition of 15 teams in the 2016 -- 2017 -- 18 seasons; the SM-liiga was constituted in 1975 to concentrate the development of top-level Finnish ice hockey, pave the way towards professionalism. Its predecessor, the SM-sarja, being an amateur competition, had its disadvantages, which were perceived as impeding Finland's rise to the highest ranks of ice hockey. One of the main problems was that the governing of the SM-sarja was based on the annual meeting of the Finnish Ice Hockey Association, where all important issues were decided by vote. Since all clubs registered under the Finnish Ice Hockey Association had the right to vote, the many amateur clubs prevailed over the few business-like clubs. Therefore, the concentrated development of top-level Finnish ice hockey by the motivated and financially capable clubs proved arduous; the new SM-liiga was to be run by a board consisting of its participating clubs only and to have an agreement of cooperation with the Finnish Ice Hockey Association.

The SM-sarja was outdated on its own, as it was run according to amateur principles. Clubs were not supposed to pay their players beyond compensation for lost wages. However, by the 1970s many clubs were run like businesses and recruited players through a contract of employment, paying their wages secretly and evading taxes. However, in 1974, accounting reform in Finland extended book-keeping standards to cover sports clubs, shortfalls were exposed in audit raids; the SM-liiga was to allow wages for players, clubs were put under a tighter supervision. They were to establish their own association for SM-liiga ice hockey only, separating their commitments from junior activities and other sports. Copies of all player contracts were to be sent to the SM-liiga to provide players with adequate security, such as insurance and pensions; the SM-sarja had other limits for players. According to amateur ideals, no player could represent more than one club within one season. Personal sponsorship was forbidden.

To discourage trading, a system of quarantine was in force. The SM-liiga stripped the limitations for players, replaced quarantine with a then-modest transfer payment, introduced the transfer list. Players wanting a transfer were to sign up, the SM-liiga would distribute the right of negotiations to clubs. In practice, the list was not successful, as both parties worked their way around the formalities; these changes led to a transition towards professional ice hockey as the league became semi-professional. Only a few players would make a livelihood out of ice hockey in Finland in the 1970s, many players the young, would settle for a contract in the SM-liiga without a wage. A major financial development for professional ice hockey in Finland was the introduction of playoffs. Gate receipts and other income from playoffs were distributed as a placement bonus. Although playoffs were the standard way of determining the champions in North American professional sports, at the time they were not common in Europe.

The SM-liiga was established rather hastily. The required changes were initiated at the 1974 annual meeting, the SM-liiga was launched for the 1975–76 season, it was the first Finnish professional sports league, its solutions were untried. However, there had been a mounting demand for these changes, as the popularity of ice hockey had been rising in the previous decade; the SM-liiga picked up. The four best of the regular season were to proceed to the playoffs; the system of promotion and relegation from the SM-sarja remained in force: last-placed teams of the regular season had to qualify for their position in the SM-liiga against the best teams of the second-highest series. The combined attendance for the first eleven regular seasons hovered around 900,000. In 1986–87, the number of games for each team was increased from 36 to 44, reaching its current level of 56 games in 2000–01, the SM-liiga was expanded to 12 clubs for the 1988–89 season; the general popularity of ice hockey strengthened through international success of the Finland men's national ice hockey team, the combined attendance climbed through the 1990s to about 1.8 million.

This prompted an increase in the profitability of the ice hockey business and the completion of the transition to full professionalism. By the mid-1990s, all players were full-time, by 2000, most clubs had reformed into limited companies. In late 1990s and early 2000s the S

Ă–stuna Church

Östuna Church is a medieval Lutheran church in the Knivsta Municipality in the province of Uppland, Sweden. It belongs to the Archdiocese of Uppsala; the visible church dates from the 15th century, but was without doubt preceded by another church on the same site. When this first church was built is not known, though it must have been at the latest during the early 14th century since several of the present church's fittings date from this time and originate from the older church; the church is a so-valled aisleless church, with a southern church porch a northern sacristy. The entrance through the cemetery wall is through a preserved medieval lychgate; the altarpiece consists of a wooden sculpture of Christ dating from the 15th century, mounted on a plain cross. The altarpiece was created in the 1920s; the church houses a carved wooden Madonna from the 15th century. The pulpit was made in 1718 by Carl Spaak, who made two angels adorning the eastern wall of the choir. Among other fittings, a chasuble from the 16th century can be mentioned.

Media related to Östuna Church at Wikimedia Commons

NSW Bookstall Company

NSW Bookstall Company was a Sydney company which operated a chain of newsagencies throughout New South Wales. It was notable as a publisher of inexpensive paperback books which were written, illustrated and printed in Australia, sold to commuters at bookstalls in railway stations and elsewhere in New South Wales; the company was founded as the Sydney Bookstall Company by Henry Lloyd of "Linden Hall", New South Wales around 1880 as a newsagent. Its first foray into publishing may have been racebooks for the Hawkesbury Race Club around 1886. A. C. Rowlandson joined as a tram ticket seller in 1883 and built a strong interest in the business, which he bought from Henry Lloyd's widow; the greatest part of the company's business consisted of retailing local and overseas periodicals and stationery from its eight city shops and fifty-odd railway stall outlets, but was important as one of Australia's most successful book publishers and retailers of locally produced paperback books. Considerable effort was put into the artwork of the paperbacks, both on their brightly colored covers and the illustrations within.

Artists who contributed included J. Muir Auld, Percy Benison, L. H. Booth, Norman Carter, H. W. Cotton, John P. Davis, Ambrose Dyson, Will Dyson, Tom Ferry, A. J. Fisher, Harry Garlick, C. H. Hunt, Ben Jordan, Harry Julius, George W. Lambert, Fred Leist, Norman Lindsay, Lionel Lindsay Percy Lindsay, Ruby Lindsay, Vernon Lorimer, David Low, Hugh Maclean, Frank P. Mahony, Claude Marquet, R. H. Moppett, Charles Nuttall, G. C. Pearce, James Postlethwaite, L. L. Roush, James F. Scott, Sydney Ure Smith, D. H. Souter, Percy Spence, Martin Stainforth, Alf Vincent and Harry J. Weston. On Rowlandson's death, Reg. Wynn took over as managing director, W. A. Crew was circulation manager; the company erected a large building at the corner of Castlereagh Street. Reg. Wynn was succeeded by Paul Dowling. With the onset of World War II, imports of comic books was restricted, which opened the market swamped by the U. S. and British houses, to anyone who could provide a quality product, NSW Bookstall was ideally placed to publish and distribute such work.

Tony Rafty, Will Donald, Tom Hubble, Noel Cook and Terry Powis were among the more successful artists, the partnership of Brodie Mack and writer Peter Amos produced some excellent work for NSW Bookstall. By 1949, the opportunity provided by wartime shortages no longer applied, Australia was once again flooded with excess overseas production; this list is representative of the range of Bookstall titles but not exhaustive. J. H. M. Abbott: Ensign Calder. Eros Wins! Bob Allen: The Mare with the Silver Hoof Gerald R. Baldwin: In Racing Silk. A. Barry: The Luck of the Native Born. Bathgate: Sodger Sandy's Bairn Louis Becke: The Adventures of Louis Bleke. J. Brady: Tom Pagdin, Pirate Hilda M. Bridges: The Squatters' Daughter. R. Falk: Puppets of Chance. D. Fitzgerald: Children of the Sunlight Mabel Forrest: A Bachelor's Wife The Poems of Adam Lindsay Gordon Beatrice Grimshaw: The Coral Queen. E. Jobson: The Adventures of Russell Howard Cecil Ross Johnston: The Trader Robert Kaleski: Australian Barkers and Biters A. R. Kent: A Chinese Vengeance Norman Lindsay: A Curate in Bohemia.

R. McDuffie: Rooks and Crooks Claude McKay and Harry Julius Theatrical Caricatures John D. Fitzgerald: Greater Sydney and Greater Newcastle Jack McLaren: Feathers of Heaven. Ian Macleod: Hack's Brat A. E. Martin: The Romance of Nomenclature,' containing 1,250 Place Names in South Australia, West Australia and the Northern Territory Clarence


China–Brazil Earth Resources Satellite 2 known as Ziyuan I-02 or Ziyuan 1B, was a remote sensing satellite operated as part of the China–Brazil Earth Resources Satellite programme between the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application and Brazil's National Institute for Space Research. The second CBERS satellite to fly, it was launched by China in 2003 to replace CBERS-1. CBERS-2 was a 1,450-kilogram spacecraft built by the China Academy of Space Technology and based on the Phoenix-Eye 1 satellite bus; the spacecraft was powered by a single solar array, which provided 1,100 watts of electricity for the satellite's systems. The instrument suite aboard the CBERS-2 spacecraft consisted of three systems: the Wide Field Imager produced visible-light to near-infrared images with a resolution of 260 metres and a swath width of 890 kilometres. A Chang Zheng 4B carrier rocket, operated by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, was used to launch CBERS-2; the launch took place at 03:16 UTC on 21 October 2003, using Launch Complex 7 at the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre.

The satellite was placed into a sun-synchronous orbit. Following the launch of CBERS-2B in 2007, CBERS-2 was retired from service; as of 1 December 2013, the dericict satellite remains in orbit, with a perigee of 780 kilometres, an apogee of 782 kilometres, 98.17 degrees inclination and a period of 100.33 minutes. Its orbit has a semimajor axis of 7,152.64 kilometres, eccentricity of 0.0001886

Accelerated JD program

In United States legal education, an accelerated JD Program may refer to one of the following: A "3+3 JD program" or "BA to JD program" is a program in which students combine certain requirements of a bachelor's degree with the requirements of the Juris Doctor degree. Students thus receive their bachelor's degree after completing the first year of law school. Students complete the two degrees in six years rather than the usual seven; the undergraduate college and law school may either be independent institutions, or part of a single large university. Accelerated JD programs differ from most dual degree programs in that the degrees are of different levels, are obtained sequentially rather than concurrently. Requirements for admission of undergraduates to such programs are higher than for general enrollment; some programs further restrict enrollment to students in a specific prelaw major. A "2-year JD program" is a Juris Doctor degree, offered independently of a bachelor's degree. Students are required to complete the same number of credit hours as traditional three-year JD students, but in a more condensed period.

U. S. News & World Report stated that as a result of student concerns about the time and cost required to complete a law degree, there has been an emerging trend to develop accelerated JD programs. Unless otherwise indicated, all students enter the accelerated JD program at the start of the school's summer term. At Southwestern Law, the summer term starts in June; the May/June start of most accelerated programs is compatible with the bar examination schedule of all U. S. jurisdictions. Bar exams throughout the U. S. take place during the week containing the last Wednesday in July. Washburn's January starting date is compatible with February examinations. Prelaw Academic acceleration Legal education