click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anthony Burgess

John Anthony Burgess Wilson, who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer. Although Burgess was predominantly a comic writer, his dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange remains his best-known novel. In 1971, it was adapted into a controversial film by Stanley Kubrick, which Burgess said was chiefly responsible for the popularity of the book. Burgess produced numerous other novels, including the Enderby quartet, Earthly Powers, he wrote screenplays, including the 1977 TV mini-series Jesus of Nazareth. He worked as a literary critic for several publications, including The Observer and The Guardian, wrote studies of classic writers, notably James Joyce. A versatile linguist, Burgess lectured in phonetics, translated Cyrano de Bergerac, Oedipus Rex, the opera Carmen, among others. Burgess composed over 250 musical works. Burgess was born at 91 Carisbrook Street in Harpurhey, a suburb of Manchester, England, to Catholic parents and Elizabeth Wilson, he described his background as lower middle class.

He was known in childhood as Jack, Little Jack, Johnny Eagle. At his confirmation, the name Anthony was added and he became John Anthony Burgess Wilson, he began using the pen name Anthony Burgess upon the publication of his 1956 novel Time for a Tiger. His mother Elizabeth died at the age of 30 at home on 19 November 1918, during the 1918 flu pandemic; the causes listed on her death certificate were influenza, acute pneumonia, cardiac failure. His sister Muriel had died four days earlier on 15 November from influenza, broncho-pneumonia, cardiac failure, aged eight. Burgess believed he was resented by his father, Joseph Wilson, for having survived, when his mother and sister did not. After the death of his mother, Burgess was raised by his maternal aunt, Ann Bromley, in Crumpsall with her two daughters. During this time, Burgess's father worked as a bookkeeper for a beef market by day, in the evening played piano at a public house in Miles Platting. After his father married the landlady of this pub, Margaret Dwyer, in 1922, Burgess was raised by his father and stepmother.

By 1924 the couple had established a off-licence business with four properties. Burgess was employed at the tobacconist shop as a child. On 18 April 1938, Joseph Wilson died from cardiac failure and influenza at the age of 55, leaving no inheritance despite his apparent business success. Burgess' stepmother died of a heart attack in 1940. Burgess has said of his solitary childhood "I was either distractedly persecuted or ignored. I was one despised.... Ragged boys in gangs would pounce on the well-dressed like myself." Burgess attended St. Edmund's Elementary School before moving on to Bishop Bilsborrow Memorial Elementary School, both Catholic schools, in Moss Side, he reflected "When I went to school I was able to read. At the Manchester elementary school I attended, most of the children could not read, so I was... a little apart, rather different from the rest." Good grades resulted in a place at Xaverian College. As a young child, Burgess did not care about music, until he heard on his home-built radio "a quite incredible flute solo", which he characterised as "sinuous, erotic", became spellbound.

Eight minutes the announcer told him he had been listening to Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune by Claude Debussy. He referred to this as a "psychedelic moment... a recognition of verbally inexpressible spiritual realities". When Burgess announced to his family that he wanted to be a composer, they objected as "there was no money in it". Music was not taught at his school. Burgess had hoped to study music at university, but the music department at the Victoria University of Manchester turned down his application because of poor grades in physics. Instead, he studied English language and literature there between 1937 and 1940, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts, his thesis concerned Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, he graduated with an upper second-class honours, which he found disappointing. When grading one of Burgess's term papers, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote "Bright ideas insufficient to conceal lack of knowledge." Burgess met Llewela "Lynne" Isherwood Jones at the University where she was studying economics and modern history, graduating in 1942 with an upper second-class.

She claimed to be a distant relative of Christopher Isherwood, although the Lewis and Biswell biographies dispute this. Burgess and Jones were married on 22 January 1942. Burgess spent six weeks in 1940 as an army recruit in Eskbank before becoming a Nursing Orderly Class 3 in the Royal Army Medical Corps. During his service he was unpopular and was involved in incidents such as knocking off a corporal's cap and polishing the floor of a corridor to make people slip. In 1941, Burgess was pursued by military police of the British Armed Forces for desertion after overstaying his leave from Morpeth military base with his future bride Lynne; the following year he asked to be transferred to the Army Educational Corps, despite his loathing of authority he was promoted to sergeant. During the blackout his pregnant wife Lynne was assaulted by four American deserters. Burgess, stationed at the time in Gibraltar, was denied leave to see her. At his stationing in Gibraltar, which he wrote about in A Vision of Bat

The Queen's Messenger

The Queen's Messenger was the first television drama. It was a 1928 radio drama broadcast both sound and moving pictures; these were received by 3 inch televisions that were set up in various places in the New York City area. There were special effect props for this broadcast to enhance the actors' performance and their sounds; the 1928 one act play written by J. Hartley Manners was the first television drama, it was a radio drama adapted for television. It was made for television in 1928 by New York station "WGY Television" using a multiple-camera setup and was an experimental broadcast at 13:30 and 23:30 on 11 September 1928; the cameras picked up the stage action and microphones picked up the sound. The television signal was received at several points throughout New York City and was believed to have reached the Pacific Coast; the broadcast received much publicity. The teleplay starred retired star actress Izetta Jewell, it was noted that in the television receivers she appeared trimmer than in real life and that television made a woman look slimmer and younger.

A newspaper article of the time pointed out that the heavy set opera singer Ernestine Schumann-Heink would look like a charming slender woman if on television. The co-star of the television play was Maurice Randall. A British diplomat has a romantic encounter with a mysterious woman, she is secretly trying to obtain the documents. The televised play was received on televisions; the television set was about fourteen inches high and ten inches in depth. The front panel upper part had a three inch square aperture through which the moving picture was viewed. There were knobs on the lower part which controlled how the radio signals for the television part were received. Six televisions were set up around the W G Y studios for the newspaper reporters that were connected by closed circuit television. There were television receivers set up in the transmitting control rooms that received the signal from the air, transmitted several miles away. Special techniques had to be devised to show the action movements on a three inch television screen display.

One was. The facial movements of this figure were presented in sync with the sound of the spoken parts; this sound part came from a separate radio receiver, placed under the television receiver. To show the action parts of the play, special effect props were developed. One example was where the Queen's messenger took a drink of wine – a wine glass appeared and a liquid poured into it from a long-neck bottle. Other props used for the play were watch dials, keys and stacks of documents; the stage for the play consisted of three spotlights, three scanning machines, three microphones, background scenes and other apparatus. The director of these props that coordinated everything was Mortimer Steward; the transmission lasted 40 minutes. Ernst Alexanderson was the electrical engineer that developed the mechanics of coordinating the sound and moving images, the beginning of the "radio movie" that developed into the soap opera; the received radio drama play tended to shift to the right or left of the center of the television screen.

This was due to the variation in the speed of the motor used to drive the scanning disc that picked up the image on the stage. The pictures at the receiving end flickered somewhat to the hand-cranked silent films presented at theaters at the time. Queen's Jeff; the Box: An Oral History of Television, 1920–1961. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-025265-1. In 1928, the station received gobs of publicity when it broadcast the first television drama, J. Hartley Manner's'The Queen's Messenger.' Drama is Radioed through Television The Queen's Messenger stage, video of the television drama play being directed The Queen's Messenger on IMDb

Forms processing

Forms processing is a process by which one can capture information entered into data fields and convert it into an electronic format. This can be done manually or automatically, but the general process is that hard copy data is filled out by humans and "captured" from their respective fields and entered into a database or other electronic format. In the broadest sense, forms processing systems can range from the processing of small application forms to large scale survey forms with multiple pages. There are several common issues involved in forms processing; these are a lot of tedious human efforts put in, the data keyed in by the user may result in typos, many hours of labor result from this lengthy process. If the forms are processed using computer software driven applications these common issues can be resolved and minimized to great extent. Most methods for forms processing address the following areas; this method of data processing involves human operators keying in data found on the form.

The manual process of data entry has many disadvantages in speed and cost. Based on average professional typist speeds of 50 to 80 wpm, one could generously estimate about two hundred pages per hour for forms with fifteen one-word fields. In contrast, modern commercial scanners can digitize up to 200 pages per minute; the second major disadvantage to manual data entry is the likelihood of typographical errors. When factoring in the cost of labor and working space, manual data entry is a inefficient process; this method can automate data processing by using pre-defined configurations. A template in this case, would be a map of the document, detailing where the data fields are located within the form or document; as compared to the manual data entry process, automatic form input systems are preferable, since they help reduce the problems faced during manual data processing. Automatic form input systems use different types of recognition methods such as optical character recognition for machine print, optical mark reading for check/mark sense boxes, bar code recognition for barcodes, intelligent character recognition for hand print.

With automated form processing system technology users are able to process documents from their scanned images into a computer readable format such as ANSI, XML, CSV, PDF or input directly into a database. Forms Processing has developed beyond basic capture of the data. Forms processing not only encompasses a recognition process but helps manage the complete life cycle of documents which starts from scanning of the document to the extraction of the data, to delivery into a back-end system. In some cases it may include processing or generating well formatted results through calculations and analysis. An automated forms processing system can be valuable if there is a need to process hundreds or thousands of images every day; the first step in understanding automated forms processing is to analyze the type of form from which the extraction of data is desired. Forms can be classified as one of two high level categories for the purpose of extracting data. Four categories have been proposed however the document capture industry has settled up these two: Fixed forms.

This type of form is defined as one in which the data to be extracted is always found in the same absolute position on a page. This allows a type of lens grid to be applied to the document and every subsequent occurrence of this document in order to extract the data. An example of a fixed form is a typical credit application form. Semi-structured form; this form is one in which the location of the data and fields holding the data vary from document to document. This type of document is most defined by the fact that it is not a fixed form. In the document capture industry, a semi-structured form is called an unstructured form. Examples of these types of forms include letters and invoices. According to a study by AIIM, about 80% of the documents in an organization fall under the semi-structured definition. Although the components used for the extraction of data from either type of form is the same the way in which these are applied varies based upon the type of document. Various components included in data processing using automatic form-input system include OCR – Optical character recognition OMR – Optical mark recognition ICR – Intelligent character recognition BCR – Barcode recognition MICR – Magnetic ink character recognitionOCR recognizes machine-printed uppercase/lowercase alphabetic, accented characters, many currency symbols, arithmetic symbols, expanded punctuation characters and more.

ICR recognizes hand-printed American and European English characters using pre-defined character sets: uppercase, mixed case alphabetic, currency and punctuation characters MICR is recognition technology to facilitate the processing of the MICR fonts of cheques. This minimizes chances of errors in clearing of cheques, it is useful for easier and faster transfer of funds. MICR provides a high-speed method of scanning and processing information. Optical Mark Recognition identifies bubbles filled in by check boxes on printed forms. OMR supports single and multiple mark recognition; the fields to be recognized can be specified as single bubbles. Barcode Recognition can read more than 20 industry 1D and 2D barcodes including Code39, CODABAR, Interleaved 2 of 5, Code93 and more, it automatically detects all barcodes in an im

Roberto Dipiazza

Roberto Dipiazza is an Italian entrepreneur and politician, Mayor of Muggia in 1996-2001 for one five-years term, Mayor of Trieste in 2001-2011 for two five-years consecutives term, elected again in 2016 for a new five-years term. His working career started as a large-scale retail manager before setting up his own business enterprise in Trieste's province, his political debut happened in December 1996 when he was elected Mayor of Muggia as the leader of a centre-right coalition. His administration claimed to have renovated the old town and to have revived tourism thanks to the new Porto S. Rocco, considered one of the most rated yacht clubs in the northern Adriatic Sea, built with international entrepreneurs’ support, he claimed to have succeeded in improving cross border relations between Italy and Slovenia thanks to the setting up of new business relations between Italian and Slovene multi-utility companies. In 2000 he was named commendatore by President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. In May 2001 he was elected Mayor of Trieste with the support of a centre right coalition for a first term.

His political program focused on a new role for the city of Trieste linked to the eastern expansion of the European Union, the trade development of the port, the reorganization of the so-called porto vecchio, the strengthening of the links between the city and its international institutes of advanced studies and applied research. During his first term as Mayor of Trieste, the merger between Acegas and Aps created the biggest multi-utility listed in the stock exchange in the north east of Italy. In 2004 the Italian financial newspaper Il Sole 24 Ore rated Trieste as the best city in Italy for urban quality of life and services, he supported sports activities and became president of the second division basketball team Pallacanestro Trieste 2004. In the same year he was named “grande ufficiale” by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. In May 2006 he was elected Mayor of Trieste for a second term with the support of a centre right coalition, his program for the new term supported the vision of a city becoming the “capital” of the Adriatic region: a city able to offer qualified services and founding its economical revival on trading and on increased port activities, Trieste's age-old tradition.

His administration claimed to have started a “renaissance” of the city, fuelled by new initiatives in scientific research and by the policy of making Trieste an exclusive centre for tourists, both from Italy and from central eastern European countries. The increase of holiday cruisers calling in Trieste, a result achieved by the Autorità portuale, the newly reconversion of the old fish market building into a contemporary art gallery were seen by his supporters as important steps in this direction; the goal to reduce the ICI was Dipiazza's priority which implied a strict intervention on public expenses without touching the running of the municipality's administrative structure and services, it was a matter of debate in the city whether the services were not touched. Dipiazza left office in 29 May 2011; as mayor of Trieste he was in charge as President of the city lyric theatre "Giuseppe Verdi". In April 2013 he was a candidate for regional councilor in Friuli-Venezia Giulia regional election for the list of PDL, the party of Silvio Berlusconi and Angelino Alfano: Dipiazza obtained a high record of preferences in his constituency and he was elected as regional councilor.

In May 2014 he was a candidate of NCD for the European Parliament. In June 2016 he was the candidate of FI for the office of Mayor of Trieste with the support of NCD, Brothers of Italy, Northern League and other minor lists of the center right coalition: Dipiazza was elected against Roberto Cosolini, the incumbent mayor of Trieste, for a new term. Trieste's Municipality Official Site

Spacer GIF

A spacer GIF is a small, transparent GIF image, used in web design and HTML coding. They were used to control the visual layout of HTML elements on a web page, at a time when the HTML standard alone did not allow this, they became obsolete after the browser wars-fueled addition of layout attributes to HTML 2.0 table tags, were unused by the time Cascading Style Sheets became adopted. David Siegel's 1996 book Creating Killer Web Sites was the first known to publish the Spacer GIF technique. According to Siegel, he invented the trick in his living room; the Cascading Style Sheets standard diminished the use of spacer GIFs for laying out web pages. CSS can achieve the same effects in a number of ways, such as by changing the margin or padding on a given element or by explicitly setting a relative position, it was recognised early on that although the size of table cells could not be set directly, each cell could contain an image through an IMG tag. The size of image tags could be set independently, with their HEIGHT attributes.

The table cell would resize itself automatically to just contain this image, thus resizing itself. It was realized that the displayed size was controlled by the attributes and was independent of the actual size of the image file used. Accordingly, the same image file could be used for all the many spacer images needed on a web page; the only requirement was that this image was invisible, either by being the same color as the page, or by being transparent. Spacer GIFs themselves were small transparent image files. GIF files were used as it was a common format that supported transparency, unlike JPEG; these files were named spacer.gif, transparent.gif or 1x1.gif. Prior to the widespread adoption of Cascading Style Sheets, the spacer GIFs were used to control blank space within a web page, that can be resized according to the HTML attributes it is given; the reason a spacer GIF is invisible is so that an HTML developer can create a table cell and fill the background with a specific color that can be viewed through the transparent spacer GIF.

For instance, a developer seeking to create a square blue box 500 pixels on a side could use a separate blue 500×500 graphic at the expense of additional bandwidth. Instead, the developer can specify the table cell background color and specify the dimensions of a pre-existing transparent spacer GIF. Designs produced looked perfect on the designer's display, but could look different on the reader's display. Different screen resolution, browser rendering engines, as well as user font preferences, could change the layout of the design considerably. Many designs became unreadable as small-screen and mobile devices became popular. Implementing a design with spacer GIFs could be tedious - when making small changes to an existing design; the technique was obsolete for designing web pages by around 1998. Implementation of CSS allowed sizes of HTML objects to be set directly. Although CSS' adoption was slow, owing to poor browser implementations and developer inertia, the basic ability to control element placement as enabled by the use of spacer GIFs was usable by about 1997.

In addition, table- and grid-based layouts were replaced by fluid layouts in an attempt to respond to the growing use of mobile devices to access web content. These design methodologies abandoned the attempt to control two-dimensional layout between elements. Instead the elements would be offered to the reader's browser and the browser would place them as best it could, according to the size of the reader's browsing window. Fluid design layouts made the setting of page element sizes on the user's browser less important; this was evident where it removed the need to set sizes in absolute units such as pixels. As the web designer had never been able to control the size of the reader's screen window, the attempt to set sizes rigidly had always been a mistake. Single-Pixel GIF Trick @ CKWS, by David Siegel Spacer GIF example CSS2 Box Model Specification, World Wide Web Consortium PHP example to programmatically generate the smallest GIF possible spacer represenations as file and data urls in both GIF and PNG format The Tiniest GIF Ever nginx Module ngx_http_empty_gif_module

Coco Star

Susan Brice, better known by her stage name Coco Star, is an English singer-songwriter. She is signed to Universal Music and EMI. Coco Star has collaborated with artists such as Craig David, Artful Dodger and Fragma for the number 1 hit, "Toca's Miracle". Coco Star was born in Hertfordshire, her parents were both musical singers although not professionally. She was musically active before the age of just 5 with hopes of having a no. 1 hit record, which she achieved. Coco can play the cello and all of the recorder family, some piano. At the age of just 12, Coco was writing and performing her own songs and had recorded her first track at the age of 15. Coco attended The University of West England, Bristol where she achieved a BA Hons degree in fashion and textiles. Prior to this, she had completed a national diploma in art and design. During her time at The University of West England, she met up with Jody Wisternoff, Massive Attack and Tricky and began to further enhance her live performances and songwriting skills, landing underground hits with "One By One" and "Always on my Mind".

In 1994, Coco Star was signed by Universal MCA music publishing as part of a development deal where she worked alondside Paul Connolly on live showcases. Coco was coached by Whitney Houston's vocal coach and had dance tuition at Pineapple Dance Studios, as well as meeting Rob Davis to work on music he wrote, "I Need a Miracle" was just one of a few projects Coco worked on between 1994 and 1997; the ad libitum parts and sections of the melody line in "I Need a Miracle" including harmonies are the creation of Coco, who gave the song its iconic stamp. Coco spent some time working with Roger McKenzie who died in 1995 aged 24. By 1997, Coco had entered the main UK charts with "I Need a Miracle" at No. 39 following its debut live performance at Pacha, Ibiza. It went on to be the feature of a bootleg by UK DJ Vimto with huge success. Called "Fragma vs Coco", the mashup of the two records "Toca Me" by Fragma, "I Need a Miracle" by Coco resulted in the name "Toca's Miracle". By the time of its official release in April 2000, the energy surrounding it was such that it went straight in at No. 1 in the UK, selling in excess of 500,000 copies.

Coco Star is an accomplished songwriter signed to Universal Music Publishing for her works, including "It Ain't Enough" which features on the Artful Dodger album It's All About the Stragglers. "It Ain't Enough" was a top 20 hit for the Artful Dodger in 2001 but featured vocalist MZ MAY. Coco wrote the track "Driftaway", covered by Kele Le Roc. Coco worked on an EP of songs by songwriter/producer Peter Wright. "Take You There" was released in April 2011. She has signed a deal with DJ Smash, for a release of her self penned "Get Over You"; this collaboration was part of the 2011 DJ Smash album, 23, featured production by another Russian, DJ She. Ahead of the Miami Winter music conference 2011, Coco Star featured at No. 12 in the official buzz chart with a revocal of "I Need a Miracle", in a fresh new collaborative work with MYNC and Australian house music star Christian Luke form Melbourne. As with "Toca's Miracle", the new release entitled "A Miracle in Melbourne" is a mashup of the iconic vocal from "I Need a Miracle" and the track "London to Melbourne" released in late 2010 by MYNC and Christian Luke on CR2 Records, London.

Coco Star has collaborated with artists including Sub Love in 1993, Massive Attack, Victor Imbres, Rob Davis from 1994–'97, Craig David and the Dreem Teem, Artful Dodger, Brian Harvey and Photek under his moniker of'Sentinel'. In 2011, Coco Star teamed up with MYNC and Christian Luke for collaborative works involving "I Need a Miracle". Coco Star is associated with Andy Levy and Simon Bartholomew of the Brand New Heavies with whom she collaborated with during the production of some of her self written music, her most notable work to date is as the vocalist of "I Need a Miracle", released by Greenlight Recordings in 1996 and re-recorded for EMI/Positiva in 1997. This track is known worldwide under the guise of the mashup "Toca's Miracle", a number 1 hit in 14 countries worldwide in 2000. "Toca's Miracle" is the result of splicing tracks from two separate entities, namely Fragma and their hit "Toca Me", "I Need a Miracle", written for solo artist Coco, by Universal Music publishing writers Victor Imbres and Rob Davis in 1994.

Despite appearances in the "Toca's Miracle" video and Fragma album line-up, Coco was never part of the Fragma group, remains a solo artist. Rebranding of the original song "I Need a Miracle" to Fragma's "Toca's Miracle" occurred without permission or prior agreement. Coco appeared live on Top of the Pops on four occasions, including the Christmas special during 2000 and 2001 to perform "Toca's Miracle" as well as on CD:UK, T4 and the Pepsi Chart Show. Further live performances of "Toca's Miracle" and Coco's other works were given on MTV and Prince Charles' Party in the Park. Coco Star's vocals can be heard on the 2008 remix of "Toca's Miracle", remixed by brothers Marko and Dirk Duderstadt. Again it uses the vocal parts from Coco's signed release of "I Need a Miracle"; the 2008 remix was released by EMI/Positiva on 7 April 2008. Although the original 2000 release topped the charts in several countries eight years prev