American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
John Hardy Steele
John Hardy Steele served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1844 to 1846. John H. Steele was born in Salisbury, North Carolina on January 4, 1789, his mother, Elizabeth Taylor, was unmarried. His father, John Steele was married to another woman, was the father of several children with his wife; as a result of the circumstances of his parentage and the early death of his mother, John Hardy Steele was raised by his maternal grandfather, Absalom Taylor. Steele was educated in Salisbury, at age 14 was apprenticed as a cabinetmaker and chair maker. At age 22 Steele settled in Fayetteville, where he worked at his trade for Nathaniel Morrison, a native of Peterborough, New Hampshire. Morrison was impressed with Steele's mechanical aptitude, asked Steele to accompany him to New Hampshire to establish a textile manufacturing business. Steele designed and constructed the spinning mules and looms for Morrison's mills, one of, the first to weave cotton cloth by waterpower. In 1824 Steele joined several partners to establish the Union Manufacturing Company, a cloth production factory which operated with Steele as manager.
A Democrat in a town, predominantly Whig in its politics, Steele was popular enough to win election to the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1829. He declined reelection, declined an 1831 nomination for a seat in the New Hampshire State Senate. From 1830 to 1838 Steele served as Peterborough's Town Meeting Moderator. Steele was active in the New Hampshire Militia, attained the rank of Colonel as aide-de-camp to Governor Matthew Harvey. In 1840 Steele won election to the Executive Council of New Hampshire, he was reelected in 1841. Steele was elected Governor in 1844, reelected in 1845, his term was marked by the creation of a state railroad commission. In addition, Steele provided letters of introduction to James Knox Polk and members of Polk's cabinet for his friend Jesse Carter Little, a Mormon pioneer who sought government assistance to enable the Mormons to begin settling in Utah. After leaving office Steele retired to a farm, where he conducted experiments in animal husbandry and other scientific agriculture techniques.
He was President of the Peterborough Savings Bank. He served as a Selectman in 1846, in 1850 he was a delegate to New Hampshire's constitutional convention. Steele was buried in the Village Cemetery. Biography at New Hampshire Historical Resources John Hardy Steele at Find a Grave John Hardy Steele at National Governors Association
Jeremiah Smith (lawyer)
Jeremiah Smith was an American lawyer and politician from Exeter, New Hampshire. Born in Peterborough in the Province of New Hampshire, Smith attended Harvard University before graduating from Queens College in New Brunswick, New Jersey in 1780, he served in the Continental Army, read law to enter the bar in 1786. He was in private practice in Peterborough from 1786 to 1796, he was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1798 to 1799, the United States House of Representatives from 1791 to 1797. He was United States Attorney for the District of New Hampshire from 1797 to 1800, he was a probate judge of Rockingham County, New Hampshire from 1800 to 1801. On February 18, 1801, Smith was nominated by President John Adams to a new seat as a federal judge on the United States circuit court for the First Circuit, created by 2 Stat. 89. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on February 20, 1801, received his commission the same day. Smith's federal judicial service was terminated on July 1802, due to abolition of the court.
He became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, served from 1802 to 1809. Smith was elected Governor of New Hampshire in 1809, defeating incumbent Governor John Langdon by only 319 votes. However, Langdon defeated Smith in the following election, in 1810. Smith returned to the private practice of law from 1810 until 1813, when he again became Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire, this time until 1816, when he was removed by the elimination of the court by the legislature, he again returned to private practice New Hampshire from 1816 to 1820. Smith was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, he was a trustee and the treasurer at Phillips Exeter Academy from 1828 to 1842, served as the president of trustees from 1830 to 1842. Jeremiah Smith Hall at the academy is named for him. Smith died in 1842 in Dover, New Hampshire, is buried at the Winter Street Cemetery in Exeter. "Jeremiah Smith". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
Jeremiah Smith at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Jeremiah Smith at National Governors Association Jeremiah Smith at Find a Grave
Colby–Sawyer College is a private baccalaureate college in New London, New Hampshire. It sits on a 200-acre campus. A legislative charter was granted by the State of New Hampshire in 1837 to 11 New London citizens for the purpose of establishing a school in the town; the eleven men who were named as the academy’s incorporators were Joseph Colby, Anthony Colby, Perley Burpee, Jonathan Greeley, John Brown, Jonathan Herrick, David Everett, Samuel Carr, Walter Flanders, Jonathan Addison and Marshall Trayne. It was a coeducational secondary school, for which Susan Colby served as the first teacher and principal, it soon enrolled 54 male students. In 1858, the New Hampton Literary and Theological Institution moved to Fairfax and the New Hampshire Baptists, with encouragement from former Governor Anthony Colby and New London’s Baptist minister, Ebenezer Dodge, assumed responsibility for the Academy; the name was changed to the New London Scientific Institute. The new Board of Trustees was made up of 24 members, three-fourths of whom had to be from New Hampshire but not from New London, three-fourths of whom had to be Baptists in good standing.
In 1854, the Ladies Boarding House was built on what is now the New London green to accommodate up to 40 female students and the female faculty. Anthony Colby purchased the original New London town meeting house and moved it to campus, where it was renovated to provide 20 double rooms for the male students; the building is called Colby Hall. In 1870, a brick Academy building was located on the present site of Colgate Hall; the building provided dormitory space for 100 female students as well as classrooms, library, gymnastic facilities, dining room and laundry facilities. It burned in 1892; the New London Literary and Scientific Institution was in 1878 renamed Colby Academy in tribute to the ongoing support of the Colby family of New London. Financed by Mary Colgate, Colgate Hall was completed and dedicated in 1912, named in honor of the Colgate family whose members were dedicated supporters of the college. Colgate Hall housed female students, administrative offices, a library, dining room, chapel and laundry.
The male students continued to reside in Colby Hall. After 90 years as a secondary school, Colby Academy trustees voted in 1927 to transform Colby Academy into a junior college and preparatory school for women. In 1930, 14 women received. McKean Hall was built in 1930 and named for Dr. Horace G. McKean, Colby Academy’s headmaster from 1899 to 1905. In 1931, Colby Hall was built, a residence hall named in honor of the Colby family. In 1931 Shepard Hall was built in honor of one of the original New London families who were trustees of the Academy and the College. In 1934 Burpee Hall was built, dedicated to the Burpee alumni, trustees; the hall housed the library collection until 1949. In 1933, by an act of the New Hampshire Legislature, Colby School for Girls was changed to Colby Junior College for Women; the preparatory courses were phased out. On Oct. 18, 1941, Eleanor Roosevelt visited the college and gave a speech to the community at the Baptist church. In 1943, the college charter was amended by the New Hampshire General Court to allow the granting of baccalaureate programs.
The Board of Trustees changed the name of the institution to Colby College-New Hampshire in 1973. In 1974, it was reported to the board that the college faced a lawsuit by Colby College, in Waterville, regarding its name, so in 1975, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name to Colby–Sawyer College; the Windy Hill School, a child study lab school, was established in 1976 as a site for teacher internships and student practica. The Windy Hill School is now housed in the college's first building designed to be LEED silver certified and remains one of the few lab schools in northern New England. In 1989, the Board of Trustees announced that Colby–Sawyer College would begin admitting male students beginning in the fall of 1990, returning the college to its coeducational roots. In 1990, the Ware Campus Center the Library-Commons building, was dedicated to Judge Martha Ware. In 1991 the Hogan Sports Center, dedicated to Daniel and Kathleen Hogan, the Kelsey Tennis Courts opened. In 1995, the Baker Communications Center was dedicated, named for Elbert H. Baker, distinguished in the communications industry and father of Martine Baker Anderson, a member of the Class of 1959.
In 2004, the Curtis L. Ivey Science Center opened, the student lodge was renamed the Lethbridge Lodge in honor of trustee and friend, George “Bud” Lethbridge. In fall 2010, Windy Hill School moved into its new building, in summer 2011, Colby-Sawyer introduced online summer courses. Colby-Sawyer was featured in the 2007 edition of U. S. News & World Report's "Great Schools, Great Prices" category of the top comprehensive baccalaureate colleges in the North. Dr. Sawyer served as president until his retirement in 1955, followed by Presidents Eugene M. Austin and Everett M. Woodman; the college began its transition to a senior institution during the administration of Louis C. Vaccaro and completed this change under the presidency of H. Nicholas Muller III. Peggy A. Stock, sixth president of the college, increased enrollment, completed a successful capital campaign, constructed or renovated several buildings, including Rooke Hall. Anne Ponder became the seventh president of the college in March 1996.
Samuel Dinsmoor Jr.
Samuel Dinsmoor Jr. was an American lawyer, banker and thirtieth Governor of New Hampshire. Dinsmoor was born in Keene, New Hampshire and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1814, he studied law and was a legal assistant to Territorial Governor James Miller for several years in Arkansas. A commissioner who made it possible for the visit of French General Lafayette to New Hampshire in 1825, Dinsmoor served as clerk of the New Hampshire Senate in 1826, 1827, 1829 and 1830. Having secured the Democratic gubernatorial nomination, Dinsmoor was elected by a popular vote in 1849, reelected to a second term in 1850, as well as a third term in 1851, he served as thirtieth Governor of New Hampshire from June 7, 1849 to June 3, 1852. The state militia was restructured during his tenure. Upon leaving the governorship, Dinsmoor retired from political life, but continued to stay active in his legal and banking interests. From 1835 until his death Dinsmoor was President of the Ashuelot Bank in Keene. Dinsmoor died in Keene on February 24, 1869.
He is interred at Washington Street Cemetery in Keene. His father, Samuel Dinsmoor, had been Governor of New Hampshire from 1831 to 1834. On September 11, 1841, Samuel Dinsmoor Jr. married Anne Eliza Jarvis, they had two children: William Jarvis Dinsmoor and Samuel Dinsmoor III. Anne died on July 17, 1849. Dinsmoor at New Hampshire's Division of Historic Resources National Governors Association profile
John Taylor Gilman
John Taylor Gilman was a farmer and statesman from Exeter, New Hampshire. He represented New Hampshire in the Continental Congress in 1782–1783 and was Governor of New Hampshire for 14 years, from 1794 to 1805, from 1813 to 1816. Gilman was born in the Province of New Hampshire, his family had settled in Exeter since its earliest days. He lived in the Ladd-Gilman House, now a part of the American Independence Museum, he received a limited education before he entered into the family shipbuilding and mercantile businesses. Aged 22, he read aloud a Dunlap Broadside brought to New Hampshire on July 16, 1776 to the city of Exeter; the American Independence Museum commemorates his brave act every year at their American Independence Festival, where a role-player reads the Declaration in its entirety to festival-goers. Gilman was one of the Minutemen of 1775 and a selectman in 1777 and 1778. Gilman served as a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1779 and 1781 and was a delegate to the Convention of the States in Hartford, Connecticut, in October 1780.
He served as a member of the Continental Congress in 1782 and 1783. He was the New Hampshire Treasurer in 1791 and moderator in 1791–1794, 1806, 1807, 1809–1811, 1817, 1818, 1820–1825. Gilman served as Governor of New Hampshire between 1794 and 1805 and was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1805, he was again a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1810 and 1811 and again an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1812. He was elected governor and served from 1813 to 1816 and declined to be a candidate for renomination for governor in 1816, he was an ex officio trustee of Dartmouth College, New Hampshire, trustee by election. He was president of the board of trustees of Phillips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, 1795–1827, donor of the oldest property, the'Yard,' upon which the older buildings stand. Gilman was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. Gilman was married to the daughter of Major General Nathaniel Folsom of Exeter, he died in Exeter on September 1, 1828.
He is the first governor of New Hampshire not to have a place in the state named after him. The town of Gilmanton, settled by 24 members of the extended Gilman clan, was named for the family as a whole and not for the Governor. Gilman's Congressional Biography Gilman, John Taylor, 1753–1828, Guide to Research Collections
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 10th least populous of the 50 states. Concord is the state capital, it is personal income taxed at either the state or local level. The New Hampshire primary is the first primary in the U. S. presidential election cycle. Its license plates carry the state motto, "Live Free or Die"; the state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite quarries. In January 1776, it became the first of the British North American colonies to establish a government independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain's authority, it was the first to establish its own state constitution. Six months it became one of the original 13 colonies that signed the United States Declaration of Independence, in June 1788 it was the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect.
New Hampshire was a major center for textile manufacturing and papermaking, with Amoskeag Manufacturing Company in Manchester at one time being the largest cotton textile plant in the world. Numerous mills were located along various rivers in the state the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. Many French Canadians migrated to New Hampshire to work the mills in the late 19th and early 20th century. Manufacturing centers such as Manchester and Berlin were hit hard in the 1930s–1940s, as major manufacturing industries left New England and moved to the southern United States or overseas, reflecting nationwide trends. In the 1950s and 1960s, defense contractors moved into many of the former mills, such as Sanders Associates in Nashua, the population of southern New Hampshire surged beginning in the 1980s as major highways connected the region to Greater Boston and established several bedroom communities in the state. With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing and other winter sports and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach in Laconia in June.
The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, has the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot Mount Washington. Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, rock musician Ronnie James Dio, author Dan Brown, actor Adam Sandler, inventor Dean Kamen, comedians Sarah Silverman and Seth Meyers, restaurateurs Richard and Maurice McDonald, President of the United States Franklin Pierce; the state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire by Captain John Mason. New Hampshire is part of the six-state New England region, it is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the northwest. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, the Dartmouth-Lake Sunapee area.
New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U. S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles, sometimes measured as only 13 miles. New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation disintegrated in May 2003; the White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U. S. – site of the second-highest wind speed recorded – and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, conspicuous krumholtz, the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather". In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms – a monadnock – signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain.
Major rivers include the 110-mile Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north–south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, Winnipesaukee River; the 410-mile Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as is the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side. Only one town – Pittsburg – shares a land border with the st