Windsor Castle is a royal residence at Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is notable for its association with the English and British royal family. The original castle was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion of England by William the Conqueror, since the time of Henry I, it has been used by the reigning monarch and is the longest-occupied palace in Europe. Inside the castle walls is the 15th-century St Georges Chapel, considered by the historian John Martin Robinson to be one of the achievements of English Perpendicular Gothic design. Gradually replaced with stone fortifications, the castle withstood a siege during the First Barons War at the start of the 13th century. Edwards core design lasted through the Tudor period, during which Henry VIII and Elizabeth I made increasing use of the castle as a royal court and centre for diplomatic entertainment. Windsor Castle survived the period of the English Civil War, when it was used as a military headquarters for Parliamentary forces.
At the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660, Charles II rebuilt much of Windsor Castle with the help of the architect Hugh May, Queen Victoria made a few minor changes to the castle, which became the centre for royal entertainment for much of her reign. Windsor Castle was used as a refuge for the family during the Luftwaffe bombing campaigns of the Second World War. It is a popular tourist attraction, a venue for hosting state visits, more than 500 people live and work in Windsor Castle, making it the largest inhabited castle in the world. Windsor Castle occupies 13 acres, and combines the features of a fortification, a palace, the present-day castle was created during a sequence of phased building projects, culminating in the reconstruction work after a fire in 1992. It is in essence a Georgian and Victorian design based on a medieval structure, since the 14th century, architecture at the castle has attempted to produce a contemporary reinterpretation of older fashions and traditions, repeatedly imitating outmoded or even antiquated styles.
Although there has some criticism, the castles architecture and history lends it a place amongst the greatest European palaces. At the heart of Windsor Castle is the Middle Ward, a formed around the motte or artificial hill in the centre of the ward. The motte is 50 feet high and is made from chalk originally excavated from the surrounding ditch, the Round Tower is in reality far from cylindrical, due to the shape and structure of the motte beneath it. The western entrance to the Middle Ward is now open, the eastern exit from the ward is guarded by the Norman Gatehouse. Wyatville redesigned the exterior of the gatehouse, and the interior was converted in the 19th century for residential use. The Upper Ward of Windsor Castle comprises a number of major buildings enclosed by the bailey wall
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight /ˈaɪl əv ˈwaɪt/ is a county and the largest and second-most populous island in England. It is located in the English Channel, about 4 miles off the coast of Hampshire, the island has resorts that have been holiday destinations since Victorian times, and is known for its mild climate, coastal scenery, and verdant landscape of fields and chines. The island has been home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson and to Queen Victoria and it has a maritime and industrial tradition including boat building, sail making, the manufacture of flying boats, the hovercraft, and Britains space rockets. The island hosts annual festivals including the Isle of Wight Festival. It has well-conserved wildlife and some of the richest cliffs and quarries for dinosaur fossils in Europe, the Isle was owned by a Norman family until 1293 and was earlier a kingdom in its own right. Rural for most of its history, its Victorian fashionability and the affordability of holidays led to significant urban development during the late 19th.
The island was part of Hampshire until 1890 when it became its own administrative county, apart from a shared police force, there is now no administrative link with Hampshire, although a combined local authority with Portsmouth and Southampton is being considered. Until 1995 the island had a governor, the quickest public transport link to the mainland is the hovercraft from Ryde to Southsea, while three ferry and two catamaran services cross the Solent to Southampton and Portsmouth. During the Ice Age, sea levels were lower and the Solent was part of a river flowing south east from current day Poole Harbour towards mid-Channel. As sea levels rose, the valley became flooded. The first inhabitants are assumed to have been hunter-gatherers migrating by land during the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age period, as the ice age began to recede. From the Neolithic era onwards, there are indications that the island had wide trading links, with a port at Bouldnor, evidence of Bronze Age tin trading, caesar reported that the Belgae took the Isle of Wight in about 85 BC and gave its name as Vectis.
The Roman historian Suetonius mentions that the island was captured by the commander Vespasian, the Romans built no towns or roads on the island, but the remains of at least seven Roman villas have been found, indicating the prosperity of local agriculture. During the Dark Ages the island was settled by Jutes as the kingdom of Wihtwara under King Arwald. In 685 it was invaded by Caedwalla, who tried to replace the inhabitants with his own followers and it suffered especially from Viking raids, and was often used as a winter base by Viking raiders when they were unable to reach Normandy. Later, both Earl Tostig and his brother Harold Godwinson held manors on the island, the Norman Conquest of 1066 created the position of Lord of the Isle of Wight, the island being given by William the Conqueror to his kinsman William FitzOsbern. Carisbrooke Priory and the fort of Carisbrooke Castle were founded, allegiance was sworn to FitzOsbern rather than the king, the Lordship was subsequently granted to the de Redvers family by Henry I, after his succession in 1100.
For nearly 200 years the island was a semi-independent feudal fiefdom, the final private owner was the Countess Isabella de Fortibus, who, on her deathbed in 1293, was persuaded to sell it to Edward I
Edward I of England
Edward I, known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law, through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, Edwards attention was drawn towards military affairs, the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his fathers reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained throughout the subsequent armed conflict. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land, the crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August, after suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points. At the same there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation and these crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son, Edward II, Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname Longshanks. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith.
The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henrys brother Richard of Cornwall, Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, and during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffards death in 1246, there were concerns about Edwards health as a child, and he fell ill in 1246,1247, and 1251
Caernarfon Castle, often anglicized as Carnarvon Castle, is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Governments historic environment service. There was a castle in the town of Caernarfon from the late 11th century until 1283 when King Edward I of England began replacing it with the current stone structure. The Edwardian town and castle acted as the centre of north Wales. There was a link with Caernarfons Roman past and the Roman fort of Segontium is nearby. While the castle was under construction, town walls were built around Caernarfon, the work cost between £20,000 and £25,000 from the start until the end of work in 1330. Despite Caernarfon Castles external appearance of being complete, the interior buildings no longer survive. The town and castle were sacked in 1294 when Madog ap Llywelyn led a rebellion against the English, Caernarfon was recaptured the following year. During the Glyndŵr Rising of 1400–1415, the castle was besieged, when the Tudor dynasty ascended to the English throne in 1485, tensions between the Welsh and English began to diminish and castles were considered less important.
As a result, Caernarfon Castle was allowed to fall into a state of disrepair, despite its dilapidated condition, during the English Civil War Caernarfon Castle was held by Royalists, and was besieged three times by Parliamentarian forces. This was the last time the castle was used in war, Caernarfon Castle was neglected until the 19th century when the state funded repairs. In 1911, Caernarfon Castle was used for the investiture of the Prince of Wales and it is part of the World Heritage Site Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd. The first fortifications at Caernarfon were built by the Romans and their fort, which they named Segontium, is on the outskirts of the modern town. The fort sat near the bank of the River Seiont, it is likely that the fort was positioned here due to the sheltered nature, Caernarfon derives its name from the Roman fortifications. In Welsh, the place was called y gaer yn Arfon, little is known about the fate of Segontium and its associated civilian settlement after the Romans departed from Britain in the early 5th century.
Following the Norman Conquest of England, William the Conqueror turned his attention to Wales, according to the Domesday Survey of 1086, the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan was nominally in command of the whole of northern Wales. He was killed by the Welsh in 1088 and this early castle was built on a peninsula, bounded by the River Seiont, the Menai Strait, it would have been a motte and bailey, defended by a timber palisade and earthworks. While the motte, or mound, was integrated into the Edwardian castle, excavations on top of the motte in 1969 revealed no traces of medieval occupation, suggesting any evidence had been removed. It is likely that the motte was surmounted by a tower known as a keep
Norwich Castle is a medieval royal fortification in the city of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk. It was founded in the aftermath of the Norman conquest of England when William the Conqueror ordered its construction because he wished to have a place in the important city of Norwich. It proved to be his only castle in East Anglia and it is one of the Norwich 12 heritage sites. In 1894 the Norwich Museum moved to Norwich Castle and it has been a museum ever since and it is now known as Norwich Castle Museum & Art Gallery, and holds significant objects from the region, especially archaeological finds and natural history specimens. Norwich Castle was founded by William the Conqueror some time between 1066 and 1075 and it originally took the form of a motte and bailey. The castle is first mentioned in 1075 when Ralph de Gael, Earl of Norfolk, rebelled against William the Conqueror, a siege was undertaken, but ended when the garrison secured promises that they would not be harmed. Norwich is one of 48 castles mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, building a castle in a pre-existing settlement could require demolishing properties on the site.
At Norwich, estimates vary that between 17 and 113 houses occupied the site of the castle, excavations in the late 1970s discovered that the castle bailey was built over a Saxon cemetery. Historian Robert Liddiard remarks that to glance at the landscape of Norwich. Until the construction of Orford Castle in the century under Henry II. The stone keep, which stands today, was probably built between 1095 and 1110. In about the year 1100, the motte was made higher, during the Revolt of 1173–1174, in which Henry IIs sons rebelled against him and started a civil war, Norwich Castle was put in a state of readiness. Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk was one of the powerful earls who joined the revolt against Henry. With 318 Flemish soldiers that landed in England in May 1174 and they captured the castle and took fourteen prisoners who were held for ransom. When peace was restored that year, Norwich was returned to royal control, the Normans introduced the Jews to Norwich and they lived close to the castle.
A cult was founded in Norwich in the wake of the murder of a boy, William of Norwich. In Lent 1190, violence against Jews erupted in East Anglia, some fled to the safety of the castle, but those who did not were killed. The Pipe Rolls, records of expenditure, note that repairs were carried out at the castle in 1156–1158
Montacute House is a late Elizabethan mansion with garden in Montacute, South Somerset. All parts are maintained by the National Trust which subsidise entry fees and its Long Gallery, the longest in England serves as a South-West outpost of the National Portrait Gallery displaying a skilful and well-studied range of old oils and watercolours. It was visited by 125,442 people in 2013, the house and its gardens have been a filming location for several films and a setting for television costume dramas and literary adaptations. Sir Edward Phelips descendants occupied the house until the early 20th century. Following a brief period, when the house was let to tenants, one of whom was Lord Curzon who lived at the house with his mistress, the novelist Elinor Glyn, it was acquired by the NT in 1927. Montacute House was built in about 1598 by Sir Edward Phelips, whose family had lived in the Montacute area since at least 1460, Edward Phelips was a lawyer who had been in Parliament since 1584. He was knighted in 1603 and a year became Speaker of the House, james I appointed him Master of the Rolls and Chancellor to his son and heir Henry, Prince of Wales.
Phelips remained at the hub of English political life, and his skills were employed when he became opening prosecutor during the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters. Dunster has architectural motifs similar to found at Montacute. Phelips chose as the site for his new mansion a spot close by the existing house, the date work commenced is undocumented, but is generally thought to be c. 1598/9, based on dates on a fireplace and in stained glass within the house, the date 1601, engraved above a doorcase, is considered to be the date of completion. Sir Edward Phelips died in 1614, leaving his family wealthy and landed, he was succeeded by his son, Sir Robert Phelips, Robert Phelips has the distinction of being arrested at Montacute. A staunch Protestant, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London as a result of his opposition to the Spanish Match between the Prince of Wales and a Catholic Spanish Infanta. The familys fame and notoriety were to be short-lived, subsequent generations settled down in Somerset to live the lives of county gentry, representing Somerset in Parliament and when necessary following occupations in the army and the church.
This peaceful existence was jolted when the estate was inherited by William Phelips and he was responsible for the Base Court, a low service range adjoining the south side of the mansion. And the restoration of the Great Chamber, which he transformed into a library, later, he was to become insane, an addicted gambler, he was eventually incarcerated for his own good. Sadly for his family, this was after he had gambled away the family fortune, in 1875, when his son William Phelips took control of the estate, agricultural rents from what remained of the mortgaged estate were low, and the house was a drain on limited resources. Selling the family silver and art works delayed the inevitable by a few years, but in 1911 the family were forced to let the house, for a sum of £650
Durham School is an English independent boarding school for pupils aged between 3 and 18 years. Founded by the Bishop of Durham, Thomas Langley, in 1414 and it is the citys oldest institution of learning. The School is located in Durham, North East England and was an institution until becoming fully coeducational in 1985. A member of The Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference, it enrolls 650 day and its preparatory institution, known as Bow, Durham School, enrolls a further 160 pupils. Durham and Bows former pupils include politicians and British aristocracy, former students are known as Old Dunelmians. The school celebrated its 600th Anniversary in 2014, the history of Durham School can be divided into three sections. The school is referred to in histories and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as Durham Grammar School. It should not be confused with the Chorister School, Durham School was founded by Thomas Langley in 1414, which was the foundation date accepted by the Clarendon Commission into public schools in 1861, making it the 18th oldest in Britain.
The school was in Langleys time situated on the east side of Palace Green to the north of the cathedral, at the time of the Dissolution of the Monasteries during the Protestant Reformation in 1541, the school was refounded by Henry VIII. It remained in the location, indeed the Headmaster Henry Stafford remained in post. Homeless due to the burning down of its buildings, the school continued in various houses in the city and it was in 1661 that the school moved to the building currently occupied by the Durham University Music School to the north west of Palace Green. There was some zeal for education in Durham during the 18th century, Durham School, rebuilt in 1661, on the Palace Green, soon became, instead of a local grammar school, a north-country public school of repute and wide influence. We can trace from the Restoration onwards not only the city names such as Salvin, Hutchinson, Fawcett, Calverley. One of the distinctions of the school is the succession of local historians. Most famous of these is James Mickleton, without whom no history of mediaeval or 17th-century Durham would be possible, than these comes Thomas Randall, who made a large collection of manuscript material for local history books.
From its location on Palace Green outside Durham Cathedral, whilst Edward Elder was Headmaster the school moved to its present site in 1844, the School has been steadily expanded and updated since then. For example, Henry Holden, Headmaster 1853 to 1882, instigated new classrooms, kitchens, sickroom a sanatorium, bell tower and library. William Fearon, Headmaster 1882 to 1884, introduced the three term system used today and enlarged the playing fields and built an open air swimming pool
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Carisbrooke Castle is a historic motte-and-bailey castle located in the village of Carisbrooke, Isle of Wight, England. Charles I was imprisoned at the castle in the prior to his trial. The site of Carisbrooke Castle may have occupied in pre-Roman times. A ruined wall suggests that there was a building there in late Roman times, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions that Wihtgar, cousin of King Cynric of Wessex, died in AD544, and was buried there. The Jutes may have taken over the fort by the late 7th century, an Anglo-Saxon stronghold occupied the site during the 8th century. Around 1000, a wall was built around the hill as a defence against Viking raids, from 1100 the castle remained in the possession of Richard de Redvers family, and over the next two centuries his descendants improved the castle with stone walls, towers and a keep. In 1293, Countess Isabella de Fortibus, the last Redvers resident, from on, its governance was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown. In 1377, in the reign of Richard II the castle was attacked by the French.
It was reputedly saved by local hero Peter de Heyno who shot the French commander, anthony Woodville, Lord Scales, Earl Rivers, obtained a grant of the castle and rights of Lordship in 1467. He was responsible for the addition of the Woodville Gate, now known as the Entrance Gate, Woodville was killed by Richard III in 1483, but his brother Edward Woodville was given control of the castle on the accession of Henry VII in 1485. Carey commissioned the Italian engineer Federigo Giambelli to make substantial improvements to the defences. The new fortification was completed by 1600 at the cost of £4,000. Charles I was imprisoned here for fourteen months before his execution in 1649, afterwards his two youngest children were confined in the castle, and Princess Elizabeth died there. From 1896–1944, it was the home of Princess Beatrice, daughter of Queen Victoria and it is now under the control of English Heritage. The castle is located above, and to the south of, in 2007, English Heritage opened a holiday flat inside the castle, in converted former staff quarters.
The flat is above the museum near the room in which the king was kept captive, a balcony going across the Kings prison room adjoins the flat, which is currently rented on a long lease to English Heritage staff. According to the Association of Leading Visitor Attractions, nearly 120,000 people visited Carisbrooke Castle in 2010, Carisbrooke was the strongest castle on the Island, though it is visible from some distance, it does not dominate the countryside like many other castles. There are traces of a Roman fort underneath the buildings, seventy-one steps lead up to the keep, the reward is a fine view