Anthony the Great

Saint Anthony or Antony, was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as Anthony of Padua, by various epithets of his own: Anthony the Great, Anthony of Egypt, Antony the Abbot, Anthony of the Desert, Anthony the Anchorite, Anthony of Thebes. For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all Christian monasticism, he is known as the Father of All Monks, his feast day is celebrated on 17 January among the Orthodox and Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Coptic calendar. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism in Western Europe via its Latin translations, he is erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, among the first known to go into the wilderness, which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature.

Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire. Most of what is known about Saint Anthony comes from the Life of Anthony. Written in Greek around 360 by Athanasius of Alexandria, it depicts Anthony as an illiterate and holy man who through his existence in a primordial landscape has an absolute connection to the divine truth, which always is in harmony with that of Athanasius as the biographer. A continuation of the genre of secular Greek biography, it became his most read work. Sometime before 374 it was translated into Latin by Evagrius of Antioch; the Latin translation helped the Life become one of the best known works of literature in the Christian world, a status it would hold through the Middle Ages. Translated into several languages, it became something of a best seller in its day and played an important role in the spreading of the ascetic ideal in Eastern and Western Christianity.

It served as an inspiration to Christian monastics in both the East and the West, helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism in Western Europe via its Latin translations. Many stories are told about Anthony in various collections of sayings of the Desert Fathers, he is erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, the first to go into the wilderness, a geographical move that seems to have contributed to his renown. Anthony spoke only his native language, but his sayings were spread in a Greek translation, he himself dictated letters in Coptic. Anthony was born in Coma in Lower Egypt to wealthy landowner parents; when he was about 20 years old, his parents left him with the care of his unmarried sister. Shortly thereafter, he decided to follow the gospel exhortation in Matthew 19: 21, "If you want to be perfect, go, sell what you have and give to the poor, you will have treasures in heaven."

Anthony gave away some of his family's lands to his neighbors, sold the remaining property, donated the funds to the poor. He left to live an ascetic life, placing his sister with a group of Christian virgins. For the next fifteen years, Anthony remained in the area, spending the first years as the disciple of another local hermit. There are various legends. Anthony is sometimes considered the first monk, the first to initiate solitary desertification, but there were others before him. There were ascetic hermits, loosely organized cenobitic communities were described by the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria in the 1st century AD as long established in the harsh environment of Lake Mareotis and in other less accessible regions. Philo opined that "this class of persons may be met with in many places, for both Greece and barbarian countries want to enjoy whatever is good." Christian ascetics such as Thecla had retreated to isolated locations at the outskirts of cities. Anthony is notable for having decided to surpass this tradition and headed out into the desert proper.

He left for the alkaline Nitrian Desert on the edge of the Western Desert about 95 km west of Alexandria. He remained there for 13 years. Anthony maintained a strict ascetic diet, he ate only bread and water and never meat or wine. He sometimes fasted through two or four days. According to Athanasius, the devil fought Anthony by afflicting him with boredom and the phantoms of women, which he overcame by the power of prayer, providing a theme for Christian art. After that, he moved to one of the tombs near his native village. There it was that the Life records those strange conflicts with demons in the shape of wild beasts, who inflicted blows upon him, sometimes left him nearly dead. After fifteen years of this life, at the age of thirty-five, Anthony determined to withdraw from the habitations of men and retire in absolute solitude, he went into the desert to a mountain by the Nile called Pispir, opposite Arsinoë. There he lived enclosed in an old abandoned Roman fort for some 20 years. Food was thrown to him over the wall.

He was at times visited by pilgrims, whom he refused to

Otto Kleinschmidt

Otto Kleinschmidt was a German ornithologist and pastor. Kleinschmidt was born as the son of the factory overseer Adolph Kleinschmidt and his wife Elise in Geinsheim on the Rhine; the house of the family was located miles from anywhere in between unspoiled countryside. Otto Kleinschmidt was as a young boy interested in nature and the world of the birds. Besides that it was kind of a family tradition to collect. At the age of 8 Otto prepared his first taxidermied birds, he introduced a typological species concept into German ornithology. His Formenkreis theory influenced the early ideas of Erwin Stresemann. Others have considered him one of the first biogeographers, his position was that similar "forms" found in geographically distant regions could be accounted for by "formation rings" – with a fixed set of characters. This allowed him to support creationism while explaining biogeographical similarities. Kleinschmidt's book The Formenkreis Theory and the Progress of the Organic World was translated in 1930 by Francis Charles Robert Jourdain.

Mixed reviews appeared in British journals. Historians of science Georgy S. Levit, Kay Meister and Uwe Hoßfeld have noted that: Kleinschmidt’s creationistic concept led him not only to the rejection of the Darwinian theory of descent, but to the negation of the post-Mendelian genetics, his criticism of the Darwinian principles is one of the most intensive and extensive assaults on the proper evolutionism. At the same time, his studies on individual and geographic variation of Palaearctic birds delivered valuable biological data, which contributed to the empirical basis of biological systematics. Professor of biology Eugene Potapov has written that although Kleinschmidt's writings are now obscure and cited he "outlined the modern genetic approach to the understanding of the systematics of large falcons." Kleinschmidt O. 1897.. Journal für Ornithologie 45: 518–519. Kleinschmidt, O. Arten oder Formenkreise? Journal für Ornithologie 48:134–139 Kleinschmidt, O. 1921. Die Singvögel der Heimat. Verlag von Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig.

Kleinschmidt O. 1926. Der weitere Ausbau der Formenkreislehre. Journal für Ornithologie 74: 405–408. Kleinschmidt O. 1930. The Formenkreis Theory and the Progress of the Organic World: A Re-Casting of the Theory of Descent and Race-Study to Prepare the Way for a Harmonious Conception of the Universal Reality. London, H. F. & G. Witherby. Kleinschmidt O. 1933 Kurzgefaßte deutsche Rassenkunde. Armanen-Verlag, Leipzig. Kleinschmidt O. 1933. Blut und Rasse. Die Stellung des evangelischen Christen zu den Forderungen der Eugenik. Unter Zugrundelegung eines am 18. April 1933 auf der zweiten Konferenz evangelischer Akademiker in Hannover gehaltenen Vortrags. Verlag Martin Warneck, Berlin. Kleinschmidt O. 1934–2000. Die Raubvögel der Heimat. Klassiker der Ornithologie. Aula-Verlag GmbH & Co. Wiebelsheim Die Raubvögel der Heimat – Predator Birds of the Homeland Kleinschmidt O. 1949. Die Kolibris. Kleinschmidt O. 1950. Der Zauber von Brehms Tierleben. Geest&Portig. Lpzg. A. Ziemsen Vlg. Wittenberg/Lutherstadt. Kleinschmidt A. 1950.

Leben und Werk. Syllegomena Biologica. Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstage von Herrn Pastor Dr. Med. H. C. O. Kleinschmidt, Lutherstadt Wittenberg am 13. Dezember 1950 eds, A. von Jordans & F. Peus pp. 1–31. Leipzig: Wittenberg. Albert Fleischmann Clancey PA. 1950. Some appreciative remarks on the work of Dr Otto Kleinschmidt by a British avian taxonomist. Syllegomena Biologica. Festschrift zum 80. Geburtstage von Herrn Pastor Dr. Med. H. C. O. Kleinschmidt, Lutherstadt Wittenberg am 13. Dezember 1950 eds, A. von Jordans & F. Peus, pp. 31–34. Leipzig: Wittenberg. Works by or about Otto Kleinschmidt at Internet Archive Thesis in PDF

Yolande Ardissone

Yolande Ardissone is a French painter. Born in Bueil, she studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, she met Jaques Eitel -, going to become her husband - during a trip in Italy in 1949. Yolande Ardissone and Jacques Eitel had a daughter, who became a painter known under the name of Florence Arven. Yolande Ardissone exhibited her works including the Salon des artistes français, she was discovered by the art merchant Wally Findlay in 1957 and started exhibiting her works in New York City, Beverly Hills, Palm Beach and other US-based galleries that same year. Yolande Ardissone has gained a considerable reputation. Yolande Ardissone loves to paint Provence and the French countryside, but her favorite topic is the region of Brittany in western France. Galerie Framond, Paris, 1957, 1959, 1961 and 1966 Galerie Moyon-Avenart, Nantes, 1970 Galerie Makovski, Frankfurt, 1955 Galerie Burrell, New York City, 1963 Wally Findlay Gallery, New York City, 1966, 1968, 1975 and 1977 Wally Findlay Gallery, Beverly Hills, 1976 and 1978 Wally Findlay Gallery, Palm Beach, 1962 and 1978 Wally Findlay Gallery, Chicago, 1962, 1971,1974, 1976, 1977 and 1978 Wally Findlay Gallery, Paris, 1973 and 1975 Galerie Artenoo, Paris, 2006 and 2007 Salon d'Automne Salon des Indépendants Salon des artistes français Salon de la Jeune Peinture Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts Salon de la Marine Salon du dessin et de la peinture à l'eau Greenshields Prize Salon des Artistes Francais, honorary mention, 1949 Award of the City of Fontainebleau, 1967 The City of Paris has awarded Yolande Ardissone the Medaille d'Argent.

Lydia Harambourg, Dictionnaire des peintres, Ides et Calendes, L'École de Paris 1945-1965 Akoun, 2004 Ardissone, Terre des peintres Collection, 1988 Bénézit Dictionary of Painters, Gründ, 1999 Ardissone, Terre des Peintres Collection, 1988 Ardissone, Arts Graphiques d'Aquitaine publishing, 1979 L'Encyclopédie Poétique, Jean Grassin Publishing La Jeune Peinture, collection Terre des Peintres Ardissone, Arts-Documents, Genève, 1969 La famille autour du monde: Yolande Ardissone, Florence Arven, Jacques Eitel, Ariane Trip, by Ellen D. Strady, 50 pages, Terre des peintres Collection, 2000 Collector's Guild, New York Yolande Ardisson's page on Artnet Pictures of Yolande Ardissone's artworks, Artnet Yolande Ardissone Bio - Findlay Galleries Arcade database Yolande Ardissone works purchased by public collections in 1957