click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Anthozoa

Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals and soft corals. Adult anthozoans are all attached to the seabed, while their larvae can disperse as part of the plankton; the basic unit of the adult is the polyp. Sea anemones are solitary, but the majority of corals are colonial, being formed by the budding of new polyps from an original, founding individual. Colonies are strengthened by calcium carbonate and other materials and take various massive, plate-like, bushy or leafy forms. Anthozoa is included within the phylum Cnidaria, which includes the jellyfish, box jellies and parasitic Myxozoa and Polypodiozoa; the two main subclasses of Anthozoa are the Hexacorallia, members of which have six-fold symmetry and includes the stony corals, sea anemones, tube anemones and zoanthids. The smaller subclass, consists of the tube-dwelling anemones; some additional species are included as incertae sedis until their exact taxonomic position can be ascertained. Anthozoans are carnivores.

Many species supplement their energy needs by making use of photosynthetic single-celled algae that live within their tissues. These species live in shallow water and many are reef-builders. Other species lack the zooxanthellae and, having no need for well-lit areas live in deep-water locations. Unlike other members of this phylum, anthozoans do not have a medusa stage in their development. Instead, they release sperm and eggs into the water. After fertilisation, the planula larvae form part of the plankton; when developed, the larvae settle on the seabed and attach to the substrate, undergoing metamorphosis into polyps. Some anthozoans can reproduce asexually through budding or by breaking in pieces. More than 16,000 species have been described; the name "Anthozoa" comes from the Greek words άνθος and ζώα, hence ανθόζωα = "flower animals", a reference to the floral appearance of their perennial polyp stage. Anthozoans are marine, include sea anemones, stony corals, soft corals, sea pens, sea fans and sea pansies.

Anthozoa is the largest taxon of cnidarians. They range in size from small individuals less than half a centimetre across to large colonies a metre or more in diameter, they include species with a wide range of forms that build and enhance reef systems. Although reefs and shallow water environments exhibit a great array of species, there are in fact more species of coral living in deep water than in shallow, many taxa have shifted during their evolutionary history from shallow to deep water and vice versa. Anthozoa is subdivided into three subclasses: Octocorallia and Ceriantharia, which form monophyletic groups and show differentiating reflections on symmetry of polyp structure for each subclass; the relationships within the subclasses are unresolved. The "Ceriantipatharia" was thought to be a separate subclass but, of the two orders it comprised, Antipatharia is now considered part of Hexacorallia and Ceriantharia is now considered an independent subclass; the extant orders are shown to the right.

Hexacorallia includes coral reef builders: the stony corals, sea anemones, zoanthids. Genetic studies of ribosomal DNA has shown Ceriantharia to be a monophyletic group and the oldest, or basal, order among them. Classification according to the World Register of Marine Species: subclass Hexacorallia order Actiniaria — sea anemones order Antipatharia — black coral order Corallimorpharia — corallimorphs order Rugosa † order Scleractinia — stony corals order Zoantharia — zoanthids subclass Octocorallia order Alcyonacea — soft corals and gorgonians order Helioporacea — blue corals order Pennatulacea — pennatules, sea feathers, sea pens, sea pansies subclass Ceriantharia — ceriantharians, tube-dwelling anemones order Penicillaria order Spirularia Anthozoa incertae sedis genus Aiptasiodes order Auloporida † genus Sarcinula †Octocorallia comprises the sea pens, soft corals, blue coral. Sea whips and sea fans, known as gorgonians, are part of Alcyonacea and were divided into separate orders. Ceriantharia comprises the related tube-dwelling anemones.

Tube-dwelling anemones or cerianthids look similar to sea anemones, but belong to an different subclass of anthozoans. They are solitary. Tube anemones live and can withdraw into tubes, which are made of a fibrous material, made from secreted mucus and threads of nematocyst-like organelles, known as ptychocysts; the basic body form of an anthozoan is the polyp. This consists of a tubular column topped by the oral disc, with a central mouth. In solitary individuals, the base of the polyp is the foot or pedal disc, which adheres to the substrate, while in colonial polyps, the base links to other polyps in the colony; the mouth leads into a tubular pharynx which descends for some distance into the body before opening into the coelenteron, otherwise known as the gastrovascular cavity, that occupies the interior of the body. Internal tensions pull the mouth into a slit-shape, the ends of the slit lead into two grooves in the pharynx wall called siphonoglyphs; the coelenteron is subdivided by a number of vertical partitions, known as mesenteries or septa.

Some of these extend from the body wall

Oconto, Nebraska

Oconto is a village in Custer County, United States. The population was 151 at the 2010 census; the community was founded in 1887 as Olax, but the original name conflicted with another Nebraska location, so it was renamed to Oconto. The exact source of the name has been debated, some hold Oconto was the name of a pioneer settler, while others believe the town was named after Oconto, Wisconsin. Oconto was incorporated in 1906. On October 31, 2000, a tornado hit Oconto, it destroyed the community center and several downtown businesses, damaged 40 homes. A Halloween party was being held at the community center when advanced warning allowed them to seek shelter in the basement, all 19 children and 4 adults came out without a scratch. In 2003, a new community center was constructed using funds from federal, county, local sources. On August 21, 2017, Oconto was a viewing location under the path of a total solar eclipse. Hundreds of people gathered in Oconto to view the eclipse, including tourists from other states.

Oconto is located at 41°8′30″N 99°45′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.20 square miles, all of it land. Oconto is located at the junction of Nebraska state highways 21 and 40, it is south of the Pressey Wildlife Management area. As of the census of 2010, there were 151 people, 68 households, 40 families living in the village; the population density was 755.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 82 housing units at an average density of 410.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.0% White, 0.7% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population. There were 68 households of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.2% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the village was 44.3 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 141 people, 65 households, 39 families living in the village; the population density was 687.5 people per square mile. There were 79 housing units at an average density of 385.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.55% of the population. There were 65 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 4.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.80. In the village, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.0 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the village was $23,125, the median income for a family was $34,167. Males had a median income of $24,583 versus $16,875 for females; the per capita income for the village was $13,377. There were 16.7% of families and 17.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 21.1% of under eighteens and 12.0% of those over 64. Official website

William Thorsell

William Thorsell, is a Canadian journalist, former editor-in-chief of The Globe and Mail, past director and chief executive officer of the Royal Ontario Museum. After his tenure at the ROM he became a distinguished senior fellow at the Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. In 1966, he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University of Alberta and earned his Master of Arts degree from that institution in 1970, he received a Master of Public and International Affairs from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1972. In 1975, Thorsell joined the Edmonton Journal's editorial board for a year. After a brief term on The Globe and Mail's editorial board in Toronto, he returned to the Edmonton Journal in 1977 as an associate editor. In 1984, he rejoined The Globe and Mail writing for its Report on Business and returning to the paper's editorial board, he began a 10-year term as that paper's editor-in-chief from 1989 to 1999, after which he chaired the paper's editorial board for several months.

In 1995, the University of Alberta awarded him an honorary Doctor of Laws. While serving as editor of The Globe and Mail, Thorsell came out as gay in an interview with fab; as one of the most prominent gay Canadians, one who held a powerful position within the media, he has been credited as one of the key figures behind the evolving public image of LGBT people in the 1990s and 2000s. In August 2000, Thorsell was appointed to the top management position at the Royal Ontario Museum, he was awarded the Order of Ontario in 2007. In 2010, he was made a Knight of the Order of Letters. "William Thorsell biography at the Royal Ontario Museum". William Thorsell biography at The Globe and Mail

List of mayors of London, Ontario

This is list of mayors of London, Canada. London was incorporated as a town in 1848, became a city in 1855. Mayors were elected on January 1 for one-year terms; the 73rd and current mayor of the City is Ed Holder. Since 1957, each sitting mayor has been honoured and presented with the chain of office to wear during their term of office; the chain of office is to be worn by the mayor during council sessions and other official occasions, including opening and closing ceremonies such as London's hosting of national and international sports and athletic competitions. The chain contains medallions engraved with subjects of local significance; the chain is engraved with the names of the mayors who have worn it since it was commissioned. There are eleven names of previous mayors engraved on the chain. Simeon Morrill Thomas C. Dixon Simeon Morrill Edward Adams Marcus Holmes Murray Anderson William Barker Elijah Leonard, Jr. David Glass William McBride James Moffatt Francis Evans Cornish David Glass Frank Smith William Simpson Smith John Christie Simpson Hackett Graydon James Mitchell Cousins John Campbell Andrew McCormick Benjamin Cronyn, Jr. - fled Canada for Vermont due to fraud and died 1905.

Voters will mark their ballots in order of preference. An individual must reach 50 per cent of the total to be declared elected. Frederick H. Armstrong and John H. Lutman, The Forest City: An Illustrated History of London, Canada. Burlington, Ontario: Windsor Publications, 1986. Orlo Miller, London 200: An Illustrated History. London: London Chamber of Commerce, 1992. Office of the Mayor of London, Ontario

Timothy Dodd

Timothy Patrick Johnstone Dodd is a former English cricketer. Dodd was a right-handed batsman, he was born at London. Dodd made his debut for Berkshire in the 1987 Minor Counties Championship against Oxfordshire. From 1987 to 1992, he represented. In 1996, he made his final appearance for the county against Devon in the Minor Counties Championship, he represented Berkshire in 4 MCCA Knockout Trophy matches, the last of which came against Buckinghamshire in 1992. Dodd represented the county in 2 List-A matches, making his List-A debut against Yorkshire in the 1988 NatWest Trophy, he represented the county in a further List-A match against Sussex in the 1989 NatWest Trophy. In his 2 List-A matches, he scored 19 runs at a batting average of 19.00, with high score of 15. With the ball he took 2 wickets at a bowling average of 23.00, with best figures of 2/37. Timothy Dodd at Cricinfo Timothy Dodd at CricketArchive

1960 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The United States Senate election of 1960 in Massachusetts was held on November 8, 1960 with Republican Incumbent Leverett Saltonstall defeating his challengers. Edmund C. Buckley, Middlesex County Register of Deeds Foster Furcolo, Governor of Massachusetts Thomas J. O'Connor, Mayor of Springfield Edmund Dinis, District Attorney Governor Foster Furcolo, who lost to Saltonstall in 1954, decided to run against him again in 1960. On June 15, 1960, Springfield Mayor Thomas J. O'Connor announced he would challenge Furcolo for the Democratic nomination. O'Connor received support from Democrats who were opposed to Furcolo's effort to enact a state sales tax. Edmund Dinis, District Attorney for the southern district, was in the race, but dropped at the party convention to support O'Connor. In a show of unity, Furcolo was nominated at the convention by Massachusetts Senate President and political foe John E. Powers. Furcolo defeated O'Connor by a 3 to 1 margin at the Democratic State Convention, but O'Connor decided to remain in the race.

In the primary, O'Connor upset Furcolo 48% to 39% with Southern Middlesex County Register of Deeds Edmund C. Buckley received the remaining 13%. O'Connor was able to sweep the western part of top Furcolo by 10,000 in Boston. During the general election, O'Connor contrasted his youth to Saltonstall's age, calling him "yesterday's senator" and "The Late George Apley of Massachusetts politics". O'Connor attacked the senator for "fail to act for the working man" and for helping "big business brigands" destroy the state's textile industry. Saltonstall ran on his long record of public service, he criticized O'Connor for stating that he would consider continue serving as Springfield mayor if elected to the Senate, arguing that Americans need "not part-time leadership but full leadership". Saltonstall criticized O'Connor's campaign for lacking substance. After refusing to debate O'Connor, Saltonstall stated "If my opponent would express his opinions of some of the vital national and international issues, I would consider whether I would debate on these subjects or not".

Saltonstall defeated O'Connor 1,358,556 votes to 1,050,725 to hold on to his Senate seat