A historian is a person who researches and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race, if the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is an historian of prehistory. Although historian can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, some historians, are recognized by publications or training and experience. Historian became an occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany. Modern historical analysis usually draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology, while ancient writers do not normally share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. Understanding the past appears to be a human need. What constitutes history is a philosophical question, the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region, the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the father of history. Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men and he was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, while early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence.
Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, livy records the rise of Rome from city-state to empire. His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history, in Chinese historiography, the Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing and his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Christian historiography began early, perhaps as early as Luke-Acts, which is the source for the Apostolic Age. Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages and they wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammads life in the centuries following his death.
With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, to evaluate these sources, they developed various methodologies, such as the science of biography, science of hadith and Isnad
Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines. Colloquially, the artificial intelligence is applied when a machine mimics cognitive functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as learning. As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition, for instance, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an example of artificial intelligence, having become a routine technology. AI research is divided into subfields that focus on specific problems or on specific approaches or on the use of a tool or towards satisfying particular applications. The central problems of AI research include reasoning, planning, natural language processing, general intelligence is among the fields long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI, Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, methods based on probability and economics.
The AI field draws upon computer science, psychology, philosophy, the field was founded on the claim that human intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. Some people consider AI a danger to humanity if it progresses unabatedly, while thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, the idea of actually trying to build a machine to perform useful reasoning may have begun with Ramon Llull. With his Calculus ratiocinator, Gottfried Leibniz extended the concept of the calculating machine, since the 19th century, artificial beings are common in fiction, as in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein or Karel Čapeks R. U. R. The study of mechanical or formal reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity, in the 19th century, George Boole refined those ideas into propositional logic and Gottlob Frege developed a notational system for mechanical reasoning. Around the 1940s, Alan Turings theory of computation suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as 0 and 1 and this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis.
Along with concurrent discoveries in neurology, information theory and cybernetics, the first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts 1943 formal design for Turing-complete artificial neurons. The field of AI research was born at a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956, attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research. At the conference and Simon, together with programmer J. C, presented the first true artificial intelligence program, the Logic Theorist. This spurred tremendous research in the domain, computers were winning at checkers, solving problems in algebra, proving logical theorems. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U. S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AIs founders were optimistic about the future, Herbert Simon predicted, machines will be capable, within twenty years, Marvin Minsky agreed, within a generation.
The problem of creating artificial intelligence will substantially be solved and they failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the remaining tasks
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. The Internet is run on computers and it millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations, early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century, the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then, conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit, and some form of memory.
The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing, peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, and input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and this usage of the term referred to a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century, from the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations. The Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of computer in the 1640s, one who calculates, the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean calculating machine is from 1897. The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the use of the term. 1945 under this name, theoretical from 1937, as Turing machine, devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, mostly using one-to-one correspondence with fingers.
The earliest counting device was probably a form of tally stick, record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items, probably livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers. The use of counting rods is one example, the abacus was initially used for arithmetic tasks. The Roman abacus was developed from used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since then, many forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog computer, according to Derek J. de Solla Price. It was designed to calculate astronomical positions and it was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, and has been dated to circa 100 BC
Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston was an African-American novelist, short story writer and anthropologist. Of Hurstons four novels and more than 50 published short stories, Hurston was the fifth of eight children of John Hurston and Lucy Ann Hurston, two former slaves. Her father was a Baptist preacher, tenant farmer, and carpenter and she was born in Notasulga, Alabama, on January 7,1891, where her father grew up and her grandfather was the preacher of a Baptist church. When she was three, her moved to Eatonville, Florida, in 1887 it was one of the first all-black towns to be incorporated in the United States. Hurston said she felt that Eatonville was home to her as she grew up there. Her father was elected as mayor of the town in 1897 and in 1902 became preacher of its largest church, Hurston used Eatonville as a backdrop in her stories. It was a place where African Americans could live as they desired, in 1901, some northern schoolteachers visited Eatonville and gave Hurston a number of books that opened her mind to literature, she described it as a kind of birth.
Hurston spent the remainder of her childhood in Eatonville, and describes the experience of growing up there in her 1928 essay, How It Feels to Be Colored Me. Her father remarried to Matte Moge, this was considered a minor scandal, Hurstons father and stepmother sent her away to a Baptist boarding school in Jacksonville, Florida. They eventually stopped paying her tuition and the school expelled her and she worked as a maid to the lead singer in a traveling Gilbert & Sullivan theatrical company. In 1917, Hurston began attending Morgan College, the school division of Morgan State University. At this time, apparently to qualify for a free high-school education and she graduated from the high school of Morgan State University in 1918. In 1918, Hurston began her studies at Howard University, where she one of the earliest initiates of Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. and co-founded The Hilltop. While there, she took courses in Spanish, English and public speaking, in 1921, she wrote a short story, John Redding Goes to Sea, which qualified her to become a member of Alaine Lockes literary club, The Stylus.
Hurston left Howard in 1924 and in 1925 was offered a scholarship by Barnard trustee Annie Nathan Meyer to Barnard College, Columbia University, Hurston received her B. A. in anthropology in 1928, when she was 37. While she was at Barnard, she conducted research with noted anthropologist Franz Boas of Columbia University. She worked with Ruth Benedict as well as fellow anthropology student Margaret Mead, after graduating from Barnard, Hurston spent two years as a graduate student in anthropology at Columbia University. Living in Harlem in the 1920s, Hurston befriended the likes of Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen and her apartment, according to some accounts, was a popular spot for social gatherings
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor. The word video in video game referred to a raster display device. Some theorists categorize video games as an art form, but this designation is controversial, the electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms, examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices, the input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, and buttons, or even, with the Kinect sensor, a persons hands and body. Players typically view the game on a screen or television or computer monitor, or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are often game sound effects, music and, in the 2010s, some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets.
In the 2010s, the game industry is of increasing commercial importance, with growth driven particularly by the emerging Asian markets and mobile games. As of 2015, video games generated sales of USD74 billion annually worldwide, early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a Cathode ray tube Amusement Device was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S. Written by MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanens on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961, and the hit ping pong-style Pong, used the DEC PDP-1s vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold and it used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green, Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console.
Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the Brown Box and these were followed by two versions of Ataris Pong, an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first killer app, the term platform refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term system is commonly used
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life. Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in such as medicine, industry. While biologist can apply to any scientist studying biology, most biologists research, in this way, biologists investigate large-scale organism interactions, whole multicellular organisms, tissues and small-scale cellular and molecular processes. Other biologists study less direct aspects of life, such as phylogeny, Biologists conduct research based on the scientific method, to test the validity of a theory, with hypothesis formation and documentation of methods and data. There are many types of biologists, some work on microorganisms, while others study multicellular organisms. Many jobs in biology as a field require an academic degree, a doctorate or its equivalent is generally required to direct independent research, and involves a specialization in a specific area of biology.
Many biological scientists work in research and development, some conduct fundamental research to advance our knowledge of living organisms, including bacteria and other pathogens. This research enhances understanding and adds to the database of literature. Furthermore, it aids the development of solutions to problems in areas such as human health. These biological scientists work in government and private industry laboratories. Many expand on specialized research that started in post-graduate qualifications. Biological scientists who work in applied research or product development often use knowledge gained by research to further knowledge in particular fields or applications. For example, this research may be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs and medical diagnostic tests, increase crop yields. These scientists must consider the effects of their work. Some biologists conduct laboratory experiments involving animals, plants or microorganisms, some biological research occurs outside the laboratory and may involve natural observation rather than experimentation.
For example, a botanist may investigate the plant species present in a particular environment, swift advances in knowledge of genetics and organic molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnology, transforming the industries in which biological scientists work. Biological scientists can now manipulate the genetic material of animals and plants and applied research on biotechnological processes, such as recombining DNA, has led to the production of important substances, including human insulin and growth hormone
Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on the interaction of events, facts and people that are the news of the day and that informs society to at least some degree. The word applies to the occupation, the methods of gathering information, journalistic media include, television, Internet, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the role for journalism varies between countries. In some nations, the media is controlled by a government intervention. In others, the media is independent from the government. In the United States, journalism is protected by the freedom of the clause in the First Amendment. The role and status of journalism, along with that of the media, has undergone changes over the last two decades with the advent of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet. Notably, in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced their staff and coverage as traditional media channels, such as television, for instance, between 2007 and 2012, CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of their original time length.
This compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience attrition, in the United States, journalism is produced by media organizations or by individuals. Bloggers are often, but not always, the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who receive free promotional gifts, write about products, must disclose that they received the products for free. This is to eliminate conflicts of interest and protect consumers, fake news is news that is not truthful or is produced by unreliable media organizations. Fake news is spread on social media. Readers can determine fake news by evaluating whether the news has been published by a news organization. In the US, a news organization is an incorporated entity, has an editorial board. All of these organizations have codes of ethics that members abide by, many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists professional publications. The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered particularly rigorous, when they write stories, journalists are concerned with issues of objectivity and bias.
Some types of stories are intended to represent the authors own opinion, in a physical newspaper, information is organized into sections and it is easy to see which stories are supposed to be opinion and which are supposed to be neutral. Online, many of these distinctions break down, readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalists intent
It is a subfield of anthropology that provides a biological perspective to the systematic study of human beings. As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is divided into several branches. All branches are united in their application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology. Primatology, the study of primate behavior, morphology. Reasons via homology and analogy to infer how and why similar human traits evolved, human behavioral ecology, the study of behavioral adaptations from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives. Human adaptation, the study of human responses to environmental stresses. Bioarchaeology, the study of past human cultures through examination of human remains recovered in an archaeological context, the examined human remains usually comprises bones, but may include preserved soft tissue. Researchers in bioarchaeology combine the skillsets of human osteology and archaeology, paleopathology is the study of disease in antiquity. Scientific physical anthropology began in the 18th century with the study of racial classification, the first prominent physical anthropologist, the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach of Göttingen, amassed a large collection of human skulls.
In 1897 Columbia University appointed Franz Boas as a physical anthropologist for his expertise in measuring schoolchildren, from his German education and training, Boas emphasized the mutability of the human form and minimized race in favor of culture. Ales Hrdlicka, a physician, studied anthropology in France under Leonce Manouvrier before working at the Smithsonian Institution from 1902. Earnest Hooton, a Classics PhD from the University of Wisconsin, entered anthropology as an Oxford Rhodes Scholar under R. R. Marett, there was much intellectual continuity with Germans such as Eugen Fischer, Fritz Lenz and Erwin Baur. In 1951 Sherwood Washburn, a Hooton alumnus, introduced a new physical anthropology and he changed the focus from racial typology to concentrate upon the study of human evolution, moving away from classification towards evolutionary process. Anthropology expanded to comprehend paleoanthropology and primatology, in contrast to much of medical anthropology, it does not generally take a critical approach to biomedicine and Western medicine.
Instead, it seeks to improve medical practice and biomedical science through the integration of cross-cultural or biocultural, behavioral. As an academic discipline, biomedical anthropology is closely related to human biology, the only accredited degree program in biomedical anthropology is at Binghamton University. Other anthropology departments, such as that of the University of Washington, the measurement of the human individual Craniometry Ethology Evolutionary biology Evolutionary psychology Paleontology Physiognomy Primatology Sociobiology Michael A
Forensic pathology is pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. A post mortem is performed by an examiner, usually during the investigation of criminal law cases. Coroners and medical examiners are asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Forensic pathology is an application of medical jurisprudence, the forensic pathologist, Is a medical doctor who has completed training in anatomical pathology and who has subsequently specialized in forensic pathology. The requirements for becoming a qualified forensic pathologist vary from country to country. Some of the different requirements are discussed below, performs autopsies/postmortem examinations to determine the cause of death. Examines and documents wounds and injuries, both at autopsy and occasionally in a clinical setting and interprets toxicological analyses on body tissues and fluids to determine the chemical cause of accidental overdoses or deliberate poisonings. Serves as a witness in courts of law testifying in civil or criminal law cases.
In an autopsy, he/she is often assisted by an autopsy/mortuary technician, many forensic physicians in the UK practise clinical forensic medicine part-time, whilst they practice family medicine, or another medical specialty. In the United Kingdom, Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists is not a prerequisite of appointment as a Coroners Medical Expert, deaths where there is a known cause and those considered unnatural are investigated. In most jurisdictions this is done by a forensic pathologist, medical examiner, in some jurisdictions, the title of Medical Examiner is used by a non-physician, elected official involved in medicolegal death investigation. In others, the law requires the examiner to be a physician, pathologist. Similarly, the coroner is applied to both physicians and non-physicians. Historically, coroners were not all physicians, however, in some jurisdictions the title of Coroner is exclusively used by physicians. In Canada, there is a mix of coroner and medical examiner systems, in Ontario, coroners are licensed physicians, usually but not exclusively family physicians.
In Quebec, there is a mix of medical and non-medical coroners, whereas in British Columbia, the vast majority of coroners lack a Doctor of Medicine degree and the amount of medical training that they have received is highly variable, depending on their profession. In contrast, an examiner is typically a physician who holds the degree of Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine. Ideally, a medical examiner has completed both a residency and a fellowship in forensic pathology
Modern humans are the only extant members of Hominina tribe, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia and they began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. In several waves of migration, anatomically modern humans ventured out of Africa, the spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. Humans are uniquely adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression and the exchange of ideas. Humans create complex structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families. Social interactions between humans have established a wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals. These human societies subsequently expanded in size, establishing various forms of government, today the global human population is estimated by the United Nations to be near 7.5 billion.
In common usage, the word generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of hominid and hominin have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery, there is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. The English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the words use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species generally, the species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō man, the species-name sapiens means wise or sapient. Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates.
The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees and gorillas, with the sequencing of both the human and chimpanzee genome, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. The gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the leading to the humans. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch, during this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes. There is little evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee. Each of these species has been argued to be an ancestor of hominins