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Anti-lock braking system

An anti-lock braking system is a safety anti-skid braking system used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles and buses. ABS operates by preventing the wheels from locking up during braking, thereby maintaining tractive contact with the road surface. ABS is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking, techniques which were once practiced by skillful drivers before ABS was widespread. ABS operates at a much faster rate and more than most drivers could manage. Although ABS offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and some slippery surfaces, on loose gravel or snow-covered surfaces ABS may increase braking distance, while still improving steering control. Since ABS was introduced in production vehicles, such systems have become sophisticated and effective. Modern versions may not only prevent wheel lock under braking, but may alter the front-to-rear brake bias; this latter function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known variously as electronic brakeforce distribution, traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control.

The concept for ABS predates the modern systems. In 1908, for example, J. E. Francis introduced his'Slip Prevention Regulator for Rail Vehicles'. In 1920 the French automobile and aircraft pioneer Gabriel Voisin experimented with systems that modulated the hydraulic braking pressure on his aircraft brakes to reduce the risk of tyre slippage; these systems used a valve attached to a hydraulic line that feeds the brake cylinders. The flywheel is attached to a drum. In normal braking, the drum and flywheel should spin at the same speed. However, when a wheel slows down the drum would do the same, leaving the flywheel spinning at a faster rate; this causes the valve to open, allowing a small amount of brake fluid to bypass the master cylinder into a local reservoir, lowering the pressure on the cylinder and releasing the brakes. The use of the drum and flywheel meant. In testing, a 30% improvement in braking performance was noted, because the pilots applied full brakes instead of increasing pressure in order to find the skid point.

An additional benefit was the elimination of burst tires. The first proper recognition of the ABS system came with the German engineer Karl Waessel, whose system for modulating braking power was patented in 1928. Wessel, never developed a working product and neither did Robert Bosch who produced a similar patent eight years later. By the early 1950s, the Dunlop Maxaret anti-skid system was in widespread aviation use in the UK, with aircraft such as the Avro Vulcan and Handley Page Victor, Vickers Viscount, Vickers Valiant, English Electric Lightning, de Havilland Comet 2c, de Havilland Sea Vixen, aircraft, such as the Vickers VC10, Hawker Siddeley Trident, Hawker Siddeley 125, Hawker Siddeley HS 748 and derived British Aerospace ATP, BAC One-Eleven, the Dutch Fokker F27 Friendship, being fitted with Maxaret as standard. Maxaret, while reducing braking distances by up to 30% in icy or wet conditions increased tire life, had the additional advantage of allowing take-offs and landings in conditions that would preclude flying at all in non-Maxaret equipped aircraft.

In 1958, a Royal Enfield Super Meteor motorcycle was used by the Road Research Laboratory to test the Maxaret anti-lock brake. The experiments demonstrated that anti-lock brakes can be of great value to motorcycles, for which skidding is involved in a high proportion of accidents. Stopping distances were reduced in most of the tests compared with locked wheel braking on slippery surfaces, in which the improvement could be as much as 30 percent. Enfield's technical director at the time, Tony Wilson-Jones, saw little future in the system, it was not put into production by the company. A mechanical system saw limited automobile use in the 1960s in the Ferguson P99 racing car, the Jensen FF, the experimental all wheel drive Ford Zodiac, but saw no further use; the first electronic anti lock system was developed in the late 1960s for the Concorde aircraft. Chrysler, together with the Bendix Corporation, introduced a computerized, three-channel, four-sensor all-wheel ABS called "Sure Brake" for its 1971 Imperial.

It was available for several years thereafter, functioned as intended, proved reliable. In 1970, Ford added an anti-lock braking system called "Sure-track" to the rear wheels of Lincoln Continentals as an option. In 1971, General Motors introduced the "Trackmaster" rear-wheel only ABS as an option on their rear-wheel drive Cadillac models and the Oldsmobile Toronado. In the same year, Nissan offered an EAL developed by Japanese company Denso as an option on the Nissan President, which became Japan's first electronic ABS.1971: Electronically controlled anti-skid brakes on Toyota Crown In 1972, four wheel drive Triumph 2500 Estates were fitted with Mullard electronic systems as standard. Such cars were rare however and few survive today. 1971: First truck application: "Antislittamento" system developed by Fiat Veicoli Industriali and installed on Fiat truck model 691N1.1976: WABCO began the development of anti-locking braking system on commercial vehicles to prevent locking on slippery roads, followed in 1986 by the electronic braking system (EBS


Rosapoo is a 2018 Malayalam language film produced by Shibu Thameens. The film stars Biju Menon and Neeraj Madhav in the lead roles along with Soubin Shahir, Alencier Ley Lopez and Vijayaraghavan; the film is directed by Vinu Joseph. The films music is composed by Sushin Shyam; the film was based on a story written by Vinu Joseph. The film portrays the porn movie market; the story is centred around a small village in Kochi. Shajahan is a businessman, suffering a loss in his brick and mortar business and tries his hand into many small businesses with his friend Ambrose to earn some money; the idea of businesses from agarbatheese to egg and them to porn movie is the idea of their friend Bhanu. Shahjahan had been taking money for all the businesses from money lender Velayudhan for their business ventures. In order to solve thee previous dues he takes further a lot of money from his in the name of a porn movie, they find a writer with the help of Sajeer. The movie actress falls in love with Ambrose in between the shoot.

Shajahan and Ambrose gets cheated by Sajeer as he conspires with the theatre owners to get the whole profit. Shajahan and Ambrose comes to know about cheating. Neeraj Madhav as Ambrose Biju Menon as Shajahan Anjali as Reshmi Alencier Ley Lopez as Venugopal Menon Sudheer Karamana as Kareem Basil Joseph as Bhanu Soubin Shahir as Sajeer Salim Kumar as V. T. Shankar Anagha LK as Actress Sunny Leone as Herself Shilpa Manjunath as Sandra Madan Mohan as Roshan R. J. Murugan as Kunjumon Dinesh Nair as Varkey Suresh Nair as Velu Nirmal Palazhi as A. N. Narayana Potti aka Pavizham Narayanan Dileesh Pothan as Kuttan Bobby Simha as Actor Vijayaraghavan as Velayudhan The films music is composed by Sushin Shyam along with Jassiie Gift and SushinShyam. "Mutta Paatu" - Sushin Shyam, Anthony Daasan, Jassie Gift "Kochiloru Kappaladuthe" - Sushin Shyam, Munna "Padinjattodiyal Kadalu" - Sushin Shyam, Maqbool Mansoor "Munniloru Swargam" - Suchith Suresan, Sushin Shyam "Rosapoo Malatharam"- Jassie Gift, Sushin Shyam, Anthony Daasan


Andriantsitakatrandriana was the king of Imerina from 1630 to 1650, acceding to the throne upon the death of his father, Andrianjaka. He took two wives: the first, Ravololontsimitovy, gave birth to his first son and successor Andriantsimitoviaminandriandehibe, while his second wife, gave birth to a son named Andriamanjakatokana. During his reign, he chased his second wife and son from his territory, constructed dikes to transform the Betsimitatatra swamps around Antananarivo into vast rice paddies to feed the local population; the chief accomplishment of Andriantsitakatrandriana's reign was the initial transformation of the vast Betsimitatatra swamps surrounding the hill of Analamanga into fertile rice paddies through the construction of dikes. Until his time, only zozoro and clusters of trees grew in the marshy lands around the capital city of Antananarivo, which his father had at last wrested from its Vazimba occupants several decades before. After clear-cutting the marshes, Andriantsitakatrandriana ordered the construction of a dike at the southern end of the swamp near Andriantany.

The marshes to the west of Antananarivo were the first to be planted as rice paddies. Successive sovereigns would continue this work and progressively transform the entire Betsimitatatra into a continuous patchwork of rice paddies. Oral history relates that Andriantsitakatrandriana devised a ruse to chase his second wife and her son from his territory, although a justification for this uncharitable act is not explicitly stated. According to legend, Andriantsitakatrandriana made an unusual request of his second wife, Rafoloarivo: he asked her to travel to the village of Ambohitrakely to give hasina to her son —an act that a woman was viewed as unfit to enact for the benefit of a royal male; the queen expressed reluctance to transgress this taboo, but her husband assured her that her concerns should be mitigated by his magnanimous intent to transmit hasina to his first son. He declared that he would reward the queen for her obedience by changing the name of his newly constructed rice paddies from his own name to that of her son.

Rafoloarivo complied and departed for Ambohitrakely where she organized a celebration that attracted all the inhabitants of the village of Mahatsinjo. While Mahatsinjo was empty and unguarded, Andriantsitakatrandriana stealthily set fire to the buildings; the distraught populace noticed the blaze and cried out, "Queen, look at this terrible misfortune that has befallen us!" Rafoloarivo and her son escaped the angry crowd and first fled north to Ilafy west and south to Mahatsinjo and Ankosy, all without finding a single person willing to open their doors to the pair. Early in the morning they reached Ambohitrinimanjaka where, at last, the people offered them shelter, her son, sighting a rocky outcropping in the distance that the locals called Anosivato, declared an interest in continuing to the more distant location, but the queen preferred to remain at Amohitrinimanjaka where Andriamanjakatokana is buried. Locals would traditionally visit the tomb to pray to his spirit; the tomb of Andriamanjakatokana's son named Andriamanjakatokana, can be visited at Anosivato.

Andriantsitakatrandriana died around 1650 and was buried in the Fitomiandalana tombs at the Rova of Antananarivo. He was succeeded by Andriantsimitoviaminandriandehibe. Callet, François. Tantara ny andriana eto Madagasikara. Antananarivo: Imprimerie catholique


Eocasea is an extinct genus of caseid synapsids from the Late Pennsylvanian of Kansas. It is known from Eocasea martini. Eocasea is the oldest and most basal member of Caseidae, lacking many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize members of the group. Caseids are notable for being one of the first groups of tetrapods to evolve herbivory. Eocasea differs from these taxa in having a narrow rib cage, simple cone-shaped teeth, a much smaller body size. All of these are plesiomorphic features for synapsids, meaning that Eocasea inherited a carnivorous lifestyle from small-bodied carnivorous ancestors of synapsids; as the earliest known caseid, Eocasea represents one of the first transitions from carnivory to herbivory in tetrapods


Mitragyna is a genus of trees in the family Rubiaceae found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa. Members of this genus contain antimalarial and analgesic indole alkaloids; the Rubiacae are the fifth-largest family of flowering plants by number of genera, the fourth- or fifth-largest by number of species. The Plant List includes these accepted species: Mitragyna diversifolia Havil. Mitragyna hirsuta Havil. Mitragyna inermis Kuntze Mitragyna parvifolia Korth. Mitragyna rotundifolia Kuntze Mitragyna speciosa Havil. Mitragyna tubulosa Kuntze Mitragyna ciliata and Mitragyna ledermannii are synonyms of Fleroya ledermannii Y. F. Deng, Mitragyna stipulosa is a synonym of Fleroya stipulosa Y. F. Deng. Media related to Mitragyna at Wikimedia Commons

Harry Atmore

Harry Atmore was a New Zealand Independent Member of Parliament for Nelson in the South Island. Harry Atmore held the Nelson seat as an Independent for a total of thirty years from 1911 to 1914 and from 1919 to his death in 1946, he was Minister of Education and Minister in charge of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in Sir Joseph Ward's United Government of 1928 to 1931, the acting Prime Minister of New Zealand for five months between 25 August 1930 and 21 January 1931. Born in Nelson, in 1870, Atmore attended the publicly funded School in Bridge Street and represented the province in rugby, he moved to Wellington and spent eight years there as an apprentice signwriter and decorator. After his apprenticeship, Atmore returned to Nelson and established his own signwriting and decorating business. Atmore was prominent in local affairs, he was a member of Education Board and Hospital Board. In 1905, he was elected to the Nelson City Council, he served on the Nelson College Council of Governors and Cawthron Institute Trust Board.

Atmore unsuccessfully contested the Nelson seat in 1902, 1905 and 1908 against the Liberal John Graham. In 1911 he became Nelson's Member of Parliament. Atmore gave his support in Joseph Ward's Liberal government by voting for it on a no-confidence motion, saved by just one vote. Whilst remaining an independent, he supported the Liberals from on. Regardless, Atmore's political independence was always discernible, he believed that politicians should be, representatives of the people. That when elected they should put principle before party. Atmore lost his seat in the 1914 election, but returned to parliament in 1919 after unsuccessfully contesting the Wellington Central 1918 by-election, won by Peter Fraser, the Labour Party candidate. Atmore was opposed to the rising Labour Party and was doubtful of its socialist agenda, he was an admirer of Benito Mussolini due to his opposition to socialist radicals in Italy. As a result, Labour put considerable effort in to defeat him in 1925. Atmore's animosity towards Labour lessened and Labour did not stand a candidate against him after that.

Following the 1928 election he supported Ward's new United Party form a majority and was rewarded with a position in cabinet, as Minister of Education. As a self-educated man, he had passionate concern for education and took to his new responsibilities with vigor. Atmore's first goal as education minister was to ensure every child in New Zealand could have the opportunity to gain a proper education to realise their own potential, he formed a committee to examine the existing public education system. The outcome was the "Atmore Report" which recommended several radical reforms including raising the age to leave school to 15, establishing intermediate schools, abolishing scholarship entry to secondary school, widening the secondary school curriculum to cover non University approved subjects. Atmore resigned as education minister in 1931 when cuts were proposed for his portfolio due to the worsening depression and formation of the coalition government which he was opposed to. However, many of his ideas were implemented under the First Labour Government where Peter Fraser was minister of education.

Fraser's Education Amendment Act 1938 was to implement most of Atmore's recommendations. Atmore thought widely, he was one New Zealander, looking for solutions to problems within the altered economic and political context of inter-war New Zealand. He believed it was important to be informed on the issues of the day including monetary reform, international rearmament and the pivotal role of the USSR in any crisis. Curiously, he was a social credit monetary reform sponsor and campaigned for it vigorously, blaming many of New Zealand's debt problems in the early 1930s on obligations to pay interest on its debts in London. On 8 August 1946 Atmore announced his intention not to stand again at the next election. However, only two weeks on 20 August, he was found dead at his home, he was buried at Wakapuaka Cemetery. Atmore was a well known man in Nelson, refusing to drive a car, instead preferring to ride a bicycle everywhere locally which made him a visible addition to the community, he answered all messages and requests in his own handwriting as an indication of his dedication to his work.

Atmore married Dorothy Annie Corrigan on 24 June 1936, at Hawera. There were no children from the marriage. Dorothy was both well-educated; the two built a new home made it a local centre of hospitality. Throughout World War II the two were both involved in patriotic work, to earn Dorothy an MBE. Dorothy lived a further thirty years as a widow, dying in 1976. Atmore's grip on the Nelson seat was due to his commitment and availability to his constituents, he organised a call to repair a country school, the completion of the Nelson railway, an exemption for an only son of an elderly farming couple from military service and helped issue jobs in the public service to the unemployed. For an entire generation Atmore worked for all Nelson residents with such a commitment that his constituents regarded him to be a personal friend. In 1935, he was awarded the King George V Silver Jubilee Medal. Robert Chapman comments on Harry Atmore: Nelson shares with Hobson a record of preferring political idiosyncrancy.

Nine times out of ten between 1911 and 1946 Nelson voted for Harry Atmore, who confounded cynics by moving to the Left politically as he got older. Having begun as an Independent Liberal, he thereafter passed through m