Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is more damaging than helpful to patients. It considers psychiatry a coercive instrument of oppression due to an unequal power relationship between doctor and patient and a subjective diagnostic process, it has been active in various forms for two centuries. Anti-psychiatry originates in an objection. Examples of dangerous treatments include electroconvulsive therapy, insulin shock therapy, brain lobotomy. A more recent concern is the significant increase in prescribing psychiatric drugs for children in the beginning of the 21st century. There were concerns about mental health institutions. All modern societies permit involuntary treatment or involuntary commitment of mental patients. In the 1960s, there were many challenges to psychoanalysis and mainstream psychiatry, where the basis of psychiatric practice was characterized as repressive and controlling. Psychiatrists involved in this challenge included Thomas Szasz, Giorgio Antonucci, R. D. Laing, Franco Basaglia, Theodore Lidz, Silvano Arieti, David Cooper.
Others involved were L. Ron Hubbard, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Erving Goffman. Cooper coined the term "anti-psychiatry" in 1967, wrote the book Psychiatry and Anti-psychiatry in 1971. Thomas Szasz introduced the definition of mental illness as a myth in the book The Myth of Mental Illness, Giorgio Antonucci introduced the definition of psychiatry as a prejudice in the book I pregiudizi e la conoscenza critica alla psichiatria. Contemporary issues of anti-psychiatry include freedom versus coercion and social justice, iatrogenic effects of antipsychotic medications, personal liberty, social stigma, the right to be different; the first widespread challenge to the prevailing medical approach in Western countries occurred in the late 18th century. Part of the progressive Age of Enlightenment, a "moral treatment" movement challenged the harsh, pessimistic and restraint-based approaches that prevailed in the system of hospitals and "madhouses" for people considered mentally disturbed, who were seen as wild animals without reason.
Alternatives were developed, led in different regions by ex-patient staff, physicians themselves in some cases, religious and lay philanthropists. The moral treatment was seen as pioneering more humane psychological and social approaches, whether or not in medical settings, and as it became the establishment approach in the 19th century, opposition to its negative aspects grew. According to Michel Foucault, there was a shift in the perception of madness, whereby it came to be seen as less about delusion, i.e. disturbed judgment about the truth, than about a disorder of regular, normal behaviour or will. Foucault argued that, prior to this, doctors could prescribe travel, walking and engaging with nature, seen as the visible form of truth, as a means to break with artificialities of the world. Another form of treatment involved nature's opposite, the theatre, where the patient's madness was acted out for him or her in such a way that the delusion would reveal itself to the patient. According to Foucault, the most prominent therapeutic technique instead became to confront patients with a healthy sound will and orthodox passions, ideally embodied by the physician.
The cure involved a process of opposition, of struggle and domination, of the patient's troubled will by the healthy will of the physician. It was thought the confrontation would lead not only to bring the illness into broad daylight by its resistance, but to the victory of the sound will and the renunciation of the disturbed will. We must apply a perturbing method, to break the spasm by means of the spasm.... We must subjugate the whole character of some patients, subdue their transports, break their pride, while we must stimulate and encourage the others. Foucault argued that the increasing internment of the "mentally ill" had become necessary not just for diagnosis and classification but because an enclosed place became a requirement for a treatment, now understood as the contest of wills, a question of submission and victory; the techniques and procedures of the asylums at this time included "isolation, private or public interrogations, punishment techniques such as cold showers, moral talks, strict discipline, compulsory work, preferential relations between the physician and his patients, relations of vassalage, of possession, of domesticity of servitude between patient and physician at times".
Foucault summarised these as "designed to make the medical personage the'master of madness'" through the power the physician's will exerts on the patient. The effect of this shift served to inflate the power of the physician relative to the patient, correlated with the rapid rise of internment. Other analyses suggest that the rise of asylums was driven by industrialization and capitalism, including the breakdown of the traditional family structures, and that by the end of the 19th century, psychiatrists had little power in the overrun asylum system, acting as administrators who attended to patients, in a system where therapeutic ideals had turned into mindless institutional routines. In general, critics point to negative aspects of the shift toward so-called "moral treatments", the concurrent widespread expansion of
Grasscycling is a method of handling grass clippings by leaving them to decompose on the lawn when mowing. The term combines "grass" and "recycling", had come into use by at least 1990 as part of the push to reduce the huge quantities of clippings going into landfills, up to half of some cities' summertime waste flow, as 1,000 square feet of lawn can produce 200 to 500 pounds of clippings a year; because grass consists of water, contains little lignin, has high nitrogen content, grass clippings break down during an aerobic process and returns the decomposed clippings to the soil within one to two weeks, acting as a fertilizer supplement and, to a much smaller degree, a mulch. Grasscycling can provide 15 to 20% or more of a lawn's yearly nitrogen requirements. Proponents note that grasscycling reduces the use of plastic bags for collecting yard waste and reduces trips to the curb or landfill to haul waste. Optimal grasscycle techniques include: Cutting no more than 1/3 the length of the grass, this means when lawns are growing fast, mowing about twice a week.
Cutting when the grass is dry to the touch Cutting when the height is between 3 and 4 inches, once per week. Ensuring that the mower blade is sharpAlthough a mulching mower can make grass clippings smaller, one is not necessary for grasscycling. Compost Recycling List of organic gardening and farming topics What is grasscycling
A reply girl was a type of female YouTube user who uploaded video responses to popular YouTube videos, at a time when such responses were displayed prominently by the site. In 2012, YouTube gave significant weight to video responses when suggesting further viewing for any given video, putting them "almost automatically" at the top of the list. Users known as "reply girls" realised that by responding to popular videos, such as those featured on the YouTube home page, their own content could receive a significant audience. By selecting a suggestive thumbnail for the response filmed in a push-up bra or low-cut top, posters could encourage viewers to click the image and view the video. Although many users would click the "dislike" link on the videos, this was taken by YouTube's algorithm as legitimate engagement, the videos would be ranked more highly; the exploitation of YouTube's algorithm through the use of "sexually suggestive thumbnails" would allow for the monetization of the reply girl's content.
The YouTube algorithm would be utilized by companies to detect which influencer would attract a larger audience. A large audience would allow companies to expose their products in a new medium and differing target audiences can be formed. For example, beauty gurus attract young men and women who are interested in expanding their knowledge of makeup, companies such as Sephora or Ulta are willing to hire the influencer for brand deals. If companies noticed the popularity of the reply girls their monetary value would increase due to external revenue from brand deals or partnerships. Prior to YouTube and social media, companies were promoting their products through the television, radio, or newspaper. With YouTube rewarding users for large numbers of video views, reply girls were able to earn significant income by exploiting this aspect of the website. Megan Lee Heart, whose YouTube channel reached 38,000 subscribers and had over 47 million views at the time, made tens of thousands of dollars, claiming to have made $80,000 on her channel page description.
Alejandra Gaitan was thought to be earning around a hundred dollars for each of the "short, rambling pointless" videos that she posted, with some of the more popular ones raising close to $1000. Gaitan's username for her channel was thereplygirl and her videos were titled as "Re: Insert Trending Video Name Here" which would result in her video having priority because the previous YouTube algorithm would suggest videos that were correlated or similar to the previous video watched by the viewer. Considering the fact that Gaitan was able to manipulate the YouTube algorithm, YouTube users began to revolt and created anti-reply girl videos in protest of the low quality but high quantity of videos posted by reply girls. Male YouTube users would make a mockery of the reply girls by exposing their chest as well and expressing their distaste towards the content being produced; the revolt was addressing the "spamming" of the platform along with the fact that videos of content creators who were creating original content were being neglected by the YouTube algorithm.
The platform would be spammed because followers of Gaitan began to acknowledge the profits that she would receive and wanted to jump on the bandwagon. Being a reply girl became known as an easier way to become an influencer on YouTube. In March 2012, YouTube updated its algorithm to give less weight to suggested videos which were only watched by users, announcing that the site would be "focusing more prominently on time watched". Gaitan expressed concern that this would "kill every reply channel", despite that being the stated intention of the action. YouTube wanted to base the value off of view count because they believed it would "reward great videos" and although this was true to some extent, it excluded a variety of factors. For example, clickbait became prominent amongst content creators who were aspiring to increase the monetary value of their video. Clickbait is the process of posting titles that have little correlation to the video they have produced. Although the video will most be clicked on, viewers have a tendency to leave at an earlier time due to the lack of correlation between the video and title or the fact that the video will address the title of the video after an excess amount of time.
Reply girls would misuse the algorithm that focused on view count by attracting viewers through provocative thumbnails, misleading the actual concept of the video. YouTube's "algorithm is the single most important engine of growth," and utilizes a formula that incorporates neural networks, vast pools of videos, the viewers. Shifting the algorithm to update the value of each video will provide better content for the viewers, increasing the screen time of the viewers as well. Considering this fact, the algorithm is not only responsible for which content is made visible to the viewer, but it is responsible for what content is produced by the creators. One of the engineers at YouTube portrayed the algorithm as the "largest scale and most sophisticated industrial recommendation systems in existence." YouTube has over 1.5 billion users encompassing the globe which has surpassed "the number of households that own televisions." The overwhelming growth of YouTube has altered the progression of cable television because younger generations have transitioned towards a different medium.
The alteration of YouTube's algorithm is important as it determines their progression as a company in a society evolving and producing new technology as time passes. Reply girls have disappeared from YouTube but have been replaced by reaction videos prominent within the channel known as FBE; the reaction videos refrain from the use of sexual images as thumbnails and pri
Dolichoderus mariae is a species of ant in the subfamily Dolichoderinae and is found in North America. This ant is distinctively coloured with the head, thorax and petiole and the anterior part of the first abdominal segment reddish or ochre-brown; the remainder of the abdomen is deep brown. The integument is smooth and reflective, though fine sculpturing granules can be seen under magnification; the propodeum is longer. Posteriorly, the propodeum is concave with some fine vertical striations; the head and body are hairless. This ant has a wide range which includes Illinois and Oklahoma, North and South Carolina, Mississippi and northern Florida; the type locality is New Jersey. It is common in some areas such as North and South Carolina, but rare in others and in the southern part of its range it can be confused with the similar species, Dolichoderus pustulatus; this ant is found in prairies and fens. It nests underground among plant roots. A study of this species was undertaken in northern Florida.
It was found that the worker ants remove soil from under clumps of wiregrass, other grasses or other fibrous rooted plants such as blackberry or cattails. The nest is a single, large conical chamber, open to the air round the base of the plant. Colonies make a number of these nests which are linked by trails across the ground along which ants move from one to another. There are many queens per nest. Over the winter there are just one or two nests in a colony but as summer advances and more chambers are excavated and there may be as many as sixty nests by late summer. After this the number starts to contract again; the colonies occupy the same area each summer and territorial aggression has been noted between adjoining colonies. Within their territory, the ants tend and milk aphids and scale insects for their honeydew and scavenge for dead insects; the size of the colony and the number of nests seemed to depend on the number of hemipterans in the territorial area. When these are abundant during the winter, the colony does not contract to such a great extent as when the season is harsh.
Observations inside nests showed that the workers, queen and brood took up stations on the fibrous roots which formed a sort of scaffolding in their nests. The size of the nest varied with the size of the root system of the plant above. During the summer, above some of the nests, workers chewed bits of plant material to produce a papery felt or thatch. However, it was not clear why this was done for not others. During the winter, the average nest housed about 12 to 59 queens. In the summer, the number of workers ranged from 13,000 to 19,000 while there were about 180 queens per nest. Alates first appeared in April but the majority were found in July. Nuptial flights took place early in the morning after heavy rains with thousands of male alates taking to the wing in search of other nests or colonies; the female alates remained at their nests of origin where they mated and joined the other queens present. During the winter, the abandoned nests provide shelter for vertebrates and invertebrates such as snakes and ground dwelling spiders.
Media related to Dolichoderus mariae at Wikimedia Commons
Cindy Lerae Cruse-Ratcliff is a singer-songwriter who serves as the senior worship leader at the Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas. Cruse was born, Cindy Lerae Cruse, on May 18, 1963, in Odessa, the daughter of Joseph "Joe" Cruse Jr. and Nancy Wydette Cruse, while she grew up in Tyler, with her two older brothers, Joseph "Joe" Cruse III and John Daniel Cruse, two older sisters, Karen Wydette Cruse and Elizabeth Jane "Janie" Cruse. Her first marriage was to Timothy G. Miner, where they got married on November 30, 1985 in Tyler, while they would divorce. Cruse began ministering at the age of six alongside her family, The Cruse Family, a well-known evangelistic musical group; the group, popular throughout much of the 1970s and early 1980s, traveled and ministered all across the world. They received two Dove Awards. While Cruse said she always had a heart for music ministry, she would not become involved with worship music herself until in life. At the age of nine, she became the youngest licensed ASCAP songwriter.
Since that time, she produced more than 100 album recordings. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Cruse recorded two Christian album-oriented rock/melodic rock albums entitled The Edge and Small Town Girl, her husband at the time, contemporary Christian Music artist, Tim Miner served as executive producer for Small Town Girl. From 1997 to 1998, she traveled with Revival Ministries International leading worship for evangelistic crusades in the United States and abroad. In late 1998, she moved to Covenant Church in Carrollton, serving as one of three worship leaders. In January 2000, she received a phone call from Lakewood Church Pastor Joel Osteen, who offered her the opportunity to become the church's worship director, she was Osteen's first hire. While Cruse said she and her husband did not feel drawn to the church, they fell in love with the people and moved to Houston. Today, Cruse leads weekend worship services at Lakewood Church alongside Steve Crawford and Da'dra Crawford Greathouse, former members of the Contemporary Christian music duo Anointed.
In May 2010, Cruse released her first studio album in over ten years, 23. The album features 12 original songs including "Shout it Out Loud", "Living in Me", "Hurricane", more. Cruse lives in Houston, Texas and is married to Marcus Ratcliff, whom she met while working at Covenant Church; the two have a son named Windsor. On July 17, 2008, the couple adopted twins after trying to have children. After taking a leave from the church, she returned on Saturday, September 27, 2008 and told the congregation her testimony about the adoption of the twins, she introduced "Lord Of All"—a new song she wrote with her nephew Ryan Cruse. Cruse is the daughter of Joe and Nancy Cruse, is one of five children, her siblings, Jane Cruse Bearden, Dr. John Cruse, Joe Cruse III and Karen Cruse Adams are all involved in full-time Christian ministry, her eldest brother, Joe Cruse III, married to Becky, was the only sibling not born in Texas. Compilations"Even Now" from John Jacobs and the Power Team "I Lift Up My Hands" from New Season "I Will Sing of Your Love" from Amazing God "Lord I Seek You" from Amazing God "Agnus Dei" from When Women Worship "Always Welcome" from When Women Worship "Great Grace" from When Women Worship "I Open My Heart" from When Women Worship "Thirst For You" from When Women Worship "When I Find Him" from When Women Worship
UHC Waldkirch-St. Gallen is a Swiss floorball team out of Waldkirch and St. Gallen, which plays in the highest Swiss league; the club was founded in 1997 through the fusion of the club UHC St. Gallen and the TSV Waldkirch. In the season 2002/03 WaSa were promoted to the national league A for the first time in the club's history. After two season the club out of the Eastern part of Switzerland were relegated to the league B. Another two years in 2007/08 they were promoted again. WaSa won the Best-of-five series against the last of the league a Club, Basel Magic, with 3:0; the last game of this series was attempted by more than a thousand visitors. In 2017 the women team advanced to the highest Swiss league. UHC Waldkirch-St. Gallen