An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid. An antifreeze mixture is used to achieve freezing-point depression for cold environments. Common antifreezes increase the boiling point of the liquid; because water has good properties as a coolant, water plus antifreeze is used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from bursting due to expansion when water freezes. Commercially, both the additive and the mixture are called antifreeze, depending on the context. Careful selection of an antifreeze can enable a wide temperature range in which the mixture remains in the liquid phase, critical to efficient heat transfer and the proper functioning of heat exchangers. Water was the original coolant for internal combustion engines, it is cheap and has a high heat capacity. It however has only a 100 °C liquid range, it expands upon freezing.
These problems are addressed by the development of alternative coolants with improved properties. Freezing and boiling points are colligative properties of a solution, which depend on the concentration of dissolved substances. Hence salts lower the melting points of aqueous solutions. Salts are used for de-icing, but salt solutions are not used for cooling systems because they induce corrosion of metals. Low molecular weight organic compounds tend to have melting points lower than water, which recommends them as antifreeze agents. Solutions of organic compounds alcohols, in water are effective. Alcohols - ethanol, ethylene glycol, etc. - have been the basis of all antifreezes since they were commercialized in the 1920s. Most automotive engines are "water"-cooled to remove waste heat, although the "water" is antifreeze/water mixture and not plain water; the term engine coolant is used in the automotive industry, which covers its primary function of convective heat transfer for internal combustion engines.
When used in an automotive context, corrosion inhibitors are added to help protect vehicles' radiators, which contain a range of electrochemically incompatible metals. Water pump seal lubricant is added. Antifreeze was developed to overcome the shortcomings of water as a heat transfer fluid. On the other hand, if the engine coolant gets too hot, it might boil while inside the engine, causing voids, leading to localized hot spots and the catastrophic failure of the engine. If plain water were to be used as an engine coolant, it would promote galvanic corrosion. Proper engine coolant and a pressurized coolant system obviate the shortcomings of water. With proper antifreeze, a wide temperature range can be tolerated by the engine coolant, such as −34 °F to +265 °F for 50% propylene glycol diluted with water and a 15 psi pressurized coolant system. Early engine coolant antifreeze was methanol. Ethylene glycol was developed because its higher boiling point was more compatible with heating systems; the most common water-based antifreeze solutions used in electronics cooling are mixtures of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol.
The use of ethylene glycol has a longer history in the automotive industry. However, EGW solutions formulated for the automotive industry have silicate based rust inhibitors that can coat and/or clog heat exchanger surfaces. Ethylene glycol is listed as a toxic chemical requiring care in disposal. Ethylene glycol has desirable thermal properties, including a high boiling point, low freezing point, stability over a wide range of temperatures, high specific heat and thermal conductivity, it has a low viscosity and, reduced pumping requirements. Although EGW has more desirable physical properties than PGW, the latter coolant is used in applications where toxicity might be a concern. PGW is recognized as safe for use in food or food processing applications, can be used in enclosed spaces. Similar mixtures are used in HVAC and industrial heating or cooling systems as a high-capacity heat transfer medium. Many formulations have corrosion inhibitors, it is expected that these chemicals will be replenished to keep expensive piping and equipment from corroding.
Antifreeze proteins refer to chemical compounds produced by certain animals and other organisms that prevent the formation of ice. In this way, these compounds allow their host organism to operate at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. Antifreeze proteins bind to small ice crystals to inhibit growth and recrystallization of ice that would otherwise be fatal. Most antifreeze is made by mixing distilled water with additives and a base product – MEG or MPG. Ethylene glycol solutions became available in 1926 and were marketed as "permanent antifreeze" since the higher boiling points provided advantages for summertime use as well as during cold weather, they are used today for a variety of applications, including automobiles, but there are lower-toxicity alternatives made with propylene glycol available. When ethylene glycol is used in a system, it may become oxidized to five organic acids. Inhibited ethylene glycol antifreeze mixes are available, with additives that buffer the pH and reserve alkalinity of the solution to prevent oxidation of ethylene glycol and formation of these acids.
Blackjack is the eponymous debut album of the American rock band Blackjack. The album was recorded shortly after the band's formation in early 1979 at Criteria Studios in Miami and released on Polydor Records on June 18, 1979. Official music videos were recorded for the album's two singles, "Love Me Tonight" and "Without Your Love" and the album was promoted moderately by Polydor. However, despite the promotion from the label, the album was met with lukewarm reception and the band would disband in 1980 after recording a second studio album, Worlds Apart; the album was art directed by Abie Sussman and the cover artwork was designed and drawn by Gerard Huerta. The album reached #127 on the Billboard album charts in 1979, the lead single, "Love Me Tonight", reached #62 on the Hot 100 that same year. 1990 Blackjack / Worlds Apart 1996 Blackjack / Worlds Apart 2006 Anthology 2013 Blackjack Michael Bolton - lead & backing vocals Bruce Kulick - lead & rhythm guitars Jimmy Haslip - bass, backing vocals Sandy Gennaro - drums, percussion Jan Mullaney - keyboards Chuck Kirkpatrick - backing vocals Tonny Battaglia - backing vocals Eric Troyer - backing vocals Tom Dowd - production Steve Gursky - engineering Mike Fuller - mastering
Ravenna railway station serves the city and comune of Ravenna, in the region of Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy. Opened in 1863, it forms part of the Ferrara–Rimini railway, is a terminus of two secondary railways, linking Ravenna with Faenza and Castelbolognese, respectively; the station is managed by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana. However, the commercial area of the passenger building is managed by Centostazioni. Train services are operated by Trenitalia; each of these companies is a subsidiary of Italy's state-owned rail company. Ravenna railway station is situated at Piazza Luigi Carlo Farini, on the eastern side of the city centre; the station was opened on 23 August 1863, together with the rest of the Castelbolognese–Ravenna railway. Normal passenger services on that railway commenced the following day, 24 August 1863; the station has about 3.5 million passenger movements each year. The station is served by regional trains operating on the three railway lines: to Ferrara and Rimini, on the Ferrara–Ravenna–Rimini line.
The latter two lines run parallel as far as Russi. Periodically in summer, Ravenna has long-distance passenger services, in the past these have included international trains. Eurostar Fast Rome–Ravenna. Operates daily. InterCityNotte Trieste–Lecce. Operates daily, with some exceptions; the following links, are operated seasonally: Eurostar City Milano Centrale–Ravenna–Ancona. Runs on summer Saturdays and holidays. Eurostar Rome–Ravenna. Runs daily in summer. Given its proximity to the port, the station is the main hub for transporting goods to Melzo Scalo and Quadrante Europa. History of rail transport in Italy List of railway stations in Emilia-Romagna Rail transport in Italy Railway stations in Italy Media related to Ravenna railway station at Wikimedia Commons This article is based upon a translation of the Italian language version as at January 2011
Sealdah - Rampurhat Intercity Express is a superfast train of the Indian Railways connecting Sealdah in West Bengal and Rampurhat Junction of West Bengal. It is being operated with 12373/12374 train numbers on three days a week basis; the 12373/Sealdah - Rampurhat Intercity Express has averages speed of 58 km/hr and covers 214 km in 3 hrs 40 mins. 12374/Rampurhat - Sealdah Intercity Express has averages speed of 58 km/hr and covers 214 km in 3 hrs 40 mins. The important halts of the train are: Sealdah Kamarkundu Barddhaman Junction Bolpur Shantiniketan Prantik Sainthia Junction Rampurhat Junction The train has standard ICF rakes with max speed of 110 kmph; the train consist of 10 coaches: 1 Chair Car 6 General 2 Second-class Luggage/parcel van Both trains are hauled by an Asansol Loco Shed based WAG-5 or WAG-5P or WAM-4 electric locomotive from Sealdah to Rampurhat and vice versa. The train share's it's rake with 13013/13014 Barddhaman - Rampurhat Express Sealdah railway station Rampurhat railway station Barddhaman - Rampurhat Express Maa Tara Express 12373/Sealdah - Rampurhat Intercity Express 12374/Rampurhat - Sealdah Intercity Express
The Ivory Coast women's national football team represents Ivory Coast in international women's football and is controlled by the Ivorian Football Federation. They played their first international match in 1988; the team is ranked 64th in the FIFA Women's World Rankings and as the 6th best team in CAF. In 1985 no country in the world had a women's national football team, including Ivory Coast who did not play their first FIFA recognised match until 1988 when they participated in the Women's FIFA Invitational Tournament 1988; the country was in Group A. On 1 June, they lost to the Netherlands 0–3 in a game in Foshan. On 3 June, they lost to Canada 0–6 in a game in Foshan. In a game on 5 June, they lost to China 1–8 in a game in Guangzhou. In 1992, they competed at the 1st Lyon ` ne Cup -- Women, held in France from 17 -- 20 April. Ivory Coast was in the nation's group, they lost to the United States U20 team 0–4, lost to the CIS team 0–3 and lost to France 1–6. In 2002, the team competed in 2 matches.
In 2003, they played in 0 matches. In 2004, they played in 0 matches. In 2005, they played in 3 matches. In 2006, they played in 2 matches. In 2006, the team had 3 training sessions a week. In 2005, they played in the women's Tournoi de Solidarité in Senegal. On 18 May, they lost to Mali 1–6. On 20 May, they tied Senegal 3–3, they did not make the finals and overall finished last in the tournament. On 17 May 2006 in Dakar, Togo tied Ivory Coast 3–3. In 2007, the country competed at the Tournoi de Cinq Nations held in Ouagadougou. On 2 September, they tied Mali 1–1 with Rita Akaffou scoring for the team in the 65th minute. On 5 September, they beat Togo 5–0 before Togo was disqualified from the competition for bringing a club team. On 6 September, they lost to Mali 1–2. In 2010, the country had a team at the African Women's Championships during the preliminary rounds. In the round, they beat Guinea 5–1, they lost to Malawi 4–2 in the return leg. In the 2010, Women's Championship in Africa, they lost in the preliminary round in March, they beat Gabon at home and away 2–1 and 3–1.
In the first round against Nigeria, they lost both matches by scores of 1–2 and 1–3. The country did not have a team competing at the 2011 All Africa Games; the national team has trained in Abidjan. As of 2006, the country did not have an under-20 side. In June 2012, the team was ranked 67th in the world by FIFA and the 6th best team in CAF; this was an improvement of four places from March 2012. The team's worst ranking was in 2011 when they were ranked 136th in the world. Other rankings include 73 in 2006, 75 in 2007, 74 in 2008, 92 in 2009, 77 in 2010. However, in 2014 African Women's Championship, Ivory Coast surprised everyone by passing through into the semi-final, they shocked Africa by beating giant South Africa, marked for the first time they would play in FIFA Women's World Cup, in Canada 2015. In the tournament, the World Cup, they were eliminated with three total losses to Germany and Norway. Despite having lost all, Ange N'Guessan's goal over Norway was voted as one of ten best goal in the whole tournament.
Early development of the women's game at the time colonial powers brought football to the continent was limited, as colonial powers in the region tended to take concepts of patriarchy and women's participation in sport with them to local cultures that had similar concepts embedded in them. The lack of development of the national team on a wider international level symptomatic of all African teams is a result of several factors, including limited access to education, poverty amongst women in the wider society, fundamental inequality present in the society that allows for female-specific human rights abuses; when quality female football players are developed, they tend to leave for greater opportunities abroad. Continent-wide, funding is an issue, with most development money coming from FIFA, not the national football association. Future success for women's football in Africa is dependent on improved facilities and access by women to these facilities. Attempting to commercialise the game and make it commercially viable is not the solution, as demonstrated by the current existence of many youth and women's football camps held throughout the continent.
Football is the fourth most popular girls' sport, trailing behind handball and athletics. A women's football program was set up in the country in 1975 and girls' football is played in schools. Player registration starts at nine years of age. In 2006, there were 610 registered female players, 560 of whom were senior players and 50 were under 18 years of age; this was an increase from 2002 when there were 130 registered female players, 2003 when there were 220, 2004 when there were 253, 2005 when there were 428 registered players. In 2006, there were 123 football clubs in the country; as of 2009, there are 4 youth teams for women. A school based competition exists; the national federation was created in 1960 and became FIFA affiliated in 1964. Their kit includes white shorts and green socks; the national committee does not have a full-time employee in charge of women's football. Representation of women's football is not guaranteed in the federation's constitution; the FIFA trigramme is CIV. A FIFA-run women's MA football course was run in the country in 2007.
The following players were called up for the fourth round of the 2020 CAF Women's Olympic Qualifying Tournament. Head coach: Clémentine Touré Win Draw Lose Official website FIFA profile
David Yutaka Ige is an American politician serving as the eighth governor of Hawaii. A Democrat, he served in the Hawaii State Senate. In the 2014 gubernatorial election, he won the Democratic primary over incumbent Governor Neil Abercrombie, the general election over Republican nominee Duke Aiona, he was reelected in 2018. Ige was born and raised in Pearl City, is the fifth of six sons of Tokio and Tsurue Ige, who are of Okinawan descent. During World War II, Tokio served in the 100th Battalion/442nd Infantry Regimental Combat Team and was awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star. After the war, Tokio Ige worked as an ironworker on construction projects while Tsurue Ige worked as a nurse and dental hygienist. Tokio Ige died in 2005 at the age of 86. Tsurue, now retired, resides in Pearl City. David Ige attended public schools in Pearl City: Pearl City Elementary School, Highlands Intermediate School, Pearl City High School, he participated in community sports, playing in the Pearl City Little League for eight years.
At the newly built Pearl City High School, Ige excelled in many activities. In his junior year he was elected student body vice president, he served as senior class president the following year, his campaign for student body president stressed an end to bullying. Ige led his varsity tennis team to a championship and was honored as the "Scholar-Athlete of the Year." He graduated fifth in his class of more than 500 students in 1975. Ige was accepted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but attended the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering. At UH he served as student body secretary and an officer of several honor societies as well as treasurer and vice-president of his fraternity, Phi Delta Sigma. Ige met Dawn, at the University of Hawaii, they have three children: Lauren and Matthew. After college, while working for GTE Hawaiian Tel, Ige took graduate courses at UH and earned a Master of Business Administration degree in decisions sciences.
In 1986 Hawaii Business Magazine named him one of the university's Top 10 MBA students. Before being elected governor of Hawaii, Ige served as project manager with Robert A. Ige and Associates, Inc. Vice President of engineering at NetEnterprise, senior principal engineer at Pihana Pacific, which established the first world-class data center and carrier-neutral Internet exchange in Hawaii and the Pacific. Before that, he worked as an engineer for GTE Hawaiian Tel for more than 18 years. Ige was appointed to the Hawaii House of Representatives on December 2, 1985, by Governor George Ariyoshi after Representative Arnold Morgado resigned to run for a seat on the Honolulu City Council, he served in the Hawaii State Senate from 1995 to 2015. During his legislative career, Ige served as chair of nine different committees, he focused much of his career as a legislator on information and telecommunications policy, co-authoried the Hawaii Telecommunications and Information Industries Act that established the state information network and created the Hawaii Information Network Corporation.
Ige was at the center of Hawaii's efforts to diversify its economy. He was responsible for establishing seed capital and venture capital programs, software development initiatives, technology transfer programs. Ige was reelected to the Hawaii State Senate in 2012, defeating Republican challenger and former U. S. Naval Air crewman, Army Captain, small business executive Mike Greco. Greco was the first challenger Ige faced in a general election in over a decade. Ige ran against incumbent Neil Abercrombie in the Democratic primary for the 2014 gubernatorial election, after Abercrombie upset the supporters of late US senator Daniel Inouye by ignoring his wish to be replaced by Colleen Hanabusa. Though outspent in the race, Ige defeated Abercrombie, 66% to 31%. Ige's victory made him the first candidate to defeat an incumbent governor of Hawaii in a primary election. Ige faced Independent Mufi Hannemann in the general election, he won by 12 percentage points. Ige was sworn in as the eighth governor of Hawaii on December 1, 2014, with Lieutenant Governor Shan Tsutsui, in the Hawaii State Capitol Rotunda.
Ige is the second person of Japanese descent to be elected governor of Hawaii, the first person of Okinawan descent to be elected governor of a U. S. state. Governor Ige's inauguration theme of "honoring the past and charting a new tomorrow" was on display throughout the ceremony, which paid tribute to his father who served in the 100th Battalion, 442nd Regimental Combat Team of the U. S. Army during World War II alongside the late U. S. Senator Daniel Inouye. In October 2015 Ige declared a state of emergency due to the escalating scale of the homelessness problem. In June 2017, following President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement on climate change, Ige signed two bills that committed the state to meeting regardless its greenhouse gas emission targets under the Paris Agreement and established a carbon reduction and soil health task force. After an incoming missile alert was erroneously sent to all smartphones in the state and broadcast over local television and radio on January 13, 2018, Ige apologized for the mistake, which he attributed to human error during a shift change at the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency.
He pledged to reevaluate the state's emergency procedures to prevent a recurrence of the false alert, which caused widespread panic and confusion in the state. On February 22, 2019, President Trump appointed Ige to the bipartisan Council of Governors, on wh