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Antigua

Antigua known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the West Indies. It is one of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean region and the main island of the country of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua and Barbuda became an independent state within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 November 1981. Antigua means "ancient" in Spanish after an icon in Seville Cathedral, "Santa Maria de la Antigua" — St. Mary of the Old Cathedral; the name Waladli comes from the indigenous inhabitants and means "our own". The island's circumference is 87 km and its area 281 km2, its population was 80,161. The economy is reliant on tourism, with the agricultural sector serving the domestic market. Over 32,000 people live in the capital city, St. John's; the capital is situated in the north-west and has a deep harbour, able to accommodate large cruise ships. Other leading population settlements are All Liberta, according to the 2001 census. English Harbour on the south-eastern coast provides protected shelter during violent storms.

It is the site of a restored British colonial naval station named "Nelson's Dockyard" after Admiral Horatio Nelson. English Harbour and the neighbouring village of Falmouth are yachting and sailing destinations and provisioning centres. During Antigua Sailing Week, at the end of April and beginning of May, an annual regatta brings a number of sailing vessels and sailors to the island to take part in sporting events. On 6 September 2017, the Category 5 Hurricane Irma destroyed 90 percent of the buildings on the island of Barbuda and the entire population was evacuated to Antigua; the first inhabitants were the Guanahatabey people. The Arawak migrated from the mainland, followed by the Carib. Prior to European colonialism, Christopher Columbus was the first European to visit Antigua, in 1493; the Arawak were the first well-documented group of indigenous people to settle Antigua. They paddled to the island by canoe from present-day Venezuela, pushed out by the Carib, another indigenous people; the Arawak introduced agriculture to Barbuda.

Among other crops, they cultivated the Antiguan "Black" pineapple. They grew Corn, Sweet potatoes, Chili peppers, Guava and Cotton; some of the vegetables listed, such as corn and sweet potatoes, continue to be staples of Antiguan cuisine. Colonists took them to Europe, from there, they spread around the world. For example, a popular Antiguan dish, dukuna, is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated sweet potatoes and spices. Another staple, fungi, is a cooked paste made of water. Most of the Arawak left Antigua about A. D. 1100. Those who remained were raided by the Carib coming from Venezuela. According to The Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs' superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies, they enslaved cannibalised others. Watson points out; the indigenous people of the West Indies built excellent sea vessels, which they used to sail the Atlantic and Caribbean resulting in much of the South American and the Caribbean islands being populated by the Arawak and Carib.

Their descendants live throughout South America Brazil and Colombia. Christopher Columbus named the island "Antigua" in 1493 in honour of the "Virgin of the Old Cathedral" found in Seville Cathedral in southern Spain. On his 1493 voyage, honouring a vow, he named many islands after different aspects of St. Mary, including Montserrat and Guadaloupe. In 1632, a group of English colonists left St. Kitts to settle on Antigua. Sir Christopher Codrington, an Englishman, established the first permanent British settlement.. Codrington Guided by Codrington, the island developed as a profitable sugar colony. For a large portion of Antigua history, the island was considered Britain's "Gateway to the Caribbean", it was located on the major sailing routes among the region's resource-rich colonies. Lord Horatio Nelson, a major figure in Antigua history, arrived in the late 18th century to preserve the island's commercial shipping prowess. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, British diseases and slavery destroyed the vast majority of the Caribbean's native population.

There are some differences of opinions as to the relative importance of these causes. Sugar became Antigua's main crop in about 1674, when Christopher Codrington settled at Betty's Hope plantation, he came from Barbados. Betty's Hope, Antigua's first full-scale sugar plantation, was so successful that other planters turned from tobacco to sugar; this resulted in their importing slaves to work the sugar cane crops. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean, many West Indian colonists tried to use locals as slaves; these groups succumbed to disease and/or malnutrition, died by the thousands. The enslaved Africans adapted better to the new environment and thus became the number one choice of unpaid labour. However, according to a Smithsonian Institution article, the West African slave population in the Caribbean had a high mortality rate, compensated by regular imports of high numbers of new slaves from West and Central Africa. Sugar cane was one of the most dangerous crops slaves were forced to cultivate.

Harvesting cane required backbreaking long days in sugar cane fields unde

Perilymph

Perilymph is an extracellular fluid located within the inner ear. It is found within the scala tympani and scala vestibuli of the cochlea; the ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of cerebrospinal fluid. The major cation in perilymph is sodium, with the values of sodium and potassium concentration in the perilymph being 138 mM and 6.9 mM, respectively. It is named Cotunnius' liquid and liquor cotunnii for Domenico Cotugno; the inner ear has the cochlea and the vestibular organ. They are connected in a series of canals in the temporal bone referred to as the bony labyrinth; the bone canals are separated by the membranes in parallel spaces referred to as the membranous labyrinth. The membranous contains two fluids called endolymph; the perilymph in the bony labyrinth as connection to the cerebrospinal fluid of the subarachnoid space via the perilymphatic duct. Perilymph and endolymph have unique ionic compositions suited to their functions in regulating electrochemical impulses of hair cells necessary for hearing.

The electric potential of endolymph is ~80-90 mV more positive than perilymph due to a higher concentration of potassium cations in endolymph and higher sodium in perilymph. This is referred to as the endocochlear potential. Perilymph is the fluid contained within the bony labyrinth and protecting the membranous labyrinth. Endolymph is the fluid contained within the scala media of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. A part from the importance in the electro cochlear potential, the perilymph contains a large number of proteins, e.g. extracellular enzymes and immunoglobulins. These proteins are important for the metabolism, immune response and metabolism among others physiological functions, it has been suggested that perilymph and endolymph participate in a unidirectional flow, interrupted in Ménière's disease. Http://oto.wustl.edu/cochlea/intro3.htm

FC Lada Togliatti (women)

FC Lada Togliatti was a Russian women's football team. Founded in 1987, Lada reached the Russian Women's Championship in 1994. For its eight first seasons in the top category, Lada ranked between the 4rd and 6th spots, reached the national Cup semifinals four times. 2002–05 marked Lada's best period. 2004 was the team's best season as it won both the Cup. In the other three years around Lada was the league's runner-up. In its only appearance in the UEFA Women's Cup in 2005 Lada reached the second stage, where it was knocked out by Brøndby IF and Arsenal FC; that same year Lada women the Italy Women's Cup, an international tournament organized by the Italian LND, by beating Torres CF in the final. It took part in the competition in 2004 and 2006, losing the final to Torres and Lehenda Chernihiv. 2006 marked the beginning of the end for Lada. Lada was back in top-flight two years but retired from the competition three weeks before the end of the tournament and folded. Lada played its last match on 30 July 2009 against Energiya Voronezh.

Seven months its male counterpart folded too. 1 Russian League 1 Russian Cup 1 Italy Women's Cup Main article: Russian women's football clubs in international football