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Antimatter

In modern physics, antimatter is defined as matter, composed of the antiparticles of the corresponding particles of'ordinary' matter. Minuscule numbers of antiparticles are generated daily at particle accelerators – total production has been only a few nanograms – and in natural processes like cosmic ray collisions and some types of radioactive decay, but only a tiny fraction of these have been bound together in experiments to form anti-atoms. No macroscopic amount of antimatter has been assembled due to the extreme cost and difficulty of production and handling. In theory, a particle and its anti-particle have the same mass, but opposite electric charge and other differences in quantum numbers. For example, a proton has positive charge. A collision between any particle and its anti-particle partner leads to their mutual annihilation, giving rise to various proportions of intense photons and sometimes less-massive particle-antiparticle pairs; the majority of the total energy of annihilation emerges in the form of ionizing radiation.

If surrounding matter is present, the energy content of this radiation will be absorbed and converted into other forms of energy such as heat or light. The amount of the released energy is proportional to the total mass of the collided matter and antimatter, in accordance with the mass–energy equivalence equation, E=mc2. Antimatter particles bind with each other to form antimatter, just as ordinary particles bind to form normal matter. For example, a positron and an antiproton can form an antihydrogen atom; the nuclei of antihelium have been artificially produced with difficulty, these are the most complex anti-nuclei so far observed. Physical principles indicate that complex antimatter atomic nuclei are possible, as well as anti-atoms corresponding to the known chemical elements. There is strong evidence that the observable universe is composed entirely of ordinary matter, as opposed to an equal mixture of matter and antimatter; this asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the great unsolved problems in physics.

The process by which this inequality between matter and antimatter particles developed is called baryogenesis. Antimatter particles can be defined by their negative baryon number or lepton number, while "normal" matter particles have a positive baryon or lepton number; these two classes of particles are the antiparticle partners of each other. A "positron" is the antimatter equivalent of the "electron"; the French term contra-terrene led to the initialism "C. T." and the science fiction term "seetee", as used in such novels as Seetee Ship. The idea of negative matter appears in past theories of matter. Using the once popular vortex theory of gravity, the possibility of matter with negative gravity was discussed by William Hicks in the 1880s. Between the 1880s and the 1890s, Karl Pearson proposed the existence of "squirts" and sinks of the flow of aether; the squirts represented the sinks represented negative matter. Pearson's theory required a fourth dimension for the aether to flow into; the term antimatter was first used by Arthur Schuster in two rather whimsical letters to Nature in 1898, in which he coined the term.

He hypothesized antiatoms, as well as whole antimatter solar systems, discussed the possibility of matter and antimatter annihilating each other. Schuster's ideas were not a serious theoretical proposal speculation, like the previous ideas, differed from the modern concept of antimatter in that it possessed negative gravity; the modern theory of antimatter began with a paper by Paul Dirac. Dirac realised that his relativistic version of the Schrödinger wave equation for electrons predicted the possibility of antielectrons; these were named positrons. Although Dirac did not himself use the term antimatter, its use follows on enough from antielectrons, etc. A complete periodic table of antimatter was envisaged by Charles Janet in 1929; the Feynman–Stueckelberg interpretation states that antimatter and antiparticles are regular particles traveling backward in time. One way to denote an antiparticle is by adding a bar over the particle's symbol. For example, the proton and antiproton are denoted as p, respectively.

The same rule applies. A proton is made up of uud quarks, so an antiproton must therefore be formed from uud antiquarks. Another convention is to distinguish particles by their electric charge. Thus, the electron and positron are denoted as e− and e+ respectively. However, to prevent confusion, the two conventions are never mixed. There are compelling theoretical reasons to believe that, aside from the fact that antiparticles have different signs on all charges and antimatter have the same properties; this means a particle and its corresponding antiparticle must have identical masses and decay lifetimes. It implies that, for example, a star made up of antimatter will shine just like an ordinary star; this idea was tested experimentally in 2016 by the ALPHA experiment, which measured the transition between the two lowest energy states of antihydrogen. The results, which are identical to that of hydrogen, confirmed the validity of quantum mechanics for antimatter. Most matter observable from the Earth seems to be made of matter rather than antimatter.

If antimatter-dominated regions of space existed

Oscar GarcĂ­a Rivera

Oscar Garcia Rivera Sr. was a politician and activist. Garcia Rivera made history when in 1937 he became the first Puerto Rican to be elected to public office in the continental United States. In 1956, he became the first Puerto Rican to be nominated as the Republican candidate for Justice of the City Court. Garcia Rivera was born in the city of Mayagüez, located in the western region of Puerto Rico, to a prosperous family who owned a coffee plantation. There he received his primary and secondary education, he attended the Escuela Central Grammar, where he was valedictorian of his graduating class in 1921, in 1925 was the Class President of the graduating class from Mayagüez High School. In 1917, during his school years, the United States became involved in World War I and the U. S. Congress approved the Jones-Shafroth Act, which gave Puerto Ricans a United States citizenship with limitations. Puerto Ricans became eligible for the military draft, plus they were now permitted to hold public office in the mainland United States, however Puerto Ricans in the island were not allowed to vote for the president nor were they allowed to have representatives in the US legislature, other than the Resident Commissioner, who did not have the right to vote in any of the measures presented before Congress.

Garcia Rivera visited New York City as soon as he returned home. In 1926, he moved to Manhattan and rented an apartment on West 110th Street in a barrio made up of Puerto Ricans known as Spanish Harlem. Garcia Rivera applied for a position in the City Hall Postal Office and proceeded to take the Postal Clerk's examination. In the meantime he held a part-time job at the Pease Binder factory in Brooklyn, he was a witness of "Harlem Riots" against the Puerto Rican. As the economic situation in the United States worsened in a prelude to the Great Depression, many Puerto Ricans in the mainland found themselves competing with other groups for the positions of unskilled labor such as dishwashers and laundry workers; this led to the riots between Puerto Ricans. With a score of 98.4% on his Postal Clerk examinations, Garcia Rivera was appointed to the City Hall Post Office. García Rivera became active in the Postal Clerks' Union of America, he encouraged other Puerto Rican and Hispanic employees to participate in the union and to seek higher wages and better working conditions.

Prominent labor leaders in the country took notice, thereby earning their support. He used the money which he earned as a postal worker to pay for his tuition at St. John's University School of Law. In 1930, Garcia Rivera earned his law degree and married Eloísa Rivera with whom he had a son, Oscar García Rivera Jr. In April 1935, he was admitted to the Bar association and established a law practice in his apartment where he worked and provided significant support to the working class and the Puerto Rican community at times providing pro-bono representation and legal advice, he relocated his practice to 113th Street and Fifth Avenue. One of the consequences of the Great Depression was the employment opportunities were scarce across all of the United States. Unemployment was high in areas such as Spanish Harlem and gave rise to a high crime rate. Adding to the misery was the fact that schools were overcrowded and housing was limited, plus discrimination by neighbors, government officials and police brutality was rampant.

Another factor which made it difficult for the Puerto Ricans living in New York City was the language barrier. Their inability to communicate and be understood made it difficult for them to be properly represented before the authorities. In 1937, Garcia Rivera, who had joined the Republican Party, launched his candidacy for the New York State Assembly as East Harlem's representative with the support of Independent Democrats, fusionists, labor unions, the American Labor Party. Among those who supported his nomination were: New York City's Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, Manhattan D. A. Thomas E. Dewey, Union leaders like Michael J. Quill, TWU, George Meaney, AFL/CIO, Alex Rose and Benjamin MacLauren, he was elected to the Assembly, thus becoming the first Puerto Rican in history to be elected to public office in the United States, took his seat in the 161st New York State Legislature in 1938. In June 1938, he was refused a renomination by the Republicans, but was re-elected in November 1938 on the American Labor ticket only.

He sat in the 162nd New York State Legislature in 1939 and 1940. During his term in office, he emphasized issues of child labor, protective laws for workers, labor services, anti-discrimination legislation. On February 3, 1939, the Assembly passed his "Unemployment Insurance Bill" which paved the way for the passage of bills establishing minimum hours and wages for working people, the creation of a Wage Board within the Labor Department, the right of employees to organize and negotiate grievances; the following are the provisions of Garcia Rivera's "Unemployment Insurance Bill":1. Make all employers, instead of those employing four or more persons, liable for contributions to the unemployment insurance fund. 2. Provide for payment of full 16 weeks' insurance benefits to claimants qualified by 18 weeks employment in any one year. 3. Reduce the necessary unemployment period, after application for benefits, from five to two weeks. 4. Make benefits available to anyone earning less than $5.a week instead of $2 a week.

Garcia Rivera proposed labor related bills which provided for: Penalties for violators of the State's Labor Relations Act.

Toy Home

Toy Home is a downloadable racing video game on the PlayStation Store. The goal of the game is to collect coins, discover hidden medals, pass every checkpoint, earning 10 seconds each checkpoint, before times runs out; the player win points by jumping and flipping in the room. There are 8 racetracks in the game, all of them are taking place in one of the rooms of the house and are filled with obstacles. After the singleplayer, there's a multiplayer mode, where up to 8 players can battle online, leaderboards, where players can see their high scores. For the control scheme, the game makes use of Sixaxis for steering and for drifting, but it is known to support DualShock 3 rumble controllers. List of downloadable PlayStation 3 games Toy Home official webpage

List of listed buildings in Fordoun, Aberdeenshire

This is a list of listed buildings in the parish of Fordoun in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. The scheme for classifying buildings in Scotland is: Category A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic. Category B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance. Category C: "buildings of local importance. Of these, 8 per cent were Category A, 50 per cent were Category B, with the rest listed at Category C. List of listed buildings in Aberdeenshire All entries and coordinates are based on data from Historic Scotland; this data falls under the Open Government Licence

2300 Arena

2300 Arena is a multipurpose indoor arena used for professional wrestling, mixed martial arts, concert events. Located in South Philadelphia under an elevated stretch of Interstate 95, it is named after its address at 2300 South Swanson Street, it was known unofficially as ECW Arena when it was home to Extreme Championship Wrestling from 1993 to 2001, XPW Arena when it was home to Xtreme Pro Wrestling from 2002 to 2003. The facility was a freight warehouse, built in 1974. Rail tracks next to the building allowed trains to drop off freight for storage and continue on to their destinations; the tracks were paved over to become an extension of West Ritner Street, allowing West Ritner Street to intersect with South Swanson Street. Elias Stein and Leon Silverman of the law firm Stein & Silverman Family Partnership, Inc. purchased the warehouse in 1986. The southern part of the facility was given the name Viking Hall when the South Philadelphia Viking Club, a local chapter of mummers, began utilizing it.

They used the building to rehearse for the annual Mummers Parade. The Viking Club staged midnight bingo games at the venue to raise funds for their organization; the northern part of the building was occupied by retail space, most notably a Forman Mills clothing store. The southern part of the building gained worldwide recognition when it served as ECW Arena, home of professional wrestling promotion Extreme Championship Wrestling from May 1993 until the promotion's closure in April 2001. Sharing the same portion of the building with the South Philadelphia Viking Club, ECW referred to the venue on-air as "The World's Most Famous Bingo Hall". ECW referee John Finnegan reminisced about the building's arrangement in a July 2006 interview: An NWA World Title Tournament at the venue in August 1994 ended with Shane Douglas throwing down the NWA World Heavyweight Championship and declaring himself ECW World Heavyweight Champion launching ECW as a national promotion. ECW broadcast Barely Legal, their first live pay-per-view event from the venue in April 1997.

The event was headlined by Terry Funk defeating Raven to become ECW World Heavyweight Champion. Following the broadcast, the building lost power. Paul Heyman commented in April 1998 as to whether ECW would run another pay-per-view event from the venue: ECW never ran another pay-per-view from the venue; the promotion moved its shows away from Philadelphia, running only 6 events at the venue in 2000. The final ECW show at the venue was Holiday Hell in December 2000, headlined by Steve Corino retaining his ECW World Heavyweight Championship against Justin Credible and The Sandman. Following the demise of Extreme Championship Wrestling in April 2001, other Philadelphia-based professional wrestling promotions began running shows at the venue. Combat Zone Wrestling referred to it as CZW Arena. Pro-Pain Pro Wrestling referred to it as 3PW Arena. Ring of Honor opted to run their shows at nearby Murphy Recreation Center, citing the need to establish their own legacy separate from ECW. Controversy arose when Xtreme Pro Wrestling signed an exclusive lease with the venue in December 2002 and renamed the building XPW Arena, preventing other promotions from utilizing it.

Forced to relocate, CZW moved their shows to a new CZW Arena in Southwest Philadelphia, while 3PW moved their shows to Electric Factory. In January 2003, the Pennsylvania State Athletic Commission banned barbed wire and light tubes from professional wrestling matches in response to violent XPW and CZW events at the venue; the building's ownership evicted XPW from the venue in February 2003 after the promotion failed to make lease payments. CZW resumed running shows at the venue in March 2003, with 3PW returning in November 2003; the building's name was changed to New Alhambra Sports & Entertainment Center in 2004, was shortened to New Alhambra Arena in 2006 and Alhambra Arena in 2008. The name was suggested by J. Russell Peltz, who began co-promoting professional boxing cards at the venue with Joe Hand, Sr. in May 2004. It paid homage to the original Alhambra Movie Theater in South Philadelphia that hosted boxing in the 1950s and 1960s. In June 2005, an unofficial ECW reunion show called Hardcore Homecoming: An Extreme Reunion drew a sell-out crowd and set a record gate for the venue with $135,000 in ticket sales.

The Pennsylvania State Athletic Commission lifted their January 2003 ban on barbed wire for the main event between Sabu, Shane Douglas and Terry Funk. ROH debuted at the venue in March 2006 with Arena Warfare, a show featuring inter-promotional matches between the stars of ROH and Combat Zone Wrestling; the event was headlined by Christopher Daniels. Impact Wrestling debuted at the venue in June 2006 with Hardcore War, a joint show with United Wrestling Federation; the event was headlined by America's Most Wanted, the NWA World Tag Team Champions, facing Team 3D and The James Gang in a non-title match. The ECW brand of WWE ran a house show at the venue in June 2006, with tickets for the event selling out in under four minutes. Rob Van Dam defended his WWE Championship in the main event against Kurt Angle. New Jack was banned from the venue following an incident during a Pro Wrestling Xplosion show in September 2006, he famously ordered Sprite at the venue's concession stand and was instead given 7 Up, prompting him to verbally harass the stand attendant, the daughter of venue operator Roger Artigiani.

Scenes from The Wrestler were shot at the venue during the Combat Zone Wrestling show 9 F'N Years in February 2008

1936 All-SEC football team

The 1936 All-SEC football team consists of American football players selected to the All-Southeastern Conference chosen by various selectors for the 1936 college football season. LSU won the conference for the second straight year. Gaynell Tinsley, LSU Joel Eaves, Auburn Dick Plasman, Vanderbilt Perron Shoemaker, Alabama Otis Maffett, Georgia Chuck Gelatka, Miss. St. Frank Kinard, Ole Miss Rupert Colmore, Sewanee Bill Moss, Tulane Paul Carroll, LSU Stanley Nevers, Kentucky Lott, Miss. St. Art White, Alabama Frank Gantt, Auburn Wardell Leisk, LSU Middleton Fitzsimmons, Georgia Tech DeWitt Weaver, Tennessee Elijah Tinsley, Georgia Walter Gilbert, Auburn Marvin Stewart, LSU Carl Hinkle, Vanderbilt Joe Riley, Alabama Walter Mayberry, Florida Bill May, LSU Phil Dickens, Tennessee Howard Bryan, Tulane Bill Crass, LSU Robert Davis, Kentucky Joe Kilgrow, Alabama Ray Hapes, Ole Miss Marlon "Dutch" Konemann, Georgia Tech Pat Coffee, LSU Wilton Kilgore, Auburn AP = Associated Press. UP = United Press. Bold = Consensus first-team selection by both AP and UP 1936 College Football All-America Team