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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials; these approaches both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant; those considered extensively drug resistant or drug-resistant are sometimes called "superbugs". Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.

Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as and targeting specific organisms is less to cause resistance, as well as side effects. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, should encourage the same of the patient and family members. Rising drug resistance is caused by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die.

At low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need for alternative treatments. Calls for new antibiotic therapies have been issued. Antimicrobial resistance is increasing globally because of greater access to antibiotic drugs in developing countries. Estimates are that 700,000 to several million deaths result per year; each year in the United States, at least 2.8 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 35,000 people die as a result. There are public calls for global collective action to address the threat that include proposals for international treaties on antimicrobial resistance. Worldwide antibiotic resistance is not identified, but poorer countries with weaker healthcare systems are more affected; the WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism's resistance to an antimicrobial drug, once able to treat an infection by that microorganism.

A person cannot become resistant to antibiotics. Resistance is a property of not a person or other organism infected by a microbe. Antibiotic resistance is a subset of antimicrobial resistance; this more specified resistance is linked to pathogenic bacteria and thus broken down into two further subsets and clinical. Resistance linked microbiologically is the most common and occurs from genes, mutated or inherited, that allow the bacteria to resist the mechanism associated with certain antibiotics. Clinical resistance is shown through the failure of many therapeutic techniques where the bacteria that are susceptible to a treatment become resistant after surviving the outcome of the treatment. In both cases of acquired resistance, the bacteria can pass the genetic catalyst for resistance through conjugation, transduction, or transformation; this allows the resistance to spread across the same pathogen or similar bacterial pathogens. A World Health Organization report released April 2014 stated, "this serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country.

Antibiotic resistance—when bacteria change so antibiotics no longer work in people who need them to treat infections—is now a major threat to public health." The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control calculated that in 2015 there were 671,689 infections in the EU and European Economic Area caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in 33,110 deaths. Most were acquired in healthcare settings. Bacteria with resistance to antibiotics predate medical use of antibiotics by humans. However, widespread antibiotic use has made more bacteria resistant through the process of evolutionary pressure. Reasons for the widespread use of antibiotics in human medicine include: increasing global availability over time since the 1950s uncontrolled sale in many low or middle income countries, where they can be obtained over the counter without a prescription resulting in antibiotics being used when not indicated; this may result in emergence of resistance in any remaining bacteria. Other causes include: Antibiotic use in livestock feed at low doses for growth promotion is an accepted practice in many industrialized countries and is known to lead to increased levels of resistance.

Releasing large quantities

Barney Lutz

Bernard Joseph "Barney" Lutz was an American professional baseball player, manager and instructor. An outfielder in his playing days, he batted left-handed, threw right-handed, stood 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighed 175 pounds, he was born in Pennsylvania. Lutz' playing career extended from 1936 through 1954, with two years missed because of World War II military service, he reached the Triple-A level twice, but spent most of his playing days in the middle rungs of the minor leagues. He became a playing manager in the Philadelphia Phillies' farm system in 1949. During his tenure with the Phils, he had his greatest season as the playing skipper of the 1950 Bradford Phillies of the Class D PONY League, batting.389 with 179 hits. In 1953, he switched to the St. Louis Browns' organization and remained in it when the Browns became the modern Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball in 1954. Lutz focused on managing in the Baltimore system from 1955–60 became an Orioles scout and coordinator of instruction in 1961.

He was considered one of the important behind-the-scenes figures of the Baltimore dynasty of the 1960s and 1970s. Said former MLB general manager Lou Gorman, "Lutz was a throw-back to the old-time scouting breed: tough and loyal... He was one of a kind." Lutz died at age 50 in Geneva, New York, from a heart attack while scouting a New York–Penn League game, his death occurring during the Orioles' 1966 World Championship season. The Orioles created the Barney Lutz Memorial Award in his memory, given to an Orioles minor league player for excellence. Said one of its winners, former minor league outfielder and manager Bill Scripture, "Barney Lutz, before he died of a heart attack, was one of the most competitive men to have worn a uniform. I was glad someone recognized me and compared me to Lutz." Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Barney Lutz at Find a Grave

Sir John Leman High School

Sir John Leman High School is a coeducational 11–18 secondary school with academy status serving part of the Waveney region in north Suffolk, England. The school is located on the western edge of the town of Beccles and serves the surrounding area, including Worlingham. Pupils from Norfolk villages such as Gillingham and Broome sometimes attend the school; the school has 1,400 pupils, including a sixth form of around 260 students. The school was established when locally-born merchant Sir John Leman left money in his will of 1631 which, after his death on 6 March 1632, provided for the education of 44 pupils from Beccles, two from Ringsfield and two from Gillingham. In 1914 it became the County Mixed Grammar School on its present site in Ringsfield Road; the old school has been converted into the Beccles Museum. In 1971 the school grew in size. In recent years building work has gone on to expand the school; until September 2012 the school only took. Due to the reorganisation of schools in Suffolk it now takes 11- to 18-year-olds.

Year 7 and 8 temporarily went to the Lower School site on Castle Hill the Beccles Middle School site. This site was occupied by the Beccles Free School in 2014. In the Ofsted inspection report dated February 2006 it was rated as a'good' school with a'good' sixth form. In February 2009 it was again rated as a generally'good' school, although with some features which were judged'satisfactory'; the sixth form provision was judged as achieved an overall effectiveness of'satisfactory', although post-16 curriculum provision was judged'good'. The school's subsequent inspection reports again graded it as'good' overall in October 2011 and October 2016; the school's 2016 GCSE results were overall above average for England with a Progress 8 score of +0.32. 65% of students achieved grades A*-C in GCSE English and Maths. The 2016 A-Level results were in line with the national average, with a progress score of +0.05 and an average grade of C. Dorothy Hodgkin, who won the Nobel prize in Chemistry entered the school in 1921 before studying chemistry at Somerville College, Oxford.

Lin Homer British Civil Servant, Chief Executive HM Revenue & Customs. Sir Francis Avery Jones, eminent gasteroenterologist Chris Martin, striker for Derby County Sir John Mills, actor Sir Stanley Rous, the 6th President of FIFA and secretary of the Football Association attended Sir John Leman school in the period before the First World War. Jennifer Westwood, author and folklorist Official site SJLHS Kenya Exchange site

Tom Rosenthal (footballer)

Tom Rosenthal is an Israeli footballer who plays for Belgian First Division B side Tubize. He is a midfielder and played for Watford F. C. Zulte-Waregem and Queens Park Rangers. Born in London, Rosenthal was in the youth system of English club Watford from the age of 10, his father, 60-cap Israel international Ronny, finished his career in 1999 after two seasons at the club, following seven years playing in the English top flight. Between the ages of 13 and 15 Rosenthal had problems following a growth spurt, he started a two-year scholarship at the start of the 2013–14 season and travelled with the first-team for their FA Cup fixture with Bristol City in January 2014. On 1 September 2014 Watford announced Rosenthal had moved for an undisclosed fee to Belgian Pro League side S. V. Zulte Waregem in order for him to be closer to an ill family member, signing a two-year professional contract. However, his brother and agent Dean subsequently announced that the main reason Rosenthal had left was due to the prospect of first-team football.

He made his first team debut with S. V. Zulte Waregem on 21 January 2015 in the Belgian Cup in a 4–2 away defeat against R. S. C. Anderlecht, he played 58 minutes, before being substituted off for Ghislain Gimbert. On 11 August 2017 Rosenthal signed for Eerste Divisie side FC Dordrecht on a one-year contract. A former youth international for Belgium, Rosenthal debuted for the Israel national under-21 football team in a 3–0 2019 UEFA European Under-21 Championship qualification loss to the Germany U21s on 22 March 2018. Belgium profile at Belgian FA Tom Rosenthal at FootballDatabase.eu Tom Rosenthal at Soccerway

CĂ«rrik

Cërrik is a municipality in Elbasan County, central Albania. It was formed at the 2015 local government reform by the merger of the former municipalities Cërrik, Gostimë, Klos and Shalës, that became municipal units; the seat of the municipality is the town Cërrik. The total population is 27,445, in a total area of 189.77 km2. After the year 1912 the city had fought with Italian forces. In a show of revenge the Serbs took over villages; the city of Cërrik fought in Vlora War against the Italians. The city became official after being freed from German Soldiers in World War 2; the city became an industrialized city since the constructing of an oil refinery in 1952 and it started its operations on November 8, 1956. The oil refinery made crude oil but created lubricating oils and kerosene for airplanes; the oil refinery today is not in service and to help the city survive economically there is agriculture they made a National Radio station Shtermen. The city developed around an oil refinery plant, being constructed in 1952 and started operations on November 8, 1956.

The Oil Plant produces. In 1957, after the crude oil processing capacity increased to 800 tons per 24 hours. In 1961, the plant was reconstructed; the plant started to produce lubrificated oils for engines and mechanical parts such as the avtol 18 and DP 14 vehicles and type TS1 kerosene for airplanes. In 1965 the production of naphthalene soap and Naphthalic acid began. Today the Plant is not functional, but there is agricultural happening and there is a State radio station known as the Radio Stacioni Kombetar Shtermen. The City has had many opportunities for a better economy for its people and land. Cërrik is located ten kilometers southwest of the city of Elbasan, it lies between to rivers the Shkumbin River and the Devoll river. It settles in a plain with hills on both sides of the plain; the city has a hot Mediterranean climate. The city main plays football and its home team is KS Turbina Cërrik; the club was formed in 1956 and its home stadium is Nexhip Trungu Stadium with a capacity of 6,600 spectators.

The team plays in the Albanian First Division and it is in group B. Rajmonda Bulku, Actress Alban Hoxha, Football player

Cologne Zoological Garden

The Aktiengesellschaft Cologne Zoological Garden is the zoo of Cologne, Germany. It features over 10,000 animals of more than 850 species on more than 20 hectares; the internationally renowned zoo with an attached aquarium and invertebrate exhibit is active in preservational breeding of animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. In addition, in-the-wild conservation efforts and research focussing on animals of Madagascar and Vietnam are promoted and supported via cooperation with Cologne University and local projects, such as in the case of Przewalski's horses; the zoo was founded in 1860. The world wars led to a phase of stagnation, the zoo had to close for two years after being destroyed in World War II, it reopened in 1947. In 1985, the large primate house, one of the main attractions, was opened. Today, the zoo features a free-flight rainforest hall with free-ranging birds and reptiles opened in 2000, a large elephant park, a house for hippos with great underwater views and, as the latest addition, a farm with rare native species and petting zoo.

Rainforest hall - since 2000 Asian elephant park Hippodom - hall for hippos and aardvarks in the form of a replica of an African river landscape farm with rare native cultivated animals and petting zoo for children Madagascar House with rare lemurs Aquarium with a huge variety of reptiles and insects Great ape section Meerkat paddockMammals Birds Note that not all these species are present/on display at all times. Programmes marked. Less-endangered species may be kept to train for more endangered relatives. Birds Mammals Cologne Zoological Garden is one of the pioneers of international conservation efforts of zoos. Cologne Zoo manages on the one hand a number of projects on its own. On the other hand, the Zoological Garden of Cologne supports partner organisations for other projects with expertise and financial resources; the Zoo combines every new major construction project with a related natural conservation project in situ. Between 2010 and 2018, Cologne Zoo was able to donate around 1,6 Mio. euro for wildlife conservation with grants for various projects.

He strongly promote wildlife conservation locally in the Rhineland area, cooperating with local organisations. As a scientific zoo, Cologne Zoo fulfil numerous tasks. On the one hand, he is an attractive location that combines entertainment, fun and education, and on the other hand, he is aware of the problems that wildlife face and have therefore become an important global player in nature and wildlife conservation initiatives in recent years. Cologne Zoo coordinates its actions and initiatives through national associations such as the Association of Zoological Gardens and internationally active and networked organisations such as the European Zoo Association and the World Association of Zoos. Cologne Zoo's work focus on breeding endangered species under conditions appropriate to their species; as part of this, he coordinates breeding programmes and maintains breeding registers worldwide for numerous species. Nearly half of the species Cologne Zoo manages this way are listed as “endangered” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List.

The goal is to provide genetically variable and viable wildlife stocks and prepare animals for release into the wild if possible. The zoo's engagement here has kept species such as the European bison, California condors, bali mynas, Przewalski's horses and sable antelopes from extinction. Cologne Zoo is active in research and collaborates with the University of Cologne and other research institutions. Much of the knowledge about wildlife comes from research on such animals. On August 25, 2012, the Siberian Tiger Altai fatally injured her; the animal had entered through an open security lock into a covered part of his enclosure, which the zookeeper was cleaning. The cat was shot by director Theo Pagel with a rifle to allow rescue workers access to the carer. Homepage of Cologne Zoo Video Webcam in the Elephant Park...watch out for the babies! Marlar and Ming Jung Cologne Zoo at Zoo-Infos.de Cologne Zoo on zooinstitutes.com